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EMPHATIC PHRASE.

RULE XII.-- When we wish to give a phrase with the utmost possible force, not only every word which enters into the composition of it, becomes emphatic, but even the parts of compound words are pronounced as if they were independent.

There was a time, then, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians were sovereign masters both by sea and land; when their troops and forts surrounded the entire circuit of Attica; when they possessed Eubea, Tanagra, the whole Bæotian district, Megara, Ægina, Cleone, and the other islands; wbile this state had not one ship-no, NOT-ONE-WALL

That's truly great! what, think you, 'twas set up
The Greek and Roman name in such a lustre,
But doing right, in stern despite of nature;
Shutting their ears 'gainst all her little cries,
When great, august, and godlike justice call’d!
At Aulis—one pour'd out a daughter's life,
And gain'd more glory than by all his wars!
Another slew a sister in just rage !
A third, the theme of all succeeding time,
Gave to the cruel axe, a darling son!
Nay, some for virtue have entomb'd themselves,
As he of Carthage-an immortal name!
But there is ONE-STEP-LEFT-above them all!
Above their history, above their fable!
A wife!-bride!-mistress unenjoy'd !-Do that!

And tread upon the Greek and Roman glory! Or shall I—who was born I might almost say, but certainly brought up in the tent of my father—that most excellent general! -shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but which is greater yet, of the Alps themselves shall I compare myself with this— HALF-YEAR-CAPTAIN? a captain-before whom, should one place the two armies without their ensigns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them he is consul.

Note. The rule for the intermediate, or elliptical member, is superfluous; as it simply refers to a word or words, depending on emphatic words, and consequently feeble.

Must we, in your person, crown' the author of the public calamities, or must we destroy' him ?

RHETORICAL PUNCTUATION.

All that has been said upon this subject is contained in the following lines :

In pausing, ever let this rule take place:
Never to separate words, in any case,
That are less separable than those you join ;
And—which imports the same—not to combine
Such words together as do not relate

So closely as the words you separate. I am convinced, that a nice attention to rhetorical punctuation, has an extremely mischievous tendency, and is totally inconsistent with nature. Give the sense of what you read—MIND is the thing. Pauses are essential only where their omission would obscure the sense.

The orator, who, in the act of delivering himself, is studiously solicitous about parcelling his words, is sure to leave the best part of his work undone. He delivers words, not thoughts. Deliver thoughts, and words will take care enough of themselves. I repeat it-

-BE IN EARNEST.

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We have thus attempted to give a short abstract of the principles of Elocution, so far as the inflecting of the voice is concerned. And here we beg leave to correct the erroneous position, that the inflections are essential to the sense. They are no such thing-except, perhaps, in the single article of emphasis—and for this palpable reasonthe English, Scotch, and Irish, use them differently, and yet not the smallest ambiguity follows with regard to the communication, or the production of thought. The sense is a guide to the use of the inflections : that is all. The system is nothing more nor less than an analysis—if I may use the term of the manner in which the best speakers in London modulate the voice; and, as such, is highly im. portant-assisting us to get rid of one source of that peculiarity which constitutes provincial speech a misapplication of the inflections.

We cannot leave this subject, without acknowledging the obligations which, in common with every other teacher of elocution, we owe to the researches of Mr. Walker. If we have improved upon his system, we give him still the merit of our corrections. He led us to them—Nay, it is but the economy of his system which we have attempted to improve. The system remains the same—and most probably would have remained unknown, but for the eager spirit of inquiry, and indefatigable activity of perseverance, which distinguished the labours of its eminently meritorious discoverer

In the following pieces, the inflections are marked with a minuteness which has not been attempted by any preceding Compiler; and figures of reference have been introduced, in order to facilitate the improvement of the student in his knowledge of the rules-nearly the whole of

hich are exemplified.

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The Character of Mary, Queen of Scots. To all the charms' of beauty' (1,2*), and the utinosť elegance' of external form' (3, 2), Mary' added' those' accomplishments' (2) which render their impression' irresistible*(4,2). Polite', affable', insinuating', sprightly' (1,5), and capable of speaking and of writing' (5) with equal ease' and dignity (3,7). Sudden', however, and violent (6) in all her attachments` (4); because her heart' was warm' and unsuspicious (13). Impatient' of contradiction (4); because she had been accustomed' from her infancy' (8,2) to be treated as a queen (9). No' stranger', on some (8) occa sions (9), to dissimulation' (10, 2); which', in that perfidious' court' (2) where she received' her education' (2), was reckoned' among

the necessary (8) arts of government (9). Not insensible' to flattery'(1),or unconscious' of that' pleasure' (2) with which almost every' woman' (2) beholds' the

See page xxxvi.

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influence of her own' beauty' (2,4). Formed with the qualities' that we love' (1), not' with the talents' that we admire' (11, 2); she was an agreeable' woman', rather than an illustrious' queen (4,2). The vivacity' of her spirit' (1,2), not sufficiently' tempered with sound judgement' (12, 2); and the warmth' of her heart' (3,2), which was not at all times under the restraint'of discretion' (12,2); betrayed her both into errors', and into crimes (12, 2, 13). To say that she was always' unfortunate' (11,2), will not account for that long' and almost uninterrupted' (8) succession (9) of calamities', which befel her (10, 2, 14, 18); we must likewise'add', that she was often' imprudent' (4,2). Her passion for Darnley' (11, 2) was rash', youthful', and excessive (13); and, though the sudden' transition' to the opposite extreme' (11, 2), was the natural consequence' of her' ill-requited love (1,2), and of his' ingratitude, insolence, and brutality' (3, 7); yet neither these (10), nor Bothwell's' artful' addresses and important' services' (3, 2), can justify' her attachment to that nobleman' (4,2).

Even the manners' of the age' (8,2), licentious' as they were' (12), are no apology for this' unhappy passion (2, 10, 9); nor can they induce' us to look on that tragical and infamous' scene' which followed it (2, 11), with less' abhorrence (4,2). Humanity' will draw a veil over this part of her character (16, 2), which it cannot approve' (12); and may' perhaps' prompt' some' (2) to impute her actions' to her situation' (2, 16), more than to her disposition' (2,3); and to lament' the unhappiness' of the former' (16), rather than accuse the perverseness' of the latter' (17, 2). Mary's' sufferings' (3) exceed' (2), both' in degree' and duration' (2, 12), those tragical distresses' which fancy' has feigned to excite sorrow' and commiseration' (2, 4); and, while we survey' them (11,2), we are apt altogether' to forget' (2,8) her frailties (9), we think of her faults' with less indignation' (2, 16), and approve' of our tears', as if they were shed' for a person' who had attained' much' nearer' to pure virtue' (17,2,5,7).

No' man,” says Brantome' (12, 2), ever' beheld' her per son' without admiration and love' (16, 2), or will read' her bistory' without sorrow' (17,2).

Robertson

66

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66

Would you

Brethren should dwell together in Harmony. Two brothers', named Timon' and Demetrius', having quarrelled' (11, 2) with each other, * Socrates', their common friend' (12), was solicitous' to restore' amity' between them (4,2). Meeting, therefore, with Demetrius' (11), he thus' accosted' him (4, 2): Is not friendship’ the sweetest solace' in adversity', and the greatest' enhancement of the blessings of prosperity' (19, 2)?” “Certainly it is,"

' " replied Demetrius (4, 20, 21); because our sorrows' are diminished' (6), and our joys' increased' (17), by sympathetic participation (9). Amongst whom, then, must we look for a friend (22)?” said Socrates (21). search among strangers' (19) ?— They cannot be interested' about you (10, 20). Amongst your rivals' (19) ?— They have an interest in opposition (8, 20) to yours. Amongst those who are much older' or younger' (23) than yourself?-Their feelings' and pursuits' (6) will be widely different' from yours (4, 20). Are there not, then, some' circumstances' favourable', and others' essential (19), to the formation of friendship' (9)?” “Undoubtedly there

' are (4, 20),” answered Deinetrius. “May we not enumerate”," continued Socrates (21), “amongst the circumstances favourable' to friendship, long acquaintance', common connexions', similitude of age', and union of interest' (19, 2)?” "I acknowledge," said Demetrius," the powerful' influence of these circumstances' (11, 2); but they' may subsist', and yet' others' be wanting', that are essential (8, 2) to mutual amity (9).” “And what',” said Socrates (21), “ are those' essentials' which are wanting' in Timon (22, 2)?” 'He has forfeited' my esteem' and attachment' (13, 2),” answered Demetrius (21). And has he also' forfeited the esteem and attachment of the rest of mankind (19, 9)? Is he devoid of benevolence', generosity', gratitude', and other' (19, 24) social affections (26) ?” Far' be it from me," cried Demetrius (21), to lay so heavy' (10) + a charge upon him (9). His conduct to others', is', 1 be

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* The propriety of not accenting any word in this phrase is obvious from the fact, that the sense is complete without it.

+ This has evidently the spirit of a negative sentence, and is accordingly infected as such.

The idea represented by the word charge, is implied in the preceding question. That word is consequently uuuccented, and follows the inflection of the word houvy.

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