« PredošláPokračovať »
tion gives himn a knowledge of the history of of either convicts or the public, there must be crime and criminals in the city of New York suffering (on the part of the inmates], and to not surpassed certainly by that of any other make any adequate impression such suffering citizen. He not only read statistics which as will excite feelings of terror.” proved the practical and successful efficacy But Sing Sing to-day, says the Joint Comof Mr. Osborne's method of dealing with mittee on Prison Reform, “is unfit to meet. prisoners, but he gave in an eloquent and the idea ” expressed by Mr. Osborne that — deeply interesting manner some of his own “ The prison should aim to restore to socipersonal experiences with men whom he had
ety a man who through the education he seen tranformed by Mr. Osborne's influence. has gained is desirous and capable of living He asserted that Mr. Osborne had been an honest and useful life.” indicted because he had put an end to the Sing Sing must go " is the conclusion of favoritism shown to wealthy convicts, to the the backers of the Prison Exhibit, who brand surreptitious use of whisky and drugs and the institution as unsanitary, inhuman, and the graft connected with their use, and to the so hopelessly out of date that any money profits of dishonest contractors who in times spent on altering the present prison plant is past have exploited the wretched prisoners merely money used to prolong an evil. working for a pittance a day.
In the place of Sing Sing and similar instiWhen such men as Judge Wadhams, Mr. tutions the Joint Committee advocates the Wickersham, Mr. Stetson, and Mr. Byrne, farm industrial prison, such as that at Great who are thoroughly familiar with court pro- Meadow, where prisoners get plenty of outcedure and the administration of criminal law, door exercise and mental discipline to keep publicly state their belief that Mr. Osborne is their minds off evil things. a man of the most upright personal char- Similar changes are urged in the county acter, who has effected the most beneficent jails, which are said to have most of the reforms in prison management, and is being faults of the Sing Sing type of State prison, persecuted because of the very purity and and which are
prep. schools of efficiency of his life, the layman can hardly crime." St. Lawrence County, which gives be blamed for attaching little importance to its county prisoners farm labor, has saved his indictment.
itself thirty-six cents per man per week, and has vastly raised the moral tone of the
prisoners. PRISON EXHIBIT
The Joint Committee condemns the slowThe first thing of its kind in this country, moving grand jury system under which in the recent Prison Exhibit in New York City, thirty-six counties of New York persons may relating to the correctional institutions of New be held in jail from four to six months awaitYork State, will bear repetition there and
It emphasizes the need of parole imitation in other States. The exhibit was officers and reformatories for women offendthe work of the Joint Committee on Prison ers, it urges the establishment of a special Reform, an organization that has grown out institution for feeble-minded criminals, it of the Women's Department of the National points out the desirability of giving prisoners Civic Federation. Although the exhibition an incentive by turning over to them or their related specifically to the prisons, reforma- families a percentage of the earnings of their tories, and county jails of New York, it threw industry proportionate with their willingness light on some general prison problems which and ability. Finally, it condemns the definite are much the same throughout the country. sentence, saying that it is as cruel and stupid
Illustrative of the great change that has for a judge to send a man to jail for a definite marked the attitude of society toward its term as it would be for a doctor to commit a offenders within the past century was the patient for a definite term to a hospital. contrast between the philosophy of penology voiced by the New York Senate Committee NOT TO REFORM, on Prisons in 1822, and that as expressed recently by Warden Osborne of Sing Sing. A certain city had been investigating the That famous institution was established in question of sewage disposal for about three 1827 to fit the following idea that had been years.
It had sent committees of the Comcontained in the Senate Committee's report : mon Council to many cities, it had hired
“ To make any impression upon the minds experts, and spent a good deal of money
THE NEW YORK
BUT TO INFORM"
before finally adopting a plan. About that water, tax rates, salaries of all city officials, time—a little over four months ago—a sewage disposal, city planning, lighting and Bureau of Municipal Information was estab- water rates—these are only a few of the lished at Albany, New York, and it immedi- subjects handled. ately informed this city that the plan it had In five cities having approximately the adopted had been in use in another city for same lighting system and population it was some time. Here is a case where one city found that the prices varied from $47.50 to might have profited by the experience of $102 per cluster.
As a result of the report another and saved time and expense. Even of the Bureau, the city officials, when it is as it was, on the information supplied from time to renew the contract, will be able to that Bureau, that city may be able to change talk intelligently with the lighting company. its plans and effect a saving of more than Municipal housecleaning is one of the most fifty thousand dollars.
perplexing and expensive problems confrontThis is an example of the need and the ing American cities. The Bureau has already usefulness of such a Bureau of Municipal issued two comprehensive reports on the Information. It is interesting that the con- problem, dealing with the methods and cost servative State of New York has taken the of collecting and disposing of ashes and garlead in establishing a co-operative agency bage. Two reports describe the various of this kind. It was created under the
systems in vogue in American cities, the auspices of the State Mayors' Conference, experiences of the municipalities with them, and is supported by the cities of the State and original data secured from the fifty which make use of the Bureau. The amount largest cities in the United States and all paid by a city is determined by its size. the municipalities in New York State. Since September 1 the number of queries Here are some of the troubles of a certain which that Bureau has received from the city official that have been submitted to the cities of New York State alone shows that Bureau. He says their charter limits them there is reason for its existence. But the to the amount of money they can raise by cities of the State are not the only ones inter- taxes in one year and spend. The taxes have ested. Inquiries have come to the Bureau been raised and the money contracted to be from cities all over the United States. Even expended. There was a flood and several from far-off Bombay has come an inquiry for streets were washed out, and a number one of the reports of this Bureau. Indeed, of their bridges need repairing—and they its director, Mr. William P. Capes, who is
have no money.
How can they get it? also Secretary of the State Mayors' Confer- What is the experience of other cities? This ence, says that were the Bureau to supply is the sort of question that is put to this all of its reports to all of the city officials, Bureau of Municipal Information. libraries, and other organizations that asked The cry for municipal reform in the United for them, it would soon be bankrupt.
States is a familiar one, and there is still need The function of the Bureau is not to for reformatory efforts. · This Bureau, howrecommend, but simply to supply data on ever, believes that real reformation comes existing conditions in other cities, furnish all with knowledge ; and its object is perhaps available data on any municipal problem, most tersely expressed by the motto which gather and distribute data among city officials, stands at the head of its literature: “ Not to keep officials in touch with each other by dis- Reform, but to Inform.” tributing new ideas and plans, watch legisla tion affecting municipalities, and on request
UNCLE SAM-TRAPPER to represent any city before any subdivision One of the greatest trappers in the world of the State government. It has a clipping recently sold his 1914 catch of furs. He bureau to keep it in touch with municipal had thousands of pelts. The war has made affairs. Thus it knows what is happening America the fur market as well as the money daily in the cities of the State. If the Com- market of the world ; and this catch of skins, mon Council of a city meets on a certain instead of being shipped to London, was sold night to discuss sewage disposal, the Bureau in St. Louis at the Funsten Fur Exchange. soon knows of it, and, without waiting for a The white fox skins brought the astonishrequest for information, sends to the Council ing average price of $24.50. The blue fox all it can get on the subject. Public markets, skins sold at an average price of $114.47 municipal slaughter-houses, sterilization of each—the highest price ever known. And
the sum received for 137 silver fox pelts was reindeer herd on each of the two islands. almost beyond belief. One set of two of By 1914 these herds had increased one hunthese skins brought $2,610. The trapper dred and twenty per cent. It is estimated who took all these skins is well known to us that the islands contain enough reindeer moss all. His name is Uncle Sam. Some of his and other native food to support 1,200 of furs are shown in a picture on another page. these animals. The herds are now so thriving
In his capacity as a trapper Uncle Sam that hereafter surplus males will be killed for has to guard the seals and sea otter in the food. The natives as well as the foxes will northwestern seas, in compliance with the rejoice at this, for every ounce of food, fuel, international sealing agreement of 1911, and clothing, and medicines used on the islands protect the seals, otter, and beaver of Alaska, must be brought by steamboat across two for the benefit of which animals a closed sea- thousand miles of sea. son has been established. Also Uncle Sam The United States is said by experts to has to care for the natives of the Pribylov have become the world's fur center in place Islands, where he has a game preserve all his of London ; one result is that for the first
It is here that Uncle Sam gets most time it is now possible to make the seal of his furs, although he seizes a good many leathers here, as furriers are now willing and that have been taken illegally in Alaska able to undertake the seal tanning and preproper.
paring processes. Under Uncle Sam's direction the Pribylov natives are allowed to kill 4,500 seals annually for food. But Uncle Sam takes all John Masefield, whose portrait appears on the pelts himself. Thus he removes the another page, has come to America to lecture temptation to practice an illegal fur trade. As on English Poetry and English Poets, fresh another precaution he has branded thousands from his experiences with a hospital unit of seals, which visitors may see swimming in the Dardanelles. the waters of the sea or basking on the rocks. English poetry mirrors the spirit of EngThese seals are branded when they are babies, land, he thinks. “ All art is intensely nain order that the seal herders may know when tional. English poetry reflects the nation's they return to the islands as yearlings after personality. Like the English climate, it is their first winter migration. This branding companionable. The English poets are not system became necessary because it was remote. They mingle with the crowd. They charged that many of the seals slaughtered are not masters of men's brains, but companwere female yearlings. Uncle Sam wants to ions of their hearts." At least the old Enghave only the useless males killed off.
lish poets were that way, believes Masefield. Strangely enough, the growth of the seal But since the “new learning ” of Elizabethan herd has brought disaster to the fox herd, in times most of the English poets have been which Uncle Sam is also interested. When a few talking to a few.” Poetry, which pelagic sealing, or killing in the open sea, was
Keats said should be the friend of man, has only allowed and seal mothers were slaughtered, occasionally reached the masses.
Such rare their babies died for lack of nourishment, poetry, Masefield declares, is Gray's "Elegy and the dead bodies, cast: up on the sands, in a Country Churchyard," which he calls supported the foxes. Now that there are no "a burst of religious feeling for England." dead seals the foxes go hungry. So Uncle “ I like to feel that English soldiers repeat Sam must feed them. All the waste and snatches of that poem to themselves on their offal from the seals slaughtered for food is way to death, as I've often heard them do in kept in pits for the foxes ; and salted fish the past year.” and tons of whale meat are brought to the “ The intellectual revolution led by Blake islands for fox food. The very distinguished and Wordsworth failed to bridge the gap Government commission that visited the between the intellect ial few and the masses. islands to determine on methods of adminis- The shepherds of G asmere did not read tration recommended that seals be slaugh- Wordsworth. .. After the time of Blake tered for fox food, and that the meat, like and Wordsworth there grew up the large corn for cattle, be kept in silos.
intelligent middle class in England. TennyAs another step in the direction of provid- son is the typical satisfier of their demand for ing fresh meat (salt meat tends to make the poetry.
He had a kind of easy saneness,
but foxes mangy), Uncle Sam, in 1911, started a was not easily kindled to passion. Browning
and Swinburne revolted against the literature And died (uncouthly, most) in foreign lands of the middle class. It is still too early to judge
For some idea but dimly understood them, but one has the feeling that their sub
Of an English city never built by hands jects come too much out of books, paintings,
Which love of England prompted and made
good.” and from what they've read in newspapers.
“At present and for some years the mind of England will be occupied with other things than poetry. There will probably be years The thirty-fifth annual meeting of the of war, then years of misery after the war, American Forestry Association has just taken then, at last. years of re-creation. The new place. This year's meeting was at Boston song that will then arise will be more glorious and was marked by the retirement as Presithan the old. When that time comes, it is dent of Dr. Henry S. Drinker, President of my hope to be alive and young enough to Lehigh University, and the election of Mr. know it.”
Charles Lathrop Pack, of Lakewood, New We, too, hope that John Masefield will be Jersey, the well-known forestry expert, long a alive then and will contribute his mature voice vital power in the Association. In his presito that new burst of song. No poet to-day dential address Mr. Pack called attention sings more clearly of the real England. No to certain things which surely should be poet is singing more directly to his people brought before the American people at this than Masefield. Few have sung more under- time. standingly of this war and the spirit of Eng- We do not always realize that in time land than the author of “ August, 1914.”' of war we should prepare for peace, and “How still this quiet cornfield is tonight!
especially at this time. In other words, we By an intenser glow the evening falls,
must mobilize our country's industrial reBringing, not darkness, but a deeper light;
After the war industrial competiAmong the stooks a partridge covey calls.
tion will be more far-reaching than ever.
For us there will be victory or defeat in These homes, this valley spread below me here, exact proportion to our preparedness. In The rooks, the tilted stacks, the beasts in pen,
this the forests and forest products will Have been the heartfelt things, past-speaking necessarily play a large part.
A treeless dear To unknown generations of dead men,
country or a country which abuses its timber
resources as we do, justly asserted Mr. Pack, Who, century after century, held these farms, cannot expect in world competition to conAnd, looking out to watch the changing sky, tinue with economic success. Heard, as we hear, the rumors and alarms
While war is perhaps the most powerful Of war at hand and danger pressing nigh.
instrument of destroying industries as well And knew, as we know, that the message meant as individuals, taxation comes next. Our The breaking off of ties, the loss of friends, forest taxation is unscientific. It is imposed Death, like a miser getting in his rent,
annually, while revenue with which to meet And no new stones laid where the trackway it is deferred. Such taxation inevitably hasends.
tens the cutting and marketing of the trees. The harvest not yet won, the empty bin, There must be some return on the capital The friendly horses taken from the stalls, invested. Timber lands are not given an The fallow on the hill not yet brought in, even chance with other properties. As Mr. The cracks unplastered in the leaking walls.
Pack showed, the crop of the farmer is taxed Yet heard the news, and went discouraged home,
when ready for the market, and no agriculAnd brooded by the fire with heavy mind, tural crop is taxed more than once. But the With such dumb loving of the Berkshire loam crop of timber is taxed each year until cut. As breaks the dumb hearts of the English kind, Farmers' crops mature annually ; the crop Then sadly rose and left the well-loved Downs,
of the timber-owner matures once in many And so by ship to sea, and knew no more
years. The fields of home, the byres, the market towns, Wastage of our natural resources should Nor the dear outline of the English shore, be prevented whether wastage comes from But knew the misery of the soaking trench,
war or from taxation or from simple recklessThe freezing in the rigging, the despair
But in consideration of the forests In the revolting second of the wrench
there is one factor which we are glad to note When the blind soul is flung upon the air, was mentioned in the presidential address,
and that is that the American forester is a man who has the æsthetic sense. The tree has ever been the symbol of life, strength, beauty We cannot continue to look day after day upon trees without their beauty being reflected in our lives, making us healthier, happier, and better. Thus the destruction of trees means the removal or decrease of a natural resource, not only from a utilitarian standpoint, but also from the viewpoint of health, beauty, morality, and spirituality. There is indeed, as Mr. Pack concluded, no compensation for such a loss.
which he brought thus to his office other Commissioners had to acquire after they entered upon their duties.
It is not surprising that the knowledge which was acquired in this way by one Commissioner after another served little purpose when it is recalled that New York has had nine Commissioners in thirteen years.
Contrast this with the experience of London, which in the course of eighty-five years has had only five Commissioners. Sir Edward Henry, the present head of Scotland Yard, London, was first an assistant magistrate and then a magistrate in the Indian Civil Service, then Police Commissioner of Bengal, then Police Inspector of the Southern District of India. Then he was called upon to reorganize the civil police systems of Ladysmith and Pretoria. “ After that,” Mr. Fosdick is quoted as saying, “ he was sufficiently seasoned for a place in Scotland Yard as Assistant Commissioner. When he was finally made head of the Department, he had fortyfive years of police experience. Of course, Woods's two years and a half under Bingham make a small showing as compared with the record of Sir Edward Henry, but it is so very much better than nothing that it accounts in large measure for the success Woods has had. ... If it could be known that Woods or a man like him were to be Commissioner for, say, twenty years, with greater freedom of administration than the law now allows, New York would advance a very long way on the road to having an ideal department.'
Mr. Fosdick's explanation of the reason for the reduction of vice in New York is that it has suffered as any other business would suffer by being cut off from publicity, aggressiveness, and advertising.
As the Bureau of Social Hygiene in its report says, “ collusion between exploiters of vice and officials in the Police Department has ceased. ... New York possesses a police administration absolutely honest at the top." To Commissioner Woods's leadership the police force itself has responded.
If this gain is to be made permanent, such an administration as Arthur Woods is giving to the Police Department of New York must have the support of the people of the city.
" THE CLEANEST BIG CITY IN THE WORLD"
As a result of the administration of New York City's Police Department by Arthur Woods there has been an astonishing change in moral conditions. This fact has been established by the investigation of an endowed body known as the Bureau of Social Hygiene. In the words of Raymond B. Fosdick, an authority on police matters, New York City has become, in respect to vice, “the cleanest big city in the world.”
Mr. Fosdick has not only visited the largest cities in this country, but important cities in Europe, in the course of his investigations of police conditions. He has been Commissioner of Accounts in New York City. His recent article in The Outlook (the issue for November 3, 1915) on “Liberty in Ger
) many" was an example of the thoughtfulness and discrimination as well as the human interest which he brings to bear on his investigation. Another article, on “Liberty in America,” which will be published in an early issue of The Outlook, supplements the former article and likewise illustrates his broad mental background.
The Bureau of Social Hygiene, of which Mr. Fosdick is a member, and on whose behalf he has been making his police investigation, reports that between 1912 and 1915 the number of prostitutes in New York was reduced by over seventy per cent. In an interview in the New York “ Times,” Mr. Fosdick was asked how he accounted for this great decrease. And he answered, “ Arthur Woods."
Other Police Commissioners of New York City have brought to their office honesty and ability, but the present Commissioner, Arthur Woods, has the distinction of having served as a Deputy Commissioner. The knowledge of police conditions and police administration
THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES
The recent fire in one of the departments in Washington calls renewed attention to the need for a proper building to house administrative, historical, and other National archives.