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outcome of the Carranza experiment. There pany was recently suffering from unfair are some of us who go to sleep every night method at the hands of a great sugar conwith the premonition of another explosion.
The big concern was sending into Here's hoping that we are wrong.
the little concern's territory an inferior grade I have always felt that Mr. Wilson had of sugar and cleverly branding it in such rather the better of it in the debates against a way as to lead customers as well as the the Progressives over trust regulation in 1912. trade to believe that it was a fine granuAnd I must have been unprejudiced in the lated article, whereas it was an off"
sugar, matter, because I remember I was very much in the production of which an expensive nettled about it. And it was not because at part of the refining process was omitted. bottom Mr. Wilson was any nearer right about The little company had to meet the lower it than the actual Progressive position. The price with its honestly branded product. It fact is, the trust regulation programme was was being forced rapidly to the wall. It filed the one part of the Progressive platform about a complaint with the Commission that it had which the Progressives themselves during the already lost forty or fifty thousand dollars, campaign were at odds with one another. that it could not stand the pressure if it had
The President contended at the time that to wait for litigation. The Commission went the hope of the country in its relation to large at once into the case and thought there was business organization lay in seeking to regu- reasonable cause for complaint. It sent late competition rather than in seeking to word directly to the managing officials of the regulate monopoly. And this view has been big concern. It did not hale them into court. written into the Clayton and the Federal It asked them if they had anything to say. If Trade Commission Acts of Congress. And they had, the Commission would be glad to the President holds now that, in the case of hear them. The big concern had something Germany, for example, the attempt to build
And this was it : “ Neither as to this up Government-aided monopolies and to complainant nor any other complainant shall we regulate monopoly is a part of the whole be guilty of such practice again.” It was all frightful tendency of the mighty twentieth- over in a few weeks. The little concern was century industrial and political monarchy saved from bankruptcy and the big concern which that country has built up. The Presi. from disgrace and the error of its ways. dent thinks that we should strive to get the Here is another important feature. A great efficiency of Germany without the monarchical
many persons go to the Commission and say: tendencies against freedom which have gone “ You have within your jurisdiction the Claywith it in Germany. Just as we must seek ton Act, which prevents price discrimination, to democratize our military preparedness, so tying contracts, interlocking stockholdings we must seek to democratize our industrial and directorships. Here is a form of conpreparedness, that we may lay hold of the tract we propose to use. Is this a violation good and shun the evil of the German of the law ?” If the case is clear, if it is legal, system.
the Commission say so. If it is not legal, the There has been some quiet but very effect- Commission say so. They also say : “ This ive work done by the Federal Trade Com- is simply an opinion, a conference ruling, a mission under the eye of the President, of private judgment. If anybody is injured and which the country as yet knows very little. a complaint is filed, we will take the matter The purpose of the Commission has been not up de novo and hear from all sides. Otherto harass but to help. It has proceeded wise, what we have told you will stand as upon the theory that the period of propagan- a precedent.” That is, the Trade Commisdism has expired and the period of construc- sion is following exactly in line with the tion has begun; that the commissioners are Inter-State Commerce Commission and its the traffic policemen of inter-State commerce practice since 1907. The Inter-State Comwho are trying to establish the rules of the merce Commission has issued approximately road in order that commerce may flow fairly four hundred conference rulings which are and freely.
no more than expressions of private judgLet me give one of many concrete illustra- ment, but which relieve possibilities of doubt. tions of the manner in which the Commission And the method has been tremendously sucis regulating competition by giving quick cessful and is universally approved. relief and adapting the remedy expeditiously And the Commission is accumulating a to the disease. A little sugar refining com- vast amount of opinion from the different
corporations of the country, the size, the de- to get and the coal easiest to mine. And gree of integration, the percentage of success what is left behind is so left as to be practiand failure in the industry, the total out- cally worthless. And there are many failures, put, the consumption for a given period—the and many plants are shut down for a good
a barometer in that particular industry. The portion of the year. And the facts are drivtrouble with small business concerns is that ing the Wilson Administration rapidly towards they go blindly. They do not know how the regulation of monopoly or to Government much to produce, how much the market will ownership in the case of the great primary absorb. And they have no means of know
In spite of all the fine theories ing. And unless there is some Governmental about the regulation of competition as a panagency to give them the information they acea, in spite of the “ New Freedom,” the need, they are driven to combination in order great lumbermen agree, in conference with that they may be able voluntarily and wisely representatives of the Administration, that to restrict their output and prevent the large even a rigid fixing of prices would help their percentage of unnecessary failures in the industry. Not far away from Gary and Perindustry.
kins in the case of the primary resources ! And just this week there comes out a But the Wilson Administration holds that valuable investigation of the Commission of where men have taken these primary rean intensive economic character, a report on sources upon fair terms, and have used their the cost of transporting oil in pipe lines in the ingenuity, and have contributed something to mid-continent field which produces sixty to society in work upon them, these men are eighty per cent of the total oil of the coun- entitled to freedom. The chasm is narrowtry. Here are thousands of miles of pipe ing, and it may soon become evident that the lines which were made common carriers in Progressives and the Democrats are only com1906 by the Hepburn Act, but which have plements of one another in the matter of never been properly reguiated, because no trust regulation, and that experience will body has known anything about them. Now bring both into economic harmony. As, inthe Inter-State Commerce Commission will deed, sooner or later, it will bring all parties have some light. And the Trade Commis- except the Socialists. sion has found out, after making liberal al- The economics of the Wilson Administralowance for items of depreciation, cost, and tion is broadening as it garners the experireasonable profit, that these pipe lines are ence of the world. It would be willing to charging three times as much as they should, modify the Sherman Act in accordance with and that they make a minimum requirement the Australian policy or the Canadian policy. of twenty-five thousand barrels a day before It would grasp the spirit, but would disengage they will take on a customer. And the little American industry from the binding fetters fellows are squeezed out. They cannot of the legal letter, of the Sherman Act. It afford to build their own pipe lines, and they would make the test of whether a combinacannot afford to patronize the far more ex- tion is lawful to be its economic effect upon pensive railway transportation. This is not the public interest, and not those legal words the report of yellow journalism. It does not of delusion and folly known as “ restraint of seek the front page. It is couched in con- trade.'
.." As the President has frequently servative language. But the facts are start- said, his view is not necessarily antithetical to ling
big units in industry. It is a question of This again is a continuation of the splendid degree. It is a question of conserving the work of Garfield, and Herbert Knox Smith, efficiencies of large-scale production, and at and Conant, under President Roosevelt. the same time conserving individual and social There is a continuity of efficiency and prog- freedom. Outside the public utilities and the
But the drift in the Wilson Adminis- primary resources, if you choke freedom, you tration is powerful and thoroughgoing. have monopoly, which is another name for example, it has been determined that there is industrial monarchy.
And universal reguvast waste in the lumber and soft coal indus- lated monopoly leads inevitably to State tries. Twenty-six per cent of the timber is Socialism, which will destroy both democracy left to decay under the unregulated cutthroat and freedom. competition which prevails. When overpro- I have found a great difference of opinion duction comes, and the price of lumber goes as to the kind of party leader that the Presidown, the producers take the timber easiest dent has been. It seems to me that he has
been generally very astute and efficient. Mr. Garrison rather than with the majority of Wilson has made in other years close study his associates in Congress. The continental of responsible Anglo-Saxon leadership, and army plan was on the rocks. It seemed his purpose has been never to get far from to Washington to mean conscription before the model of the British Prime Minister, who it could be put into successful operation. leads by force of the majority opinion of his And in the temper of the country it associates. So in every important matter the appeared likely to require a trained contiPresident has dealt with Congress. We must nental army to go out and get the raw materemember also that he had nothing whatever rial for a continental army from among the to do with making the party organization farmers of Wisconsin and the Middle West. which faced him in the country and in Con- And the Bryan men in Congress would have gress. Mr. Bryan and his lieutenants were the none of it, anyway.
And so the President makers of a large section of the so-called pro- chose the path of patient, practical fulfillment gressive Democracy which swooped down of the best he could obtain rather than the upon Washington in 1913. And there were path of what he regarded as impractical spots in it that were far from progressive. It idealism and disaster. is not easy to forget Mr. Taggart, Mr. Murphy, Mr. Barnes, of New York, is reported to and others of their sort. Neither the honest be thinking that any good Republican can but often irresponsible Bryan influence nor beat Mr. Wilson. The calm and final verthe coarser element of the party machine has dict of the National electorate may surprise been easy to control. And the criticism of Mr. Barnes. Even the trenchant criticism the President is with respect to his handling of Mr. Root's speech finally arouses someof both elements. Bryan, it is said, has car- thing of the reaction of a sectional issue. ried morsels to“ deserving Democrats” until, The sources of the Ohio and the Mississippi with a few notable exceptions, the foreign are not stirred. And more and more the enorservice has severely suffered in prestige at mous difficulty and complexity of the problem home and abroad. And the great and neces- of adequate preparedness which the country sary work of breaking down the power and and the President have to face is giving the intrigue of the taser portions of the denunciation pause, or at least is distributing Democratic machine in New York, in Indiana, the burden of reproach more equitably. Only in Pennsylvania, has not gone forward. recently I have seen an entirely friendly but Rather has Bryan himself in Pennsylvania, serious article by one of his followers impugnand the President himself in New York and ing the capacity of Mr. Roosevelt to compass Indiana, given clear evidence of a purpose the breadth and the height of the problem, and to placate to the full the old order, which in calling upon him to extend the range of his other days both have derided and defied. ideas with respect to the Nationalization of
The path of the President, as he has sought America. Will not the sober sense of the to accomplish his purposes, has been thorny American people measure these unfair taunts and difficult. The path of any President of of its great leaders by the vast magnitude of the United States is thorny and difficult if vision made necessary by the revelations of he seeks to accomplish great good for the our time? And may it not be that the councountry. And even a near approach to ideal try will look with more kindly eye upon even perfection is not to be expected of any man. the shortcomings of the Wilson AdministraThe President is naturally a strong party ad- tion than Mr. Barnes and his associates are herent, and under his Administration there inclined to predict ? Certain it is that the has been up to the present time a strong President represents a point of view in revival of partisanism. He is a political National and even in international affairs pragmatist at home, just as he has been which has in the United States millions of a diplomatic pragmatist abroad. He has
supporters. Perhaps majority millions. At needed the Bryan men and the Taggart any rate, if the opponents of President Wilmen in Congress to fulfill his plans for the son believe that he is even likely to be decountry.
feated except by the strongest candidate who But in nothing has his practical intelligence can be named against him, they are, in my and astuteness seemed clearer to his sup- judgment, hopelessly deluded. porters than in his reft to line up with Washington.
BELGIUM IN HOLLAND
BY SANFORD GRIFFITH
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK
WHEEZY hurdy-gurdy ground and reground the aria of “ Robert le
Diable.” To the clash of a large pair of cymbals in the hands of a puppet on the front of the vehicle closely crowded couples circled about the small inclosure with that same stolid seriousness with which they had danced eighteen months before to the same melody in the narrow streets of Antwerp. Youngsters from the toddling age up all waited gravely at each pause for Robert to “rediable.” This evening dance was now a doubly important event in the refugee camp of Gouda, because it was the only recreation.
In these refugee camps are the majority of the seventy thousand Belgians who have been unable or who are unwilling to return to their own country. The truck-gardening region about Gouda has become a well-known refuge. Many found shelter in the elaborate hot-houses, others were received into the homes of the people, and many had to content themselves with barns and workshops until more adequate accommodations could be provided. A tin manufacturer of the town undertook the direction of the camp.
Water-troughs in the greenhouses were readily adapted into lavatories, and plant stands softened by straw sacking make excellent beds. Every family has the semblance of a chez-soi in a 6 x 8 cardboard inclosure.
One of the houses serves as a nursery—a most important consideration in such a large Flemish household. Another is a long social room, where at night, over large cups of coffee-chicory, the game of dominoes, suddenly broken off in September, 1914, is resumed and the interim forgotten.
Ede is the model village, or rather villages, because this refugee community has been separated into four parts. Built by Belgian labor, with materials that are the generous gifts of Dutch, Danish, English, and American donors, the camp is so permanently constructed that after the war it can serve as an ideal Dutch industrial community. There is central heating, lighting, and a large mechanical laundry, the particular pride of the Flemish housewives who work there. Each village, however, has its own schools, churches, and
hospitals. The sandy heath has been reclaimed by the profuse planting of some hardy yellow flowering plant, so that now each dooryard has its own small garden.
One old lady welcomed us into her little 6x8 with all the grace of a hostess in a grand salon. In the course of our conversation, as she told of her flight from the little town of Contich, in the suburbs of Antwerp, she glanced from time to time at the cherished objects she had brought with her—a molting canary and a framed wreath of feather flowers. Though her family is scattered, she lives in daily expectation that she may go back.
In many of the camps Catholic sisters do much of the hospital work and care for the children. At Gouda some of the Ursulines took us with touching pride into their bare pine-wood chapel. When they heard that we were going to Belgium, they were eager that we tell the Order at Bruges what they were doing. The writer suggested a picture. Such naïve pleasure! They crowded primly before the camera, but-O vanitas femina-several stopped in the corridor to give an extra pat to their white cornets.
The Friends Society has given cottages so constructed that after the war they can be transported to Belgium. These have been awarded to families who through their thrift have proved themselves particularly deserving. Many more of these houses are needed.
The fact that the people come, most of them, from the poorer parts of Flanders along the Scheldt, where illiteracy is greatest, makes the problem of education a considerable one.
In addition to many elementary courses, classes have been organized in cor nection with the children's clinics in domestic hygiene and household economy. The novelty is such that it is impossible to accommodate all of the mothers who come.
An effort is made to keep men in their trades. Those who remain in the camps work in the wood-shops, at weaving, and at shoemaking Of the first five men of whom I asked their former trade, two were dock-hands, one was a shoemaker, and two had none. Those who had a trade retain their deftness, those
who have none learn. Here and there in all A once haughty sergeant of grenadiers, now of the camps sat groups of peasant women with his galons the color of French mustard exchanging gossip, enjoying the sunlight, and and his sabots filled with straw, showed us making their native lace. At Gouda was a about. There was not a complete uniform “ Rockerfellow Saal ” with a hundred Amer- in the camp. Grenadiers, fantassins, chascan sewing-machines. The workers there seurs, all wore some distinguishing mark, but clothe the entire community.
all lacked something. There was no martial In some of the camps we were struck by a air. These were simply a few thousand poverty which excellent organization in others peasants and factory hands who found themhad managed to hide. At Nunspeet, near selves suddenly on a battlefield with guns in the Zuider Zee, were over ten thousand of their hands confronted by an overwhelming these refugees. Through necessity the camp army. Hard, continuous fighting sent them had been hastily constructed. The dormito- finally across the frontier dazed and frightened. ries, named after famous statesmen, where After such hardships they fell into a sort of families, streets, and towns had tended to lethargy. They found themselves indefinitely drift back into their old molds, were dark and in enforced idleness. There was not work overcrowded. There were few books, and for every one, and many of those for whom the children at play had to content themselves it was provided seemed to have lost all taste with the inuddy roads. The people seemed for it. despondent, and many would sit for hours They wandered about—to use the words silent and expressionless. The camera was a of one of the directors—" like so many cattle." slight distraction. Fond mothers gathered. I have seen forty of them stand about a excitedly as many of their scattered broods as pigeon-hatch watching the bird walk in and they could crowd into the picture.
out. A hundred men would idle about a Some years ago a social worker in Liège game of bowls, and as many more would sit exclaimed to me: “If only we could get the on their benches and doze. Others chafed at people out of this crowded factory environ- this idleness. They organized an orchestra, ment for a time, we could do wonders. a theatrical club, choral societies. There were They are industrious, plodding, but they lack singers from the operas of Brussels and Paris. imagination. Give us an upheaval.” His I recall a very successful production of prayer has been answered, though hardly as “Faust” at Harderwijk where the scenery, he expected.
the costumes, and even some of the instruments were “ home" made. Box seats were
five cents. Others find their only distraction “We were lying in the fort. The first in whittling. Boards disappeared from the shell put out our lighting service. The second waste-baskets, glass from the windows, to be killed the colonel and about forty of the men. deftly converted into inlaid boxes, windmills, Our guns were loosened in the cement and boats, and puppets. Soup-bones are as recould not get the range.
We were so many cherché as pearls from an oyster and are rats in a trap. We started north from Ant- rapidly converted into paper-knives and werp on a Friday. They cut us off at napkin-rings. One soldier painted a masterly Maldegem, and so here we are.”
series of pieces for the altar, and another was In one form or another this is the story of completing some interesting studies for the most of the fortress troops, and there are canteen. over thirty thousand Belgians interned in It is only recently that the problem of eduHolland. To speak of the people as apart cation has been taken seriously in hand. from the soldiers would be to emphasize a With a donation from King Albert of $2,000, non-existent distinction.
A few months ago as much from the city of Brussels, and a few a staff officer gave an illustrated lecture on paltry donations, a beginning was made. the military operations of those last days. Teachers, for the most part, were in the Jan for the first time concluded that the ambulance service, and as such were perKaiser might have had some other preoccu- mitted to return to the front.
In the camps pation than exclusively Jan's particular for- there were many volunteers. Bank clerks tress, or that it may not have been the Prus- undertook courses in elementary mathematics, sian Imperial Guard which overwhelmed his French, and English. In one class in geometry particular regiment.
there were some forty railway employees, We visited, among other of the camps, Zeist. with a former consulting engineer as their