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was purchased by that organization, and Mr. vened between the “old kingdom" and the Albert M. Lythgoe was sent with an expedi- “middle kingdom,” thieves broke into the tion to the sand buried cemetery to bring it ghostly home of Perneb, smashed the wall to New York. The blocks of the tomb were into the statue chamber and made kindlingcarried on camel-back to a railway twenty wood of the statue, broke open the sarmiles from the tomb; thence shipped by cophagus and stripped the mummy of its rail to Cairo, where they were transferred jewels and rich ornaments. The Museum's to steamers for New York.
searchers found the bones and the skull of which is the only one of its kind owned by the old Egyptian on the floor beside the any museum in the world, has just been casket, and these grim relics are now on opened to the public. A photograph of the exhibition in a glass case next to the entrance tomb will be found in our picture section. to the tomb.
All that we know about Perneb we have Thus, while the tombs of many of the learned from the inscriptions and drawings celebrities of the “old kingdom” were deon the underground limestone house which he stroyed by robbers, or by later monarchs called a tomb. On the lintel of the doorway who wanted sandstone blocks for their own is inscribed, “ Perneb, Sole Companion [of burial houses, thanks to the sand-storms that the King) and Lord Chamberlain.” It is be- buried Perneb's post-mortem home soon lieved that Perneb's royal friend and master after it was robbed, and thanks to the inquisiwas one of the later kings of the fifth dynasty, tiveness of a latter-day generation, the fame the date of which is put by various authori- of Perneb is now secure until New York shall ties at from twenty-six hundred to forty-four be buried by its own drifted dust or sunk hundred years before Christ. Judging from beneath the sea by the weight of its towering a quarry mark, it is thought that the monarch sky-scrapers. was King Isesy, next to the last ruler of the fifth dynasty of the "old kingdom.” Another CAPITAL, LABOR, AND THE inscription tells us that one of Perneb's titles PUBLIC SAFETY was “ Keeper of the Crowns." The tomb The most novel and interesting feature of consists of a vestibule, a main offering cham- the annual dinner of the American Museum ber and an adjoining offering chamber, a of Safety in New York City was the equal statue chamber, lighted only by a slit in the participation of representatives of labor and wall through which Perneb's descendants and capital in the rewards dispensed in the shape admirers gazed at a wooden statue of the of medals for services in conserving the health departed, an unfinished burial shaft, which and safety of the public and employees on was probably planned to lead to the burial American steam and electric railways during chamber of Perneb's wife, and the shaft which the year 1915. led to the room fifty-five feet underground The medals awarded were the Brady where was the limestone sarcophagus of the medals, donated annually from a fund protomb's owner. Of course it has been im- vided by the family of the late Anthony N. possible to reproduce this shaft and burial Brady, and the Harriman medals, given by chamber in the Museum, but the opening to the widow of the late E. H. Harriman. the shaft is represented and all the other Each fund provides for three medals, two to essential parts of the tomb are intact. The go to the executive and operating departwalls of all the chambers are gorgeous with ments, respectively, of the railways that have bright reds, yellows, blues, and greens, made the best record for conserving life and painted figures of Perneb's wife, his two sons, limb on its lines, the third in each case to be and processions of birds and beasts. Per- given to some workman who has merited it haps the most interesting feature is the by the caution and skill with which he has painted and carved menu of what the de- performed his particular function in railroadceased and his ka or “ double
were to have ing. The awards are made by juries of for their sustenance. A long line of square- railway men. shouldered Egyptians is represented as bear- This year the Harriman medals went to ing toward the slab which served as dining- the Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Texas table for the two spirits lambs, geese, goats, Pacific Railway Company; to the operating loaves of bread, and other edibles.
department of the Scioto Division of the Some time during the three or four hun- Norfolk and Western Railway Company ; and dred years of the “dark period” that inter- to Mr. John O'Brien, a switchman and con
ductor of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois bank Anderson of more than half a million Railroad. The Brady medals were divided dollars to the New York Association for among the Union Traction Company of Improving the Condition of the Poor for the Indiana, Mr. Harry A. Nicholl, its General carrying on of experiments in matters relating Manager, and Mr. John Hancock, a motor- to the public health, to the physical welfare man of that line. The particular records of of school-children, and the enormous probMessrs. O'Brien and Hancock were not lems connected with the food supply, was of made public. Last year the E. H. Harri- tremendous assistance in extending the work man medal for employees was won by the of the School Lunch Committee. To-day engineer of the Empire State Express of the there are twenty schools, registering thirty-two New York Central Railroad, who in more thousand children, where the penny.a. portion than twenty years of engine driving had service is operated. Fundamentally, this never killed a human being.
service is devoid of any mark of poor relief. The Museum of Safety made the interest- During the last school term nearly a million ing report that during 1915 no passengers and a quarter portions of food were sold, for were killed on seventeen railways and no which the children themselves paid more than employees were killed on six lines. The latter twelve thousand dollars. A deficit which accomplishment was particularly remarkable, amounted to about a third of a cent per porfor in the nine years that the Museum has tion was paid from funds drawn from Mrs. been keeping the records never before had Anderson's gift. any railway gone through a year without The function of the New York School losing an employee by a fatal accident. Lunch Committee has grown with its work.
Still, the most significant part of the pran- Through its own personnel it now carries on dial and post-prandial exercises under the a careful investigation of the quality of the Museum's auspices the other night was the food which it supplies to the school-children. equal encouragement that was given to both Food is submitted to a chemical and a bacteemployers and employees to put "safety riological test, and an inquiry into its nourfirst.” Any chance to meet and understand ishment value. In this work the hearty each other afforded to representatives of co-operation of the New York Health Departcapital and labor is good for each and good ment has been secured. Both the laboratories for the public. And encouragement given to of the Department and the food inspectors in capital and labor to co-operate in safety meas- its employ have proved valuable aids in the ures is particularly good for the public. selection of proper food products by the
Lunch Committee, and this work has resulted, LUNCHES FOR
not only in supplying wholesome food to many SCHOOL-CHILDREN
thousands of school-children, but it has proved In 1907 the New York public was aroused of distinct social value in encouraging trade by statements asserting that thousands of where decent conditions of work and welfare children went to school every day suffering prevail. This has again reacted in the interest from lack of food. The charge was investi- of public health, for the diminution of sickgated, and as a result there was organized in ness and incapacity throughout the commuNew York a School Lunch Committee, the nity is directly dependent upon the condipurpose of which was to provide nourishing tions of labor and employment in the foodlunches on a self-supporting basis to all producing industries. school-children, the special observation of children whose physical condition was such as to give evidence of lack of proper nourishment, and the formation of special classes of Five thousand men, women, boys, and mothers. For several years this work was girls marched five miles through the heart of carried on under the leadership of Miss Alice New York City one evening recently clamorKittredge. This Committee established in ing for a right to a public education. That half a dozen public schools the system of hot sounds more like Petrograd than New York, school lunches sold to the children at approxi- but it happened in the American metropolis, mately the food cost. These lunches were nevertheless. served to children at two or three cents, There were middle-aged men and women each portion of food costing one cent. in the procession. About half of those in
A munificent gift by Mrs. Elizabeth Mill- line were foreigners and almost all of them
were stamped by poverty. They were protesting against the curtailment in the number and curriculum of the evening schools of New York which went into effect on January 1, and which affected twenty-five thousand persons.
New York's evening schools are of three kinds : elementary schools, trade schools, and high schools. The great majority of the persons who attend these schools fall into two classes :
1. Poor and hard-working people in general whose only available time for securing an education is during the evening hours.
2. Foreign-born residents of New York in particular, who go to school when their day's work is over in order to increase their earning capacity, to prepare for citizenship, and especially to learn English.
Thus the people who are affected by the closing of many evening schools are the very people who most need education and who should most be encouraged to get it.
Mr. Julius Guttag, a successful business man who is a graduate of a New York evening high school, and who is the President of the Associated Evening High Schools Alumni, said to a representative of The Outlook :
“ Roughly speaking, about eighty per cent of the students in the evening schools are foreign-born and are going to school to learn English.
“New York has 115 night schools,” continued Mr. Guttag,
" of which fifteen are high schools, nine are trade schools, and the rest are elementary schools. The elementary schools have felt this uncalled-for blow most, the high schools have felt it least. Of the 25,000 persons who have been affected, 16,000 are in the elementary schools and 9,000 are divided between the trade schools and the high schools. The order of the Board of Education has affected forty per cent of the •enrollment of the elementary schools, fifty per cent of the trade schools, and twenty-five per cent of the high schools."
A good many of the evening schools have been abolished entirely, and in all the evening elementary schools the courses in civil service, stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, and cooking have been eliminated. The high schools have lost the courses in millinery, dressmaking, cooking, music, gymnasium, applied electricity, and structural drawing. Moreover, in the elementary schools the “ school week” has been cut from four nights to three. In these schools pupils for
merly received eight hours of instruction a week, whereas now they get only six hours, and in certain courses they get only two hours out of every four nights. Such desultory instruction is called by Mr. Guttag " farcical—in fact, practically useless."
Last, but not least, the required attendance in the evening trade schools has been reduced from one hundred and twenty nights a year to sixty nights. And now only such pupils are accepted as are engaged in a trade during the day. It certainly seems unfair to admit the persons who have positions and debar those who need the very training which the night trade schools give in order to qualify for positions.
All this change and curtailment has been caused because the Board of Education reduced the appropriation of slightly over a million dollars needed by the night schools to $750,000
Already 15,000 signatures, including those of school principals, teachers, and social workers, as well as students, have been attached to a petition which is to be sent to the Mayor, the Board of Estimate, and the Board of Aldermen, asking that funds be supplied for the maintenance of the evening schools on the basis that existed up to the first of
A fund of $250,000 will be sufficient for this purpose, and a resolution calling for an issue of revenue bonds to provide this sum has already been placed before, the Aldermen by one of their number. But the money can be granted only if the Board of Education asks for it. We hope the Board will do this, for the education of the masses of the poor who patronize the night schools seems to us as important as any phase of the work of enlightenment with which the New York Board of Education is charged.
Why should there be a voluntary auxiliary police force in any city ? For emergency work in case of a destructive cyclone, or a hurricane, or an earthquake, or a great conflagration, or a possible invasion by some armed force.
The report comes from Chicago that a socalled “ Citizens' Auxiliary Police Force” has been formed there for other than emergency work. If the newspaper accounts are correct, the members of that organization are authorized to make observations of every-day violations and call them to the attention of the
police; and the members carry cards and the wireless wire swindle-a man described badges of authority.
as a millionaire, who at the time of his death In New York City the Police Department's lived in luxury in a handsome house in a Committee on Preparedness has also recom- fashionable part of New York, and whose mended the raising of an auxiliary police only associates were the thieves, male and force, but for emergency work only. It might female, of the Tenderloin. He was known, be called a police militia. Commissioner it is said, to the police of both hemispheres, Woods and his inspectors and captains do not in every quarter of either of which that expect to offer the inducement of badges possessed a pecuniary circulating medium and uniforms, but simply training and the he had plied his trade of confidence man, as chance to do hard work if opportunity " Paper Collar Joe;" and, although he was should come. Accordingly, their plan pro- first arrested at the Centennial Exposition in vides that the New York auxiliary force 1876 and had probably been locked up on should be drilled by police officers and that criminal charges at least once a year ever it should give a certain number of hours a since, his prison sentences totaled not more week for training without remuneration, badge than a few months. Another prominent memof authority, or uniform.
ber of the wireless wire gang, who could not The only thing doubtful about the plan is resist the lure of the gambling table, “ went the willingness of citizens to enlist in sufficient broke” two years ago and committed suicide. numbers. Doubtless it would be perfectly Still another is a fugitive from justice, who easy to get the total number required if the forfeited bail to the amount of $50,000, and Department would furnish a badge to flash,
are serving prison sentencesor some other privilege. Nevertheless, one every man of them supposed to be worth a inspector has already received assurances small fortune. from over five hundred citizens that they will The wireless wire-tapping game is the volunteer for such duty, and they propose to successor of the green goods game, which pay their own expenses, too. An efficient was at the height of its success a generapolice militia for New York City of this tion and a half ago, and which it resembled character to the number of, say, twenty-five in that the victim was handicapped in bringthousand men would certainly be a civic in- ing his despoiler to justice, since in the surance policy in advance; it would be a life process of being victimized he had involved and property saver, in case of disaster, in himself in an attempt to swindle some one policing the streets and possible refugee camps. else. The victim of the green goods men
Out of the Chicago and New York plans purchased what he supposed to be counshould come some efficient auxiliary organi- terfeit money with a view to passing it among zation. As to the preventive work of the his neighbors in the rural district from which regular police forces, however, especially in he came. The victim of the wireless wire-tapthe metropolis under the present efficient pers lost his money in an effort to swindle what Commissioner, the article under the title of he believed to be a gambling-house, a poolroom. " Police Preparedness” on another page Paper Collar Joe, whose real name was should by all means be read in connection Kratalsky, began his wireless wire career with the above.
with the actual tapping of a real telegraph
wire in 1898, when with others he held back THE PASSING OF THE
the returns of a race at Long Branch until “WIRELESS WIRE-TAPPERS"
their confederates got their money down on With the recent sentence of two confidence the winner—on which occasion they took men to State's prison the last of a gang of $35,000 from the bookmakers. Really to tap some ten swindlers, who, with a swarm of a telegraph wire was a difficult and dangersatellites, are said to have acquired $15,000,- ous job, however, and the idea of a fake pool000 in New York since the beginning of the room was conceived, where a victim might be century, have been disposed of and the led to believe that he had received accurate depredations of the “ wireless wire-tappers" advance information as to the winner of a brought to an end-at least temporarily. race, and thus induced to bet heavily on Almost simultaneously with the breaking up losing horse, in which event the fake poolof this gang, by a coincidence, there died, full room got his money. of years and dishonor, the man who is given The most amazing thing about the wireless credit in the underworld for the invention of wire game is that its victims were so often
victimized over and over again ; and the next inaugurated the - Century Magazine," and
, most amazing, the character of these dupes. Mr. Drake became its art editor. Mr. One hard-headed Denver mining man, past Drake was responsible for its artistic standmiddle life, lost $20,000 on his first visit ards and leadership. The magazine very to the wireless poolroom, and $40,000 in soon made a place of its own, and under an effort to get the $20,000 back. Still the direction of Mr. Gilder, Mr. R. U. unsuspecting, he went home and raised Johrison, and Mr. Drake it not only stood $70,000 in cash, which he brought to New for the best things in art and literature, but York with the intention of betting the entire it aided very materially the development of amount on. one horse on the afternoon of his the artistic taste of the country. When the arrival, as he would have done had he not half-tone engraving, now so widely used, was read in a newspaper on the morning of his introduced, Mr. Drake immediately mastered arrival of the arrest of the men who had the art and used it with singular effectiveintroduced him to the game.
A former city official of Winnipeg, Manitoba, lost $60,000 He had not only skill and capacity for to the gang, a littsburgh real estate man lost the practical use of delicate artistic methods, $30,000, an English tourist lost $17,500, and but he had also the rare quality of being the police heard every year of scores of cases able to help artists by sympathetic and in which the loot ran from $3,000 to $15,000. intelligent criticism. He could make men In one instance, in which the name of the aware of the defects of their work in such a victim was not learned, the gang took $90,000 way as to encourage and inspire them, and from one man, and it was in only compara- it was to his quick recognition of ability and tively few instances that the police heard of his great desire to help that many of the the wireless wire swindlers at all. Over and foremost engravers, such as Timothy Cole over again the members of this gang have and other eminent wood-engravers, found been arrested, but it was seldom possible to their opportunity. induce their dupes to make charges against He was a born collector, and in unusual them, and when that was done they invariably lines. His collections of copper and brass refused to carry on the prosecution or were and of rings were famous. The basement bought off by their despoilers. That the of his house contained a great collection of gang has been finally broken up is due to the bottles, many of them of great beauty, while fact that during the last year the policy has ship models, bird-cages, and samplers, to say been adopted of holding the victims in heavy nothing of bandboxes, drinking-glasses, and bail as material witnesses in the wireless wire pewter, indicated the range of his interests. cases, which has brought about the prosecu- He was a member of many clubs and he tion and conviction of the offenders.
had a host of friends. At one time he
suffered from sleeplessness and spent many ALEXANDER WILSON DRAKE
hours at night walking in out-of-the-way Mr. Alexander Wilson Drake, who recently sections of the city, where he formed the died at his home in New York City, combined acquaintance of many out-of-the-way people. in a rare degree quietness of manner with These experiences gave him material for effectiveness. No man of his attainments and some interesting and unconventional short accomplishments was more modest, nor had. stories. any man greater power of attaching his friends.
He came to New York as an apprentice to one of the leading wood-engravers of the The right of free speech and the enforcetime. He became an expert engraver, and ment of law, both now of cogent importance, his skill was backed by fine artistic feeling. have been recently so treated by Mayor He had just taken up work as an engraver Calkins, of Plainfield, New Jersey, as to aton his own account when “ Scribner's Maga- tract attention and approval in the New York zine” was organized by Josiah Gilbert Hol- press, and even in London. land, Roswell Smith, and Richard Watson A tiny religious sect calling itself "PilGilder. They invited Mr. Drake to join them, lars of Fire claimed a divine mission to and, fortunately for the country and for him. attack Roman Catholicism with violent inself, he accepted the offer.
vectives in crowded streets. Traffic was A few years later the same group of men blocked, serious disturbance was excited. A