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tunnel 225 feet long will be driven about ways—either by Government ownership and fifty feet below the bed of the stream. From operation or by the employment of private this tunnel borings will be made upward as capital worked under the incentive of private well as downward to show the constituents property. Nobody but a visionary proposes of the available rock for foundation pur- to-day that the Government should build and poses. It is not only work which is danger- operate water power plants. Some system ous to life and limb, but it involves the must therefore be devised for the developexpenditure of about $100,000. The result ment of water powers as a natural resource of this exploration may show that the build- by private genius and private capital. ing of a great water power dam is impracti- Dangers to the Public. By their very incable. If this should be the case, the prelimi- herent nature water powers are monopolistic. nary investment of $100,000 will be entirely There is only one Niagara, one Mississippi, lost. This illustrates some of the risks which one Columbia River. Experts can almost water power developers have to undergo. mathematically tell how many spots there are
Competition. Another popular notion is in the United States capable of water power that when a water power is once constructed development. The company that controls the it costs so little to run it that the power de- Keokuk dam on the Mississippi controls the veloped ought to be by far the cheapest in water power of several hundred square miles, the world. The facts do not support this while a thousand companies can build steam view. An article in the “ Electrical World” power plants in the same territory. When for January 15, by Mr. H. W. Buck; a hydro- steam railways, which through their terminal electrical engineer of wide experience and facilities and trackage are necessarily monopestablished reputation, discloses the fact that olistic, were introduced into the United States, steam power is a very keen competitor of their control was grasped by individuals and water power.
The old undershot and over- groups of private citizens who used the moshot water-wheels on the rivers and streams nopolies in many instances for selfish ends. of New England, which made that section in We are just beginning to emerge from the the early part of the last century the great overwhelming social, industrial, and financial manufacturing center of the United States, evils into which the country was plunged by have now practically been ousted by the unregulated private control of railway monopsteam-engine. The mechanical improvement olies. The public is determined that similar of furnaces and boilers and the introduction evils shall not be allowed to germinate in the of steam turbine engines have steadily reduced development of water power monopolies. It the relative cost of steam power. Steam is this danger of selfish, private monopoly power is movable. Water powers are fixed. which the Federal legislation of the lasť ten Steam power can be taken to the factory. years has been designed to avert. The factory must be taken to the water The Justice of Federal Regulation. That power. The effect of steam power competi- the Federal Government possesses the power tion.on water power is shown in the figures to regulate hydroelectric plants is not open of the United States Census. In forty years, to debate. That power is exerted to-day from 1870 to 1910, the total steam-generated and is confirmed by the Supreme Court. horse-power in the United States has in Nor do we think it is debatable whether creased much more rapidly than the water Federal control 'is preferable to State control. generated horse-power. The steady improve- The rights of water power builders as well ment of the methods of transmission of elec- as of the public can be better protected by tricity are now beginning to enable American a central authority than by the conflicting coal mines to use what was formerly unmar- authority of forty-eight different States. ketable refuse for fuel to produce at the mine But the Federal authority must be as just steam-generated electricity, which is distrib- to the builders of and investors in water uted long distances to the factory, municipal powers as to the consuming public. This and individual consumer.
justice to both sides can be maintained if the The Interest of the Public. The public needs following principles are observed in water both steam power and water power. It is to power legislation : the interest of the whole country that our The Government owns and should retain water power should be developed as rapidly the ownership of all public lands on which and as efficiently as possible. This develop- water powers are built. ment can be carried on only in one of two The water power owners should be tenants
only, and the relation of the Government to NOT THE MAILED FIST, BUT the water power owner should be that of
THE FIRM HAND landlord to tenant.
The lease should be long enough to justify the Our attention has been called to an ediwater power owners in investing their capital, torial in the “ Frankfurter Zeitung” of Deand short enough to enable the landlord to cember 24 last which very properly calls protect his interests by re-leasing the property. upon The Outlook to explain the source of a
A water power company should either have paragraph in The Outlook of December 1, the opportunity to re-lease at the expira- attributing to the “ Frankfurter Zeitung” certion of the term agreed upon or the Govern- tain sentences which that paper states—and ment should buy the plant and improvements states truly, we fully believe—never did apat a fair market valuation to be determined pear in its columns. The German paper is at the time.
kind enough to refer to The Outlook as “one The water power men and the executive of the most esteemed of American publicaofficers of the Government are in general tions,” but uses our error (quite illogically, it agreement as to these principles. They seems to us) as an occasion for denouncing also generally agree that a term of fifty years the American press at large. “Can one is a reasonable period for the duration of the wonder,” it exclaims, “at the vulgarity of the lease. There is, however, vigorous disagree- daily press of a country whose most disment as to one other principle which is essen- tinguished [but] mistaken journals . . . are tial to this question.
capable of such knavish tricks ?” The “ Zei. Shall the water power builders as tenants tung” further comments: “It is a saving of pay any rent to the Government ?
time to add that during the whole of the war On the one hand, representatives of the The Outlook has shown itself, as a member water power builders say that no rent is of the American Entente ring, to be one of necessary, and that any rent imposed will the most passionate of German-haters, and inbe charged inevitably to the consumer. If capable of any unpartisan feeling." We have the Government wishes, therefore, to pro- deliberately quoted the " Frankfurter Zeitect the consumer, they urge that it should tung's ” angriest words, because it has, in a charge no rent.
measure, a just grievance, but we will once On the other hand, there are some legislators. more record the fact that The Outlook hates who, under what we believe to be the mistaken neither Germans nor Germany, but it does impression that the profits of the water power hate and will always denounce Germany's industry are beyond the dreams of avarice, violation of Belgium, Germany's murder of would charge a very high rent in order to cut innocent non-combatants, and Germany's those profits down. The just course seems autocratic militarism, which recognizes no to us to be a middle one. Some rent should rights in others and almost deifies its own be charged in order to make the analogy of might. landlord and tenant clear, and to form the As to the sentences wrongly ascribed to basis of a leasing contract which shall give the Frankfort journal, we admit reprehensithe Federal Government effective control ble carelessness, but deny the crime of forover the social, industrial, and financial opera- gery or even the fault of intentional mistions of the water power companies. This representation. The facts are these : The rent should be nominal to avoid danger of passage in dispute appeared in cabled press increasing the cost to the public, but it should despatches in one or more New York daily be real in order to establish the fact that the papers, and was probably published in other water power companies are tenants and not papers. We should have said : “ The Frankperpetual owners.
furter Zeitung,' as quoted in the press desNo officer of the Government has given patches," as it is our custom to do in such a greater amount of thought or shown a more cases; but we unhappily neglected to do this, practical wisdom in dealing with the water and thereby violated a fundamental rule of power question than Secretary Lane, of the journalism : “ Always state your source of Department of the Interior. His attitude is information.” We owe the “ Frankfurter based, we believe, upon the general principles Zeitung" an apology, and here tender it.
. which we have here endeavored to set forth. The press despatch was undoubtedly an We hope they will be embodied in the legis- exaggerated and unfair rendering of passages lation of the present Congress.
which appeared in the “ Frankfurter Zeitung"
would be seriously impaired by economic conflicts..
As to the proper understanding of rights and duties, of the position of Germany in Europe, and of the necessity in that connection, only time, a great, important, well-aimed wo of enlightenment, and if necessary a firm hand [wrongly translated “the mailed fist" in the version published in The Outlook] in dealing with American Chauvinism, will lead us to the goal, together with very much patience and indulgence for certain weaknesses of the state and the national character.
There is certainly a great difference between a mailed fist and a firm hand, but may hope that such dealing with “ American Chauvinism ” as may be necessary may be exercised by America and not by Germany.
THE MAKING OF CITIZEN SOLDIERS
HOW IT IS DONE IN SWITZERLAND AND AUSTRALIA
these two democracies are Switzerland and Australia. In order to appreciate and compare the systems of these two countries it is well to consider how the problems which they have had to solve differ from or resemble the problems which confront the United States.
The menace to Switzerland's security is one which requires a means of meeting sudden and powerful attack. Her neighbors are close at hand, her territory is compact, her terrain remarkably well adapted to defensive operations, and her people have been trained by tradition and experience to know that liberty is not the fruit of indolence or inertia.
Unlike Switzerland, the problem of Australia is continental in size. This English dominion, organized, like America, as a federation of states, each possessing strong traditions of independence and sovereignty, nevertheless has had the wisdom to place the control of its military and its naval defenses under the single head of its Federal Government. The population of Australia, almost completely British in extraction, has been passing through many of the same stages of development which have marked the progress of the United States. The bulk of Australia's population is concentrated on the seaboard, as was the early population of the United States. Her citizens are individualists of the type of the pioneer in all countries. Living conditions range from those to be found in cities like Sydney and Melbourne, of
more than half a million, to those found in sought. The state gives no money support the almost trackless interior. The menace to these organizations, but furnishes arms and against which Australia has armed is one ammunition. It may be interesting for which must of necessity come
across the Americans to note that, as is the case with Her chief international problems have the cadet corps of which we have already arisen from her fear of invasion or settlement spoken, the target practice of these older at the hands of a race alien in custom and military organizations takes place on Sunday. tradition to her own Anglo-Saxon inhabitants. When the Swiss boy becomes twenty years Australians in this have much in common of age, about midsummer, he must present with citizens of our Pacific slope.
himself for active military service. Following It will be seen at once that the problems a severe physical examination, which elimiof Australia are much more nearly those of nates nearly fifty per cent of those taking the United States than are the problems of the test, and an equally severe examination Switzerland. It is natural to expect, then,
in the three R's and the history and geograthat the means which Australia has taken for phy of Switzerland, the recruit is given his her defense would be those most deserving soldier's register. If he fails in the mental of attention in America.
examination, he must attend school until he
reports for military duty the following spring. THE SWISS SYSTEM OF TRAINING
When the next spring or summer comes, Both the Australian and the Swiss systems our Swiss recruit receives a notice to report have been very adequately summarized in at the training ground of his own district. reports collected by our War Department There are in Switzerland eight such training and published as public documents. From grounds for infantry—one for each infantry this collection of reports the following state- division of the army, located in the district ment has been constructed :
from which the division is recruited. The In Switzerland universal education to the artillery, cavalry, and engineers have separate age of fifteen is compulsory, and during this training grounds. Each training school comperiod simple gymnastic exercises under the prises targets, storehouses, rifle range, and direction of a schoolmaster are required of all training grounds ample for a regiment of in pupils as a preparation for military service. fantry. Apart from this obligatory work there are When the recruit reports for duty, he is almost everywhere volunteer cadet corps, fitted out with uniform and equipment comcomposed of boys from eleven to sixteen, in plete in every particular for field service and which the future defenders of the Republic a military rifle. When he has completed his of Switzerland can practice the manual of training, he takes his full equipment home arms, marching drills, and setting-up exer- with him and keeps it until the end of his cises.
Each corps adopts its own uniform. military service, at the age of fifty. WhenThe Federal Government furnishes a light ever he is called to military duty, he must premusket and a certain amount of ammunition sent himself, fully equipped, and if anything for target practice. Professional officers of is lacking he can be fined and imprisoned. the regular establishment serve as instructors These recruit schools are under the comfor these corps, and the state gives a subven- mand of professional soldiers, of whom there tion of five francs to each cadet soldier whose are about two hundred in Switzerland's corps marksmanship comes up to a certain standard. of permanent military instructors. Under
When the Swiss boy has reached the age these professional soldiers, working with a of sixteen, he may, if he chooses, become a body of trained non-commissioned officers to member of a more formal military organiza- assist them, the new recruits are divided into tion operating on the same lines as the cadet companies, sections, and squads, much as is corps, except that the regular army musket is the fourth class at West Point, or as were the supplied and that more attention is paid to tar- Plattsburgh "rookies" at last year's summer get practice. Gymnastics and shooting are the camp. two chief requirements of these older prepara- In the training of infantry, for instance, tory military organizations. The upbuilding of the first and longest part of the school the body and the mind, rather than the incul- period is devoted to the instruction of the cation of machine-like discipline, is the object individual soldier, the squad, and the section. * Senate Documeni 796, Sixty-third Congress, Third
The next part is devoted to the training of Session.
the several companies, and the last week of the school to the training of the entire school the cadre or organization framework of these battalion as a unit. With certain excep- schools for non-commissioned officers. These tions, the schools for infantry last sixty-five men usually go home after their four weeks' days, the schools for cavalry ninety days, work with a promotion of one grade to their and the artillery schools seventy-five days. credit. With the exception of Sunday, every day of Having become a corporal, the recruit can this training period means for the recruit aspire to a commission, second lieutenants at least eight hours' hard work. Besides being appointed from the whole body of nonoutdoor exercises, the men are taught to commissioned officers. He must, however, keep their kit and arms in proper condi- spend at least seven weeks as a corporal tion, to cook, and are given simple instruc- or sergeant as a part of the cadre of a tions in hygiene and the military regulations battalion in the recruit school for privates to and the theory of shooting. During his time which we have already referred. If this in the recruit school the soldier is rationed work is satisfactorily completed, he becomes and housed and receives ten cents a day pay. eligible for the officers' school, to which he At the end of his training the recruit is sent may either be ordered or request an assignhome, assigned to a battalion, and has no ment. From this point on the officer, if he further service with the colors except for a passes successfully through a series of tests short period of annual training during his and training periods, may hope to reach ultiservice with the élite or active army of Swit- mately the command of a division of militia. zerland. This period of annual training con- This training which the citizen of Switzersists of an annual course of fourteen days for land receives from his Government is vitally the artillery and fortification troops, and of assisted by the fact that rifle shooting in eleven days for all other arms of the service. Switzerland occupies the place which baseball Privates and corporals are only required to does in the United States as a national sport. serve eight such repetition courses during the The origin of the present Swiss shooting time of their service in the élite. The élite clubs and of target shooting as a national is composed of all men physically and mentally sport dates back to an early law which defit between the ages of twenty and thirty-two, creed that every Swiss citizen must be ready except in the cavalry, where the age limit is to defend his country and that he should be thirty. After passing from the élite the soldier furnished by the state with a suitable musket becomes a member of the Landwehr, the first and ammunition for learning its use. If shootdivision of which, from thirty-three to thirty- ing clubs existed in the United States in the nine, may be called to take its place in the same proportion that they exist in Switzerfirst line with the élite, and the second division land, they would include nearly five million of which can be used to garrison fortresses citizens in their membership. and escort supply columns. When a man reaches forty-five he passes into the Land- AUSTRALIAN SYSTEM OF DEFENSE sturm, which does no military service except In Australia, as in Switzerland, primary in time of war.
education is compulsory. In most of the This brief summary covers the work re- Australian states children have in the past quired of the man destined to remain a private been required to remain in the free public during the course of his military career. If schools until the age of fourteen. This requirethe recruit, however, is above the average in ment has already, or will shortly, become uniintelligence and is ambitious, at the close of versal. As in America, public schools are to his recruit training he is listed as a man suit- be found even in thinly populated districts, able for the position of a non-commissioned and they are attended by three-fourths of the officer. The next year he is ordered to children of the country. The other one-fourth attend a four weeks' training camp, where attend private schools, the majority of which he learns to command a squad, a section, or are maintained by the churches. a platoon. He drills other men and in turn When the time came for the reorganiis drilled by them under the watchful eye zation of the military system of Australia, of regular instructors and with the advantage the Commonwealth Government was preof working with corporals and sergeants who pared to undertake a system of military trainhave already passed through the mill. The ing for boys of school age, but the fact was corporals and sergeants who have already recognized that it would be better if this received their training in previous years form could be done by the schools directly. Hav