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BY GERTRUDE BARNUM

O

I say

N first acquaintance my neighbor Mrs. ing royally for luxuries. To save printing

James O'Sullivan commanded re- and postage she forced committees to deliver spect rather than affection.

oral notices, and in general matters of pubcommanded, for mixed with a deference licity advocated the town-crier methods of bywhich we all accorded her was a hesitation gone days. In the matter of refreshments, to express opinions which might not coincide decorations, pleasure excursions, or funerals, with her own. She had challenging eyes, on the other hand, she provided very lavishly. bright blue, under shaggy eyebrows and a Undaunted by the limitations of our exforehead bulging with determination. Gaunt chequer, this all-powerful Treasurer early she was, and tall, with a great reach of arm decided to conduct the social features of the eloquent in gesture.

Club upon a generous scale. Railway officials, When this imposing person was nominated hypnotized by the sheer force of her will, conTreasurer of the Woman's Club by its Irish- tributed special trains for picnic purposes. American members, she won by a sizable major- Newspaper editors under her spell arranged ity over the votes cast for Mrs. Ginsberg by for resplendent neighborhood Christmas trees. the opposition. The Jewish-Americans were Public school authorities divided in half the very literally the opposition. Always arranging price usually charged in those days for use of themselves together at opposite sides of the the school auditorium. And it was upon these aisle in the Club Room, each of these fac- social occasions that one began to feel affections voted solidly against any measure pro- tion as well as admiration and respect for posed by the other.

Mrs. O'Sullivan. The husbands of the Jewish-Americans be- The first public school entertainment aring“ in business” or connected with business, ranged by the Woman's Club is a matter of it was possible for their wives to acquire neighborhood pride to this day. The comsilk remnants, furs, millinery, and jewelry at mittee in charge, directed by the Treasurer, reduced rates. Their raiment, therefore, quite who flatly refused to honor authorized orders outshone the best clothes of the wives of for cash, had succeeded in arranging a prostreet laborers, teamsters, and freight-handlers, gramme

which cost not one single penny.

It who had to depend upon bargain counters was literally a festival of all nations, in which at the big Fourteenth Street Store. And they relatives and friends of Club members exwere regarded with a sort of antipathy, as the hibited extraordinary talents. Unique musical “moneyed aristocracy”—so to speak. instruments were unearthed from obscure

The Hibernians might be called the Demo- corners of the tenement district, and these crats of the Association, especially because of were played upon by Syrians, Greeks, and their resemblance to Tammany in developing a Hungarians. A Jewish lad sang a Yiddish Boss who gradually became absolute dictator. lament. Germans contributed Beethoven and Our Irish Treasurer, once elected, claimed Schumann violin and piano solos and duets. and held her office for a life tenure, and used Scandinavian, Italian, and Irish children perher financial advantage to further or to veto formed folk dances of all nations in costume. any measure calling for funds in her possession. In fact, this entertainment was the precursor

The balance of power in the Club lay of the international festivals which happily of with the Italian-Americans, who, by the late are becoming a familiar part of our comnature of their religion and of the occupations munity life. of their husbands, had strong bonds with the At first the applause for each number had O'Sullivan faction. They usually lined up come mainly from a segregated group belong. against the aristocracy, except on minor points, ing to the nationality of the performer. For upon which they were sometimes influenced some time there was manifested a decided by Scandinavian-Americans, German-Amer- feeling of rivalry between these separate icans, or Bohemian-Americans.

groups.

Then came a surprising change at In arranging the Club's yearly budget Mrs. the end of the song by the Jewish boy. The O'Sullivan brooked no interference.

wail of his first note caught the full attention collector of dues and assessments she was of Mrs. O'Sullivan, and promptly she reached relentless. As a dispenser she grudged every out a firm hand to suppress the Flaherty outlay for apparent necessities, while spend- twins. Then, riveted to the spot, she stood

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spellbound by the strains of the Yiddish folk- important part of her testimony against the song. Poignantly and plaintively they voiced defendant. the melancholy of a banished and persecuted In this supreme hour of misfortune Mrs. people. The boy singer's beauty might have Ginsberg bethought herself of the all-powerinspired a picture of the young Christ, with ful Club Treasurer, and hastened to ask her dark, shining eyes, sad and rapt, and a sway- help.' She was discovered in a meat market, ing figure appealingly frail. The music gush- and after learning only the one paramount fact ing from the childish throat was despair that a Club member's husband was in the hands embodied, and woke responsive memories, of an Irish custodian of the law, this astute stirred by the pure and sweet treble notes. politician offered instant assurances of relief. The strains of the song, handed down from To make assurance doubly sure, she margeneration to generation, seemed to flow out shaled for the relief expedition the German from a primitive time when races

butcher, the Italian fruiterer, and the Bohespringing from a common fountain head; they mian groceryman, counting no more upon seemed to voice the sorrows of all oppressed their willingness to witness to the good people; they flowed deep under ancient character of Mr. Ginsberg than upon their prejudices, for the time being at least under- ability to impress the deputy and the Justice mining all barriers of creed and circumstance. with their political influence.

It was evident that the stern Celtic woman One by one these husbands of Club memstanding there was, for the first time, feeling bers, representing four nationalities, testified a sense of kinship with a race which had suf- to the fact that Ginsberg was in good standfered even as her own people had suffered. A ing as a customer and as a fellow-citizen. And hush following the end of the song was for final effect Mrs. O'Sullivan herself volunbroken by a sounding snort, as Mrs. O'Sulli- teered as a witness. van blew her nose with vigor, and made that Your Honor," she said, “ I'd loike for to an excuse for wiping overflowing eyes. The spake for this here defindant. I'm no more applause from the Yiddish quarter of the hall struck on Jews than what you are; but I do was then augmented by stupendous stamping say the sheenies will git enough if they git and clapping from the Hibernian group, led what's rightfully comin' to thim, let alone by its wildly enthusiastic Boss. And during what they're not a-deservin'of. I know this the remainder of the evening the hands of the here Ginsberg is honest, and oi'll tell ye how various racial groups spoke as one in accord- I changed my mind. We have Jews enough, ing approval and demanding encores.

believe me, in a society I am associated with. Although the sympathetic side of Mrs. Bein' as I am the Treasurer, I git a fine chance O'Sullivan was thus partly revealed to all to size up who's square.

An' no wan can her neighbors, still it never was fully demon- say but what the Jews don't pay up rigilar, strated until the husband of one of our Club wan and all, an' Mrs. Ginsberg in particular, members got into the clutches of the law. although I bate her in the eliction. And

One bright spring day our Mrs. Ginsberg's when her last kid was born—it was wan too better half was doing an unusually lucrative many, your Honor—well, with all the expinse push-cart business, when he was halted by on him, this here defindant himself paid a big Irish deputy backed by a hysterical his wife's assissment fer yer frind Mike Armenian

This rival merchant Flaherty's funeral. I said then, and I say claimed ownership of the " cobweb shawls” now, fer a sheeny that was purty good.” and filigree buckles from which the peddler In the presence of such potent witnesses was reaping a rich harvest. These she swore for the defense, it was not difficult to conhad been stolen from a platform in the vince the Judge of the veracity of the pednear-by freight-yards out of a box very plainly dler's truly convincing explanation of the directed to her name and address. It was manner in which he had innocently become with difficulty that the police restrained the possessed of Armenian goods. And the return gathering crowd from doing violence upon trip from the court-house was a triumphal prothe person of the shrinking Mr. Ginsberg, cession of Irish-Americans, Jewish-Americans, and as the procession followed the Armenian German, Italian, Bohemian, Syrian, and Scan-. woman to the police court, she succeeded in dinavian Americans, whose hearts were all chastising the little peddler with several smart beating in unison with the big, warm, happy blows from a board inscribed with her heart of our benevolent despot, Mrs. James address, which was to constitute the most O'Sullivan.

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The familiar story of the sharpshooter who said after each shot, " And may the Lord have mercy on your soul!" is matched by an incident described in Ian Malcolm's book “War Pictures Behind the Lines." “ The captain of our guns,” says the narrative," was a priest; his altar a few empty cartridge-boxes. First of all he told us to pray for all for whom he was going to offer the Mass. Then he added, Particularly I recommend to your prayers the German artillerymen whom we have just destroyed,' and he recited the 'De Profundis.''

If the foregoing story has a suggestion of irony, it may be offset by the genuinely conciliatory spirit of the following memorandum which is reported to have been issued to the schoolteachers of Hungary :

The Royal Hungarian Minister for Education requests all teachers to pay special attention in the coming term to the respect and honor due to our enemies; that no hatred or contempt should enter the minds of the children against the brave men with whom their fathers are in deadly combat; and that hate or contempt is not to be cultivated in the youthful minds.

A subscriber records this amusing incident as showing the pitfalls that await the would-be orator. “Billingsgate” is an accepted term for vituperative language. A speaker in a political club wished to vary this expression in chiding an opponent, and criticised him for using “fishmarket language." Thereupon another member rose and protested against this phrase. “I have been a fish dealer for thirty years,” he said, "and have never heard any bad language used in my business. The fish business is a respectable one and should not be the subject of a slur."

An enthusiastic believer in the open-air sleeping-room, "Good Health ” reports, has built a bedchamber perched on four strong iron pipes which rise forty feet above the ground. He says the air is ten degrees cooler, and more pure, than in his room at the earth's surface.

On the blotting-paper of the writing-room in a certain hotel is printed this suggestion to its guests:

In this house you may meet those not of your own sort. They may differ from you in nationality, birth, position, possessions, education, or affinity. But we are maintaining here a small part of the world's great future democracy; we ask you, therefore, courtesy and tolerance for all alike. Need it be said that the hotel is an American one and that the author of the kindly sentiment is a New England man?

The most interesting single exhibit at the recent automobile show in New York City, in the opinion of Mr. Herbert Chase, chief engineer of the Automobile Club of America, as given in the “Club Journal,” was the Irish automobile known as the “Fergus.” The lubrication system of this car, requiring a replenishment of oil only once in six months, was one of its novel features. The chassis of the “ Fergus,” it may

be added, is said to have been the highest-priced of any in the exhibit.

Commenting on the general seriousness of Lincoln's speeches, notwithstanding his gift as a story-teller, Professor Winans in his recent book," Public Speaking," instances this passage from the famous Cooper Union speech as an example of Lincoln's occasional humor in his greatest addresses:

But you will not abide the election of a Republican President! In that supposed event, you say, you will destroy the Union; and then, you say, the great crime of having destroyed it will be upon us! That is cool. highwayman holds a pistol to my ear, and mutters through his teeth, "Stand and deliver, or I shall kill you, and then you will be a murderer."

Denmark has this year introduced the twentyfour hour system of keeping time. This does away with the necessity of using A.M. and P.M. to distinguish the hours of day and night. One o'clock P.M, is to be 13 o'clock, and so on up to midnight, which is to be 24 o'clock.

Most people consider the American aborigines to have been easy victims of the sharperwitted whites in matters of buying and selling. A new book about “The Original John Jacob Astor," however, declares that “the Indian was a great bargainer,” and says that Astor needed all his resources to get the better of the Indians in an exchange of commodities. He is said to have been the first fur dealer to become really proficient in the languages of the Mohawk, Seneca, and Oneida tribes, and this ability to talk to the Indians in their own tongue gave him great prestige among them.

“If any man here,” shouted the temperance speaker, as reported by the “ Western Druggist,"

,“can name an honest business that has been helped by the saloon, I will spend the rest of my life working for the liquor people.” A

“I consider my business an honest one,” he said, “and it has been helped by the saloon." “What is your business ?" demanded the orator. “I am, sir," was the reply, “an undertaker."

The German Emperor's palace at Corfu, recently a subject of newspaper despatches, is described as a magnificent white marble edifice, one of the most luxurious royal residences ever built. It was formerly the property of the unfortunate Empress Elizabeth of Austria, who lavished vast sums on its embellishment. It contains over a hundred rooms and is surrounded by wonderful gardens.

American readers of British newspapers find some queer things in the advertising columns. “Wanted, strong, tidy General, well recommended,” for instance, does not indicate a paucity of competent leaders in the British army. "General” thus used is merely an abbreviated expression for "general servant” or “houseworker."

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FEBRUARY 23, 1916

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

THE ISSUES

RIGHTEOUSNESS War, like peace, is properly a means to an end.-righteousness. Neither war nor peace is in itself righteous, and neither should be treated as of itself the end to be aimed at Righteousness is the end. Righteousness, when triumphant, brings peace, but peace may not bring righteousness. Whether war is right or wrong depends purely upon the purpose for which, and the spirit in which, it is waged.

THEODORE ROOSEVELT,
Ex-President of the United States.

JUSTICE The American democracy stands for something more than beef and cotton and grain and manufactures ; stands for something that cannot be measured by rates of exchange and does not rise or fall with the balance of trade. The American people achieved liberty and schooled themselves to the service of justice before they acquired wealth. ... They have embodied their principles of government in fixed rules of right conduct which they jealously preserve, and, with the instinct of individual freedom, they stand for a government of laws and not of men. They deem that the moral laws which formulate the duties of men towards each other are binding upon nations equally with individuals.

ELIHU Root,
Ex-Secretary of State for the United States.

LIBERTY The passion of Americans is not primarily for peace. It is a passion for liberty and justice; and for liberty and justice Americans have always heretofore been found ready to fight to the death.

The Outlook, December 15, 1915.

LEADERSHIP
The Presidential issue for 1916 is very simple.
It is not the tariff.
It is not finance.
It is not the relation of capital to labor.
It is not the regulation of the trusts.

It is the question of National defense. Shall our citizens be protected abroad and our country protected at home?

The party which makes this issue the first article of its platform, and the candidate who regards it as the public question of paramount importance and whose deeds as well as whose words are consistent with such a platform, will, in our judgment, be successful.

The Outlook, October 6, 1915.

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THE WEEK

AND THE WAR

THE STORY OF THE WAR:

"starvation" policy, reprisal, and the diffiSHALL MERCHANT SHIPS BE

culty of submarine warfare on the old basis. DENIED THE RIGHT OF DEFENSE ?

The Allies will denounce this as piracy and Before the announced agreement on the will refuse to abandon the old right to carry Lusitania case is made public the United

guns. If our Government does not take States, partly through the words of its own

strong ground as to the new attempt to overGovernment, partly through Germany's ag

ride sea law, it courts danger in the future, gressive declaration, is plunged into a new

for no submarine captain can surely distinproblem of the utmost seriousness. Shall

guish between armed and unarmed merchant merchant vessels be denied their immemorial

vessels, nor know which have Americans on and recognized right to carry guns for defense

board. under the penalty of being sunk by attack

There is irony in the Berlin report that without warning-rank piracy heretofore ?

the German memorandum declares the new Elsewhere in this issue of The Outlook will

policy to be “in harmony with the American be found a statement of the international

proposal for disarmament.” Such a prolaw questions involved from Mr. Ellery posal, as The Outlook has already pointed C. Stowell, Assistant Professor of Interna

out, is equivalent to saying to merchant vestional Law and Diplomacy in Columbia sels, " This Government will not defend you, University, in the form of direct answers to

and you must not defend yourselves.” questions on the various points. If, as stated in Washington despatches

THE ENGLISH PARLIAMENT published on the last day of the week here under review (February 16), our State De- Parliament reopened on Tuesday of last partment's note sent to the Allies suggesting

week, and from the outset the war situation that merchant ships disarm was not in

came to the front. The Premier, Mr. tended to change international rules and

Asquith, plainly pointed out the necessary burpractice during this war, the State Depart

den of the nation in taxation; he confirmed ment may be embarrassed to explain the

the recent estimate of $25,000,000 a day as final paragraph of Secretary Lansing's note. Great Britain's war expense, admitted that It reads :

there would be a serious financial strain on I should add that my Government is im- the resources of the country, but added : " I pressed with the reasonableness of the argument have no more doubt of our ultimate triumph that a merchant vessel carrying armament of than I have of the justice and righteousness any sort, in view of the character of the sub

of the war, but the nation must realize the marine warfare and the defensive weakness of

enormous burdens of the war.” underseas craft, should be held to be an auxiliary cruiser and so treated by a neutral as well as by

In the House of Lords Lord Kitchener a belligerent Government, and is seriously con

reviewed the military operations and exsidering instructing its officials accordingly. pressed satisfaction with the situation as it is The time for our note was not happily

He took a very favorable view of the chosen ; for while it was being discussed

recent offensive movements of the Allies in there appeared a German declaration of

the Champagne district and near Arras, and purpose which can only be compared in

described the present. German offenses as importance and ruthlessness to the original

really counter-attacks to recover lost ground.

He declared also that adequate preparations German “ war zone " declaration of subma

have now been made to defend the Suez rine war against merchant ships. In effect and purpose Germany and Austria advise

Canal, however serious the attack might be. the United States Government that, beginning March 1, they will launch a vigorous ON THE FIRING LINES submarine campaign against enemy merchant The only fighting of the week of serious shipping, and that they propose to attack importance is found in the varied attacks in armed ships of this character without warn- France and Flanders by the Germans. Ading. The ultimate German defense for this vances are claimed by the Germans in the violation of the common law of the seas is region of the Vosges, in the Champagne disthe old plea of Great Britain's blockade and trict, and in the neighborhood of Arras, and

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