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CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES:

PAGE Pioneer women, Three........ Elizabeth Wallace 345 Poetry: Brother Jonathan...

.C. A. Richmond 384 Brother Jonathan Speaks His Mind.

C. A. Richmond 620 Brother Jonathan's Trials. .C. A. Richmond 917 “Brother's Keeper, Am I My?"... George Seibel 870 Clarion..

.H. T. Pulsifer 665 Earth's Easter

R. H. Schauffler 967 Grace Before Reading, A. Helen C. Crew 226 Police Preparedness... .Gertrude Mathews 397 Politics, Keeping the Soldier Out of...E. F. Wood 797 Poland's Future : Russian or German?

Gregory Mason 273 Pre-Nomination Campaign, The. F. M. Davenport: Congressional Insurrection, The Aitermath of the

667 Hughes, Shall It Be?..

628 Making of the Nation, The.

955 Popular Government Still on Trial.

911 Presidential Primary, The Failure of the.

807 President of the United States, The.

SII Republican Trilemma, The-Hughes, Root, Roosevelt-How It May Be Solved..

738 Socialists, The Presidential Choice of the. 865 Southern Renaissance, The...

427 South, The National

386 Wilson Administration, The..

552 Preparedness, Another Woman's View of

892 Preston, Andrew W..

976 Raemaekers, Louis, and His War Cartoons.

L. R. Freeman 626 Reformatory, Moving an Entire. ..0. F. Lewis 923 Refrigeration and Artificial Ice. T. H. Price 713 Retail Merchant, The..

T. W. McAllister 580 Road Menders..

.Ruth Sawyer 708 Rochester Public Schools for Aliens.

439 Roosevelt, Theodore, and Marjorie Sterrett... Root, Elihu, on Belgium...

418 Rural Church, A, with a Programme. R. C. Keagy 466 Shakespeare, Can He Withstand the Storm?

Herbert V. Abbott 915 Sing Sing, The True.

F. M. White 42 Socialism After the War..

.H. W. Jessup 576 Steppes, A Son of the

E. K. Fell 977 Sterrett, Marjorie....

383 Stores, Co-Operative.

N. O. Nelson 395 Street Boys, Helping..

F. H. Potter 683 Student Co-Operation, An Experiment in.

G. W. Hunter 704 Success, The Four Corner-Stones of...T. H. Price 1002 Swiss Soldier, The..

. Jean Martin 801 Uncle Sam Goes Fishing., Hawthorne Daniel 211 War Impressions, Some, of an American Woman.. 632 War, Recent Changes in the Art of...F. V. Greene 218 War, The European

American in England, The.. .....J. D. Whelpley 95 "Americani,” The, in Italy.......G. C. Speranza 844 America's Attitude.....

G. C. Speranza 920 America's Pretense of Neutrality.

Thomas Chalmers 90 Belgium in Holland..

Sanford Griffith 54 Brunhilda, The New... Katharine Anthony 333 Churches,' The Protestant, in Distressed Bel

gium and Northern France. ... Rev. H. K. Anet 861 Country, Our..

Bainbridge Colby 235 Eastward Drive, The..

L. R. Freeman

329 England Pays for the War, How? J. D. Whelpley 277 Englishman in America, The... J. D. Whelpley 141 French, What an Englisnman Thinks of the.

Herbert Ward $39 Garibaldi, A Message from... G. C. Speranza 920 Holland and the War..

3+ Italia Redenta...

..G. C. Speranza 471 Italy and Servian Aid.

.G. C. Speranza 518 Liebknecht, Kautsky, and Bernstein on the War

184, 835 Music and the War..

F. L. Waldo 151 Poland's Future...

Gregory Mason 273 Prisoners of War in Russia.... Gregory Mason 755 Reporting the War, from Deskside... F. B. Elser 693 Russian Jews and Russian Liberalism.

Gregory Mason 391 Russian People, The Double War of the.

Gregory Mason 20 Russia Reorganizing.

...Gregory Mason 515 Russia's Refugees..

;. Gregory Mason 141 Socialists, Three German-Liebknecht, Kautsky, Bernstein-on the War..

184, 835 What an American Saw in Germany,

A. L. Kroeber 92

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES.-Continued.

PAGE War Time in Rural England.. F. E. Green 449 Water Power.

H. L. Cooper 340 Weh Sao-tze, the Militant. ... Jean C. Cochran 577 Wind Fighters, The.

Keene Abbott 99 Wood, General, on Military Training...

799 Zionism: 1-Palestine and the Jewish Democracy:

L. D. Brandeis 36. 11–Why American Jews Consider Zionism Undesirable ?

Samuel Schulman 40 III–The Outlook's Opinion..

42 THE NEW BOOKS; (Where the date only is given in the list below, the review will be found in the department " The New Books” in the unpaged portion of the issue. Many minor books are omitted from this list.) Alaska, Travels in (Muir)..

Jan. 19 Apostolic Church, Dictionary of the (Hastings) Mar. 22 Barton, Clạra, The Life of (Epler).

345 Battle, Ordeal by (Oliver)

Mar. 8 Belgium, Romance of Old (Champney).

Jan. 5 Book of the Homeless, The (Wharton).

Feb. 23 City of the Dawn, A (Keable)

Feb. 23 Delane of The Times (Cook)

Mar. 29 Democracy, The Future of (Hyndman)

Mar. 8 Europe, Heart of (Cram)...

Jan. 5 “ Fear God and Take Your Own Part” (Roosevelt)....

357, Mar. 8 Fiction : Abyss, The (Kussy).

Mar. 29 Belfry, The (Sinclair).

Mar. 8 Cam Clarke (Walsh)

Mar. 29 Captain Margaret (Masefield)

Apr. 26 Cathedral Singer, A (Allen).

Mar. 29 God's Puppets (White).

Apr. 5 Gossamer (Birmingham)

Mar. 8 Green Mansions (Hudson).

Apr. 5 Makar's Dream and Other Stories (Korolenko) A pr. 26 Mrs. Balfame (Atherton)

Mar. 8 Nan of Music Mountain (Spearman).

Apr. 26 Portion of a Champion, The (o Sullivan tighe) Apr. 12 Real Adventure, The (Webster).

Feb. 23 Rudder, The (Watts)..

Apr. 12 Side of the Angels, The (King)

Mar. 15 Those about Trench (Lewis)..

Mar. 8 Twin Sisters, The (Forman)

Apr. 5 Within the Tides (Courad).

Feb. 23 Fishing with a Worm (Perry)..

617 Foraker, J. B.: Notes of a Busy Life..

Mar. 15 Great Maze, The, and The Heart of Youth (Hagedorn)

999 Hague Arbitration Cases, The (Wilson). Harvest, My (Whiteing).

Apr. 5 House on Henry Street, The (Wald).

346 Imperial Impulse, The (Ortlı)..

Apr. 26
Industrial Leadership (Gantt)

Mar. 15
International Government, Towards (Hobson). Jan. 26
Latin-American Neighbors, For Better Rela-
tions with Our (Bacon)

Jan. 19
Liberty, Reconciliation of Government with
(Burgess)...

Jan. 26 Man Against the Sky, The (Robinson)..

786 Master Builder, A (Brent)..

Mar. 15 Michael Angelo (Rolland)..

Jan. 5
Monroe Doctrine, The (Hart)

Mar. 15
Morality of Nations, The (Burns)
Mountain, The (Van Dyke)..
Nelson, William Rockhill..

Feb. 16
Painting, The Philosophy of (Bell).

Apr. 26 Panama-Pacific Exposition, Impressions of Art at the (Brinton)..

Mar. 22
Payne, Father.

Feb. 16
Pioneer, The Story of a (Shaw)
Red Cross Flag at Home and' Abroad, Under
the (Boardman)...

Jan. 26
Responsibility, The Dread of (Faguet).

615 Responsibility. The Inspiration of (Brent).

615 Shakespeare, William, Life of (Lee)....

Apr. 5
South America's Southland, Through (Zabm). Mar. 15
Strathcona and Mount Royal, Lord, The Lite
of (Willson)...

Jan. 26
Trudeali, E. L., M.D.: An Autobiography...

Mar. 15
Underground Railroad as it was Conducted by

the Anti-Slavery League, History of the
(Cockrum)..

Mar. 22
War, A Frenchman's Thoughts on the (Saba-
tier)

584 War Lords, The (Gardiner).

Mar. 22 We (Lee).

Apr. 26 Work, Out of (Kellor).

Jan. 5

Jan. 26

A pr. 26 Apr. 26

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The Outlook

JANUARY 5, 1916

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

but it is believed that it includes the introTHE STORY OF THE WAR: THE BURNING QUESTION IN

duction into the House of Commons, at the ENGLAND

earliest possible opportunity after Parliament At the close of the week under considera- meets on January 4, of a law applying contion (December 22—29) the political and Cabi- scription to the younger unmarried men. net situation in England appeared to have The Labor party has urgently opposed this, reached a settlement which may not involve and conscription at large has been opposed the retirement of Mr. Asquith as Prime Min- also by those who think it un-English, and ister, or a radical reconstruction of the who point with pride to the fact that England Cabinet. Early in the week serious danger in this war has placed some four million men of just this result was feared, for the Cabinet under her flag without conscription. was reported to be nearly evenly divided for Neither of these grounds of opposition is and against the immediate application of the sound. Great Britain's difficulty in this war, principle of compulsory military service. and her failures in certain directions, have

It had become evident that while Lord been due to the lack of preparedness, such Derby's plan of voluntary enlistment has as Lord Roberts long urged before the war added largely to the rolls of men available began, and to slowness in getting adequate for service, it has not succeeded in the very forces under adequate training. point on which emphasis is laid by every There may be some resignations from the one acquainted with the question. The Cabinet. That of Arthur Henderson, Presichief complaint in England is that un- dent of the Board of Education and the married, able-bodied young men are not leader of the "6 Laborites," is considered enlisting in adequate numbers, and that most probable ; but the present indications from the beginning the burden of military are that Mr. Asquith, Mr. Balfour, Sir Edward service has fallen unfairly upon the younger Grey, Reginald McKenna, Chancellor of the married men. One reason for this, especially Exchequer, and other able men who have at the beginning of the war, undoubtedly been regarded as opposed to the principle of was that there was a large number of married conscription will remain. men with small families out of employment, David Lloyd George, formerly sneered at or earning very slender wages, and that the by the Tories and anti-Progressives in Engliberal provision made for the families of vol

“that little attorney from Wales,' unteers was a great inducement to this class. remains, after all this political turmoil, the

Apart from this, however, there seems to great figure in England. The effect of his have been a vastly larger patriotic impulse on “too late " address, reported last week, has the part of the married men and a regretta- been extraordinary It was followed by a ble scarceness of patriotic interest on the part bold and outspoken speech before three of the unmarried men. Nearly two months thousand trade-unionists in Glasgow. In this ago the Prime Minister pledged the Govern- the workingmen were told, with irresistible ment to the adoption of some form of com. clearness and force, that they must set aside, pulsory service if the young men, under the where necessary, their union rules, so that stress of national duty, did not come forward munitions should be manufactured at a rate voluntarily. This pledge, it is evident, must commensurate with the needs of the British now be fulfilled ; even those in the Cabi- army. The alternative, said Lloyd George,

. net who are, on principle, opposed to con- to tell the Kaiser frankly that we canscription admit it. The actual decision of not go on," pay an indemnity, give up a the Cabinet, probably reached on December British colony or two, surrender the com28, has not, as we write, been made public ; mand of the sea, and, in brief, put Great

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Britain at the mercy of Prussian despotism stantine to General de Castelnau, the French as Belgium is to-day. A typical passage of Chief of Staff, is also reassuring as indicating Lloyd George's plain speaking was this: that the King honestly means to remain I have often feared that the British people

neutral if he can, and to give the Allies a think of this war as only a passing shower. I

fair opportunity to carry on their operations. have wondered if they realize the tremendous There was during the week no serious issues involved. This is a cyclone, an earth- military alteration in the situation on the quake. You cannot haggle with an earthquake. border between Greece and Servia, and some

The skilled workmen as well as others experts seem confident that the Teuton-Bulmust realize that it is really opening before them garian plan is to intrench behind the Greek the greatest opportunity ever presented to their border for the winter. class, and there will emerge after this war that

The general optimism among the Allies as future hope which the great leaders of democracy of all ages have pictured in their dreams.

to the present situation in Salonika makes it

seem probable that the Indian troops (an And when a workman shouted in reply to entire army corps, forty thousand men, Lloyd George's demand for eighty thousand it is said) which were last week taken skilled workmen, “ You won't get them,” the away from the line in France are destined, Minister of Munitions crushed him by say- not to Salonika, but either to support the ing, “ I have come here to face three thousand situation in Egypt, or quite possibly that in Glasgow trades union men; will that gentle- Mesopotamia. If the former, this is a measman venture to go to Flanders and face three ure of protection in view of the continued thousand British soldiers in the trenches ?. reports that Germany and Turkey mean to This is the kind of thing to carry conviction cut the line of the Suez Canal; if the latter, with the British workingman. Lloyd George it is to render much-needed support to is a leader whom Englishmen can follow with General Townshend, whose little army

of confidence.

thirty thousand men, after bravely fighting

in its advance upon Bagdad, was driven WHAT WILL HAPPEN

back after the battle of Ctesiphon, where IN GREECE?

it lost over 4,500 men, to a defensive The situation at Salonika now appears position on the River Tigris at a place called more favorable to the Allies than had been Kut-el-Amara. One of the crassest errors of rumored. No one knows how many troops British military policy was this attack against the French and British have. behind their a superior force in an impregnable positiontrenches and in fortified positions in the region an astounding instance, as we have already reaching in a semicircle twenty miles from pointed out, of a lack of primary information Salonika; German reports say not much more which should precede such a campaign. than 200,000; other reports say 400,000, Reports from General Townshend's forces which might be an adequate force for indicate that they have repelled a serious almost any attack. An interesting account attack and are holding their own, while Turkof the situation at Salonika has been given ish reports declare that the British position by General Thomas S. Hutchinson, who is desperate and precarious. fought as an officer in the Greek army in the An important announcement is that the Balkan wars, and who has lately returned to advance guard of the Italian troops which this country.

He says that the fortifications recently disembarked at Avlona, Albania, at Salonika are practically impregnable, and have reached the northern frontier of Epirus he believes that, instead of awaiting an attack (Greece). Thus, with Italian troops in southby the Teutonic and Bulgarian forces, the ern Albania, and with the 75,000 Servian Allies, in time (and that probably means in troops reported to be at Elbasan in central, the spring), will start a big drive “ straight and at Skutari in northern, Albania, that across to Adrianople, and thus cut off Tur- country bids fair again to become such a key.” Supplies, men, and munitions, Gen- center of interest as it was during the Balkan eral Hutchinson states, are pouring in every war of 1912. day at Salonika, and the belief there when he left was that the Greek hatred of the Bul

SUBMARINE MURDER garians would certainly bring Greece into the CONTINUES war if the Bulgarians should cross the border. While American, German, and Austrian An interview granted lately by King Con- diplomats are apparently enjoying themselves

[graphic]

thoroughly in verbal fencing, the atrocious perfect right, in view of Mr. Lansing's state-
and lawless attacks on merchant vessels con- ment in our first Ancona note, to assume
tinue. The Yasaka Maru, a Japanese pas- that this, and this only, is the principle for
senger ship on her way from London to which we are contending.
Japan, with 120 passengers and a crew of
160, was sunk by a submarine (presumably IS THIS STORY TRUE?
technically an Austrian submarine), without One sometimes thinks that a little censor-
any warning whatever, on December 21. ship of the American press by the American
Full details are even now lacking, but all papers would tend to help the cause of truth
reports which have reached this country agree

and justice. Over and over again during that the first evidence the vessel had of the this war stories have been printed which existence of a submarine was the firing of its come from special correspondents by mail, or torpedo. One of the passengers is said to be are personal interviews, which have made an American ; but our State Department has extraordinary assertions never confirmed. A rather gone out of its way to declare that it little discretion in confirming stories of horror should require absolute proof of this man's before their publication might be wise. citizenship before making any inquiry into the Here, for instance, we find what has on matter. Only by the extraordinary ability its face the appearance of a truthful story, and promptness of the officers of the ship, because it is vouched for by an observer and the almost marvelous skill and discipline over his own name. Yet it is so strange of the crew, were the lives of the passengers and so horrible that one hesitates to accept it. saved.

If it is true, it places a stigma of eternal disTwo or three days later came reports of grace, first, on a Servian regiment which the sinking of a French passenger ship, is named, and, secondly, on the German the Ville de la Ciotat, in the Mediterranean. forces in Servia ; yet it has hardly excited a Here, too, there was no warning whatever, ripple of interest in this country, and we and the meager reports indicate that perhaps have noted practically no comment by the between seventy and eighty persons perished press upon it

. If it is true, it is immensely —no Americans were on board. Still another important; if it is false, it should be exposed passenger ship, torpedoed without warning and denied. but without loss of life, was the Italian liner We find this story in the columns of the New Porto Said.

York “ Tribune” in the form of an interview Our Government has over and over again with Mr. Douglass M. Dold under the shriekdeclared that this kind of submarine warfare ing headline, Blind, He Paints Nish Teuton was contrary to humanity and international Hell." Mr. Dold, this article tells us, has law, and that where American citizens were just come back to the United States after six concerned it would not tolerate even their months' work in Servia among the hospitals. being put in jeopardy of their lives. And He saw the fall of Nish, and shortly after was still the interchange of notes continues while stricken blind. Mr. Dold is reported as saying, repeated violations of these primary laws and in effect, that when the Bulgarians broke principles of humanity continue. Unfortu- through the Servian defenses Nish was panicnately, more than once, and especially in its stricken, and he adds: “It was terrible. The first Ancona note, our State Department has 20th Puhk (regiment) killed its colonel and, intimated that it considers that Germany has as it retreated, looted the city and violated accepted the principles we have laid down.

the women. What Germany has done has been to modify The story proceeds to say that when the her practice by instructing her submarine Bulgarians approached, a group of young officers not to torpedo passenger ships. Does women bearing great garlands of flowers our Government wish to go on record as say- as a peace offering went out to meet them, ing that if a non-combatant merchant ship, not out of friendliness, but to deprecate vionot a passenger vessel, is wrongfully destroyed, lence; that the Bishop of Nish and Mr. Dold and American citizens who happen to be (as a neutral) were placed in chairs at the ensailors on board are lawlessly slaughtered, trance to the city, and addressed the Bulgarian we have nothing to say; that only when commanders, urging that Nish be spared; that people on board liners are injured is it any the Bulgarians behaved "splendidly," and

" concern of ours? If such a

case should

that there was no disorder until the Germans happen to-morrow, Germany would have a arrived. What then followed, according to

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the - Tribune's” account of Mr. Dold's state- as possible, emphasizing the point that if ment, was this:

American doctors and nurses were sent to Then hell broke loose. It was terrible. They Mexico they would go to co-operate with the looted, they burned houses, they violated and Mexican health authorities, not to supersede whipped women, they did every sort of awful them. and unmentionable thing imaginable. The But if it be true, as reported by the cathedral was used for a stable, and all of the

newspapers, that the epidemic of typhus has sources of water supply they did not need for

crossed the American border from Mexico, themselves were ruined for others by throwing in rubbish and garbage. The filth that accu

for our own self-protection it may become mulated filled the city with an awful stench.

necessary for us to strike the epidemic at its Hundreds of women came to us begging for source, even at the risk of injuring the pride protection, asking us to take them away or to

of Venustiano Carranza. marry them, to do anything that they imagined would save them from the Germans. The

SUGGESTIONS FROM THE guards over the hospital supplies were knocked ANTI-MILITARISM COMMITTEE down and kicked. I don't know what happened

A voluntary body known as the Antito the supplies. It was at that time that I be

Militarism Committee has begun a campaign came blind.

against what it calls “the cult of preparedWe quote this story, not to deny it nor to ness.” Its headquarters are in Washington. affirm it, but to say that it is a thing that Among its members are Miss Lillian D. Wald, ought not to be passed over without confir of the Nurses' Settlement in New York City; mation or disapproval.

Paul U. Kellogg, Editor of the “ Survey;"

Mrs. Florence Kelley, of the National ConTYPHUS IN MEXICO

sumers' League ; and Professor Kirchwey, of A few months ago the relief expedition of Columbia University. Its Executive Secthe American Red Cross in Mexico, which retary is Mrs. Crystal Eastman Benedict. had been engaged in combating starvation and It does not confine itself merely to opposing typhus fever there, was withdrawn because increased expenditure for military and naval General Carranza said that its services were purposes, but advocates

a true democratic no longer needed. Now the Red Cross federation of the twenty-one American rereports that there are 30,000 cases of typhus publics in the interests of peace and republican in Mexico City alone. General Carranza ideals ;" and urges the appointment of an

“ himself is reported as admitting the presence expert commission, representing America, of 19,000 cases, and a Mexican business man Japan, and China," to study the questions at who has just come to New York from issue between America and the Orient and to Mexico City naïvely remarks to The Outlook make recommendations. Its specific fight, that “the typhus situation in Mexico is not however, is against military and naval preserious. There are only 15,000 cases in the paredness, and its programme in this respect capital of the country, and they are mainly is as follows: confined to the uncleanly poor in the slums.” Our immediate purpose is to prevent, if pos

Evidently the situation is very serious. The sible, any unusual expenditure for armament American Red Cross is ready to lend Mexico during the present session of Congress. a hand, but will probably make its offer of Before any increased defense appropriations assistance warily, in view of the past dis

are made we demand public investigation of our couragement it has received from Carranza.

present huge war budget, so that every dollar The Rockefeller Foundation, which gave

now spent for the army and navy may bring one $75,000 toward the campaign against typhus

hundred per cent of efficiency.

We stand for a Congressional investigation of in Servia, is also reported to be investigating

the sources of the demand for a large increase the Mexican epidemic, with a view to offering in the army and navy appropriations. its aid. The State Department has already We stand for taking private profit out of armoffered to have a medical commission sent to ament manufacture. Mexico City to assist in checking the epidemic, We hold that the expense of National defense but the Mexican First Chief has declined should be met by income and inheritance taxes this assistance. It is easy to understand and not by taxes which place the burden on the Mexican dread of American intervention of poor. any kind, and offers of assistance from the Those who believe that preparedness is a United States should be couched as tactfully National duty should consider without preju

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