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ence of the Emperor Nicholas at the opening of the Duma as “the beginning of a new

prove our not very sanguine prognosis for the immediate future in Russian politics.

era.'

ruary 28.

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We should like to believe that this first visit HENRY JAMES of the Russian Emperor to "the legislative The death, at the age of seventy-two, of body in this formal way ” means that is a new Henry James, the distinguished novelist and page in Russian history is being opened," as literary critic, took place in London on FebPremier Sturmer says it does, but there have

The English reviews of his work been so many promises unfulfilled that skep- and place in literature which followed have ticism may be excusable.

been even more appreciative and laudatory Talk is cheap. And the promises of Rus- than those of the writers for the American sian monarchs cannot be accepted at their press, and evince a high regard for the fineface value until a few of them have been ness and charm of his personality as well made good. The unkept promises of Rus- as for the distinction and subtlety of his sian Emperors for the abolition of the Sibe- books. rian exile system and for the extension of In the days when Mr. James's first novels civil rights in Russia make us loth to rely were appearing it was common to speak of on their words unless backed up by some him as an “international novelist " because action.

many of those stories, such as the well-known There is a similarity between the tone of Daisy Miller," introduced both English and the pseudo-liberal utterances of Premier American characters, and played about interSturmer at the recent opening of the Duma national marriage and social problems. In and the remarks of Premier Goremykin when another sense Mr. James was an internathe Duma was convened last June. On the tional writer, for, while his birth and early former occasion, as reported by Mr. George training were American, a very large part of Kennan in The Outlook, Goremykin said: his life was spent in England, and about six

" In the heterogeneous population of months ago he ceased to be an American our great Empire it is not only the Poles citizen by pledging his allegiance to Great who, in this year of war, have shown their Britain ; one cannot doubt that his reason loyalty to Russia. Our domestic policy, was not merely his long residence, personal therefore, must be characterized by impartial associations with and affection for Englishmen and benevolent regard for the interests of all and English ways, but a desire to make himtrue citizens of Russia, without regard to self a part of the English struggle against nationality, language, or form of religious autocracy and militarism. Just after he rebelief."

ceived from King George in January last the But, having secured the passage of some Order of Merit (an honor held, we believe, legislation which it wanted, the bureaucracy by only one other novelist, Mr. Maurice prorogued the Duma in September without Hewlett) he was quoted as saying, "How regard for the protests and “interests of all can one not feel that the Allies are fighting true citizens of Russia,” which were seeking to the death for the soul and the purpose and expression through the newly formed liberal the future that are in us, for the defense of coalition known as the Progressive Bloc. every ideal that has most guided our growth

And we fear that after it has secured the and that most assures our unity ?” further legislation which it now wants, and after Henry James, the novelist, was the son of it has for a short time and for the benefit of Henry James, the Swedenborgian theologian ; Russia's allies and neutrals maintained an and from the father very probably both the appearance of representative government in nóvelist and his brother William, the distinRussia, if the people through their agents in guished psychologist, derived their subtle menthe Duma begin to ask for real self-govern- tality and power of analysis. In perfect clarity ment, the bureaucracy will again prevail on of statement William James was the superior, the Czar to close the Duma.

and there is an often-quoted phrase : “WillThere is scant evidence that the Czar has iam James writes philosophy like novels, while sustained a real change of heart.

The recent Henry writes novels like philosophy.” Yet appointment of the reactionary Sturmer as those who remember Henry James's earlier Premier is evidence that he has not. But stories know that he could write directly and actions speak louder than words, and we shall entertainingly rather than subjectively and be the first to applaud actions that will dis- involvedly. “The Americans,"

“The Americans," "Roderick Hudson, ," "The Princess Casamassima," and mately sold by the nuns, not only because they “ The Portrait of a Lady” represent that stage were in debt, but also because some parts of his writing ; the last named especially shows of the surface of the painting were flaking how delicately yet clearly he could deal with away. They sold it to one Antonio Bigazzini, motives and personal traits without the over- who in turn sold it to the Colonnas. In 1802 elaboration and remotely illusive manner it became the property of Francis I, King of that permeate such books as

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“ The Wings the Two Sicilies, and passed to Francis II, who, of a Dove ” and “ The Golden Bowl.” No when dethroned, took it to Spain. Upon the list of the best of American fiction would be death of Francis in 1894 it was successively complete that did not contain “ The Portrait bought by two foreign collectors, and in 1901 of a Lady." There was a time when Howells by an American collector, Mr. Morgan. After and James were commonly, but casually, brack- its many vicissitudes the painting now finds eted together as the founders of a school of a home—and, we hope, a permanent onefiction ; in fact, they differed widely in sub- in the greatest of galleries on this hemisject and style, and as time went on the dif- phere. ference became more and more apparent. The acquisition is extremely notable ; in

Like Browning, Henry James often deliber- deed, the picture has been called the most ately fostered a tendency to compel his read- important ever brought to America. That it ers to study hard in order to extract the whole truly is, affirms Mr. Bryson Burroughs, the meaning intended. In his later work Mr. curator of paintings at the Museum, who James not only did this, but he allowed his adds, “and also one of the two or three style to become obscure, so that it is easy to greatest that have come on the market within pick out what might be called puzzle-sen- a generation." tences, involved and tortuous. This is a As an example of Raphael's work the serious fault; and to it, as well as to his love picture is of much interest. It marks the for dealing with the subjective, is due the fact period when he had begun to throw off the that the readers of his books have become influence of his master, Perugino, but had not more and more limited in number and have so much emancipated himself from it as we almost established a narrow Henry James cult. note in later works. The traditional throne One hopes that the discussion that must is there on which Mary is sitting holding the follow his death will lead many who have Babe on her knee, while at her feet is been overawed by this side of his work to the infant St. John. At the right are St. read or re-read such natural, sincere, and Rosalia and St. Paul, at the left St. Anne truly human stories as those named above. and St. Peter—all noble and statuesque fig. Nor should Mr. James's work as a critic and

In a lunette above is a representation essayist be forgotten. His Life of Nathan- of God the Father in the act of benediction, iel Hawthorne ” and his “ French Poets and a cherub and an angel on each side. It is Novelists” are admirable.

thus a formal composition. With all his detriments as a writer, Mr. As a whole, the picture lacks the life and James had the mark of distinction, of culture, the idea of movement conveyed by some of and of penetrating thought.

Raphael's other Madonnas, notably that most human of all, the Madonna della Sedia in

Florence. Nor is the color as rich as in COLONNA MADONNA

some of the later Madonnas. But it is none Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan has presented to the less a majestic and monumental work the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York done in “ the grand style.” Its sublime simCity, the "Colonna" Madonna, bought by his plicity gives it an eternal appeal. father fifteen years ago. The picture, of which an illustration appears on another page, is PAUL MANSHIP'S WORK so called because it was in the possession of the Colonna family at Rome for over a cen- Those who have been admiring Mr. Mantury. It was painted by Raphael in 1504 or ship's work in sculpture, now on exhibition 1505 for the nuns of the Convent of St. at the Berlin Photographic Gallery, New York Antony at Padua, and so that none of them City, may be surprised to learn that he is might be offended the little Christ wears a only thirty years old. He is a native of white tunic and the infant St. John is in St. Paul, Minnesota. He always took intercamel's-hair clothes ! The picture was ulti- est in modeling, and from it to real sculpture

ures.

66

ܕ ܙ

RAPHAEL'S

65

IN SCULPTURE

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predominates, and for the most part it seems the joyous idealism of youth.

cap them.

was but a step. He advanced rapidly, and finally obtained a scholarship at our American Academy in Rome. Such a scholarship means a thousand dollars a year for three years at Rome, the defraying of traveling expenses, and the use of the Academy's studios and lodgings.

As is the custom with all the Academy's students of sculpture, young Manship went to Greece, and the result of his sojourn was that the work of the early Greek sculptors profoundly affected him. Though the technical skill of those sculptors was defective, they sought minutely to copy nature. Despite the rather crude hardness of their achievements, any one can see that they tried to express a thought, to crystallize an idea.

Unlike the achievements of the early Greeks, Mr. Manship’s work shows no crude hardness. Nor do we think it either an affectation or a mere clever adaptation of some antique original. The qualities which made those early Greeks great-clear precision and simple force—are evident, together with the grace of the later Greek figures and the anatomical correctness of a still later time. Mr. Manship's motive may be to emphasize a thought, an ideal, or perhaps just a decorative instinct. Solid modeling brings the forms of nature into decorative lines and masses, and in this, as may be noted in the illustration on another page, the sculptor seems to retain the spontaneity and buoyancy of the particular moment when he first thought of his subject.

Another reminder of the ancient Greeks is the polish which Mr. Manship gives to his bronzes—and most of his productions are small bronzes. The idea is both to approach the quality of the human skin and to induce high lights on the figures.

Again, most of the bronzes are single figures. When there is more than one, synmetry as well as boldness of grouping is evident.

Mr. Manship's work first aroused Nationwide attention three years ago at the exhibition of the Academy of Design in New York City, when his “Centaur and Dryad ” took the only reward offered in sculpture. A still more notable tribute to the young sculptor came when the Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired the “Centaur and Dryad.”

Throughout Mr. Manship evidently strives to show not so much the temporary as the permanent in his subjects. In them idealism

THE CRIPPLES
OF FRANCE

Sudden death is not so terrible a feature of war as permanent disablement. The men who are left on a field of battle, crippled for life, are more to be pitied than the men who have fallen in charge, never to rise again. For the next generation Europe will be filled with one-armed and one-legged men, derelicts left to drift about in the path of the war storm.

One of the most praiseworthy forms of war relief is the aid to French cripples recently described by Mr. Arthur Gleason in the New York “Tribune.” As Mr. Gleason points out, the majority of men who are maimed by war are unable to make a living in competition with able-bodied men, or even with ablebodied women, unless they are given a careful training to fit them for some industry wherein their particular injury will least handi

In their despair, some of the men who have been crippled fighting for France after leaving war hospitals have committed suicide.

“A society has been formed in Paris," says Mr. Gleason, “to save these men. For $100 a maimed man can be supported and educated into a worker who will carry himself. Such trades are taught' as basket-making, carpentry, glass-work, photography, shoemaking, tailoring, instrument-making, watchmaking, tinware, bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting."

For instance, stenography and tailoring are easier than most trades for one-legged men, while many Frenchmen who have lost one arm find that this is not an unconquerable handicap in such a trade as toy-making when they are equipped with an “apparatus to supply the missing section of the arm.”

The Americans living in Paris have already raised $20,000, a sum that will help two hundred men to help themselves. But " at this moment,” says Mr. Gleason, “thirty thousand maimed soldiers are asking for work. Thirty thousand jobs are ready for them. The employers of France are holding the positions opc:1, because they need these workers. Only the training is lacking. This is a charity to do away with the need of charity."

Americans who want to take this opportunity to repay France something of the great

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debt we owe her for her help to us in our confession of the mistakes of his own denomiRevolution can send donations to Mrs. Ed- nation in living too much to itself, and in not mund Lincoln Baylies, Room B, Plaza Hotel,

putting the kingdom of God ahead of its own

sectarian interests. New York City, who is chairman of the American Committee for Training the Maimed

One of the chief problems discussed was Soldiers of France.

that of possible co-operation between the

Protestant and Roman Catholic bodies. The THE PANAMA CONGRESS

statements from missionaries in Latin AmerPerhaps the most interesting event in the ica were, of course, most pertinent, particreligious world of to-day has been the Con

ularly those from Mexico. One speaker gress on Christian Work, meeting at Panama. surprised his ultra-Protestant brethren by Three hundred and fifty representatives of

describing the practical, effective, and symvarious Protestant bodies in every republic of

pathetic co-operation from Roman Catholics the hemisphere have been considering their

which he had experienced there. Another work in Latin America, what it has been and

declared that the reconstruction period in what it ought to be.

Mexico presents just the opportunity for The Outlook has had its special correspond- Protestant forces

Protestant forces to reconstruct their methods ent at Panama, from whom we expect a full

and take the field. account after the termination of the Congress. Meanwhile the daily “ Star and Herald” of

BRAZIL AND OTHERS Panama has given a long, well-written, and

Is Latin America, then, to be left longer as deeply interesting review of each day's pro

a witness to the non-catholicity of Christianceedings.

ity ? This query came from Bishop KinsolIn his address of welcome, Señor Ernesto

ving, of the Episcopal diocese of Brazil. Lefevre, the Panaman Foreign Minister. con

While we are reaching out helping hands to fessing himself a sincere and devout Catholic,

our own aborigines, to the Hindus of India recognized the lofty and comprehensive pur

and the Mongols of China, is it not also our pose of the Congress. Professor Ernest duty to see that nations Christian in name Monteverde, of Uruguay, was elected Presi- shall be also Christian in fact? The Bishop dent of the Congress. Its discussions, as far

added : as reported, have been marked by a notable

Since Brazil took her place among the sisterand welcome freedom of expression.

hood of commonwealths no state religion is any Its first conclusion seems to have been that

longer intrenched in her governmental life. Protestantism, if divided into unrelated and In this connection the address of Professor un-cooperative denominations, cannot meet Braga, of the theological seminary at Camthe demand of the great social and religious pinas, Brazil, was impressive.

, opportunities which Latin America presents. There was naturally much comment conHow far, then, may the various denominations cerning education. With regard to the alienago in unifying their efforts ? Should they be tion of the educated classes in Latin America come actually one church, or merely co-operate from the Church, President King, of Oberlin in specific types of service? The Chairman College, justly declared that the Church has of the sessions of the Congress, Mr. Robert not yet learned how to preach to the eduE. Speer, an energizing force in Presbyterian cated classes there. A thorough survey of mission work, has been quoted as saying that educational conditions was made by the Conby the close of this century there may be no gress, with special attention, of course, to the such thing as a Presbyterian Church at all, attitude of educators toward religion. This and if so, he would not be surprised. The seemed even more striking than the forty to repetition of this statement at Panama eighty per cent of illiteracy in Latin-American brought prolonged cheers from the delegates. countries, and is to be met only by the adeThe supersensitiveness which often charac quate manning of Christian schools.

Coterizes references to various church bodies in operation in education was urged by Dr. conferences like that of Panama was con- William Adams Brown, of Union Theological spicuously absent. The “ Star and Herald” Seminary: he suggested that certain memthus comments :

bers of the teaching staffs of North American Presbyterians referred to Methodists, Con universities should be periodically released to gregationalists referred to Baptists and Disci- visit Latin-American schools, for purposes ples, and each one, speaking humbly, made both of inspiration and instruction.

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A NATION BESIEGED

any such attempt against Egypt highly im

probable. In the siege of a city the hope of the be- Germany, fighting on interior lines, has been siegers is to exhaust the supplies and wear able to shift her forces with great rapidity out the courage of the defenders, and so from east to west and from north to south either to compel a surrender or to carry the as the exigencies of the campaign demanded. weakened city by assault. The hope of the But neither her Zeppelin raids and her subbesieged is to secure supplies by leaks marine raids in the west nor her brilliant and through the enemies' lines or by sorties of successful drives against Russia in the east and foraging parties, and so weary the patience against Servia in the south have had any of the besiegers, or by a grand sortie to make effect to raise the siege. The coils of the connection with allies beyond the besiegers' anaconda are not loosened nor its strength forces, and so raise the siege.

weakened. The conflicting reports in the daily Germany is a nation besieged.

papers throw no real light on the progress of On the west and on the east the lines are the campaign. The question for the candid stuclosely drawn and are impenetrable. In the dent of current events to ask himself is this: west occasional engagements give a local suc- Which of these two Powers, the besiegers or the cess to one party or the other, but since the besieged, is likely the sooner to be exhausted ? Battle of the Marne nothing has occurred to Except—that as a last resort the German change materially the military situation. In fleet may issue from its hiding-place and the east Russia attempted a grand assault on engage the British fleet in what then would the besieged nation and was driven back be- probably be the greatest naval battle of hisyond the outer works of the besieged, except tory. d decisive victory for either party in in eastern Galicia. But the Germans then such a battle would probably end the war. did nothing to raise the siege on the east. No supplies can reach the Empire along the Russian front.

THE GERMAN ISSUE IN In the north there is a break in the besiegers' lines. To close this break England

CONGRESS has adopted the doctrine that she may stop There is a group in Congress that has en route supplies evidently intended for the more regard for German demands than for besieged, although they are directed to a neu- American rights. No one denies that Ameritral port. We may be sure that she will not cans have the right to travel in safety on abandon this position even if it does involve merchant vessels belonging to citizens or strained relations with the United States, for subjects of the nations at war. Americans this position is essential to the success of the traveling on such vessels have been ruthlessly siege. Germany knows this; and that is killed by German submarines. Such German why she is attempting to induce America to submarines have attacked such merchant help her break through the siege at this vessels without warning, and have sunk them point. On the south the besiegers' lines are without regard for international law or hufirmly held by Italy. This, rather than her manity. Now Germany demands two things : gradual recovery from Austria of Italian ter- That Americans keep off such merchant vesritory inhabited by an Italian population, is sels under peril of death, and that the merthe essential service Italy is rendering in the chant vessels be deprived of any power of campaign. She was right not to hazard the self-defense. Such demands are contrary to accomplishment of this task by diverting a international law, to common sense, and to large part of her forces for the succor of the rights of Americans. Servia and Montenegro.

Afraid of the consequences of standing up The Balkan campaign is in the nature of for these rights, certain Representatives and a successful sortie. It has brought into Ger- Senators in Congress have undertaken to many some needed food supplies from Bul- override the President, yield to Germany, and garia ; but it has done nothing to raise the avoid the unpleasant task of defending Amersiege, and can do nothing unless it enables ican lives at sea and maintaining the law of her to make such a junction with the Turkish nations and of humanity. The President, on allies as to threaten seriously the English Tuesday of last week, called upon Congress occupation of Egypt. The success of the to vote upon their proposal. Russian campaign in the Caucasus renders These Senators and Representatives have

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