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that his expenses are paid through the Gen- from the newspapers and puts it into the hands eral Contingent Fund.

of the producers, supplanting the honest critic An interesting portrait of Colonel House with the hired press agent who sells bis will be found in our picture section. He is opinions at so much a line. a Texan by birth and residence, a Democrat We are inclined to think, however, that the who has been active in political campaigns managers and producers will be chary about but never a candidate for office, and is a using this new-found prerogative. It will trusted personal friend of President \Vilson. hardly help a play's reputation with the public

to know that all honest criticism of it has been À BLOW AT HONEST

muzzled. After all, the people who buy seats DRAMATIC CRITICISM

are the real critics, anyway, and they will do In New York State a theatrical producer well to be more than ever cautious, now that may now exclude 'from his playhouse any newspaper criticism has been hamstrung. dramatic critic whose published opinions are When many papers are known to be under displeasing to the producer, except on the the thumb of the producers, the courage and grounds of the critic's race, creed, or color. independence of the New York “ Times” are The highest court in New York State has just inspiring. Undaunted by the technical vicdecided that a theatrical manager's theater is tory of the Shuberts, it continues its prohihis castle. We may now look for an increas- bition against the acceptance of Shubert ing scarcity of the honest dramatic critic in advertising and against the publication of a New York State—a species that had already review of any Shubert production, and Mr. become exceedingly rare there.

Woolcott is still its dramatic critic. American This decision or the Court of Appeals was newspapers do not always uphold their emdelivered in the case of Alexander Woolcott, ployees in a controversy with advertisers, dramatic critic of the New York “ Times,' even when they believe their employees to against the Shuberts, well-known producers be right, and the Times" deserves the of New York City.

congratulations of every one who believes The Shuberts banned Mr. Woolcott from in fearless, untrammeled journalism. their theaters on the ground that his criticisms of their plays were displeasing to them, THE PUBLIC CHARACTER particularly his criticism of a play called OF “PRIVATE BUSINESS" “ Taking Chances," an English version of a This decision of the Court of Appeals has German farce. The “ Times's " critic then much interest on purely legal grounds, as it secured an injunction from the Supreme accords with a noteworthy trend in the develCourt of the State which forced the Shuberts opment of law-namely, a tendency that has to admit him to their houses. But the Shu- long been evident to ignore the public aspects berts took the case into the Appellate Di- of commerce and to treat a man's business vision of the 'Supreme Court, which decided in as purely his own private affair. In delivering their favor, although evidence was introduced the decision of the Court, Judge Collin said : to prove that not all of the criticisms which " At the common law, a theater, while the Shuberts had objected to were written by affected by a public interest which justified Vr. Woolcott and that Mr. \Voolcott had on licensing under the police power or for the more than one occasion written favorable purpose of revenue, is in no sense public reviews of Shubert offerings. It was this property or a public enterprise." decision of the Appellate Division which the Not questioning that the Court's decision Court of Appeals by unanimous vote has just is in line with the most recent precedents and upheld.

with the general tendency of the law's develThus, as the law stands to-day, all theatrical opment to-day, we do raise the question as managers hold a club constantly over the to whether that development is conducive to heads of critics, for any manager may forbid the public good. It seems to us that there entrance to his theater to any reviewer whose are many dangers in promoting the individuwritings displease him. And, of course, a alistic aspects of modern business and the critic who is banned by a few managers is doctrine that the business man's principal likely to lose his job with his newspaper, for obligations are to himself. a critic who cannot gain entrance to theaters is Certainly the service of the average theater a spiked gun. Thus the decision of the Court is primarily a public service. Because the of Appeals virtually takes dramatic criticism function of a theater is to amuse or to teach,



.that function is no less public than it would "little Americans” in the Senate, the treaty be were it to transport the public or to sus- was ratified (1907). tain the public in health and life-the func- Haitian history has followed suit. Both tions of the public conveyance and the public financial and military chaos in Haiti made it inn, respectively.

necessary for our vessels to proceed to HaiIncidentally, as the New York “ Times" tian waters and to take over the real control points out, if it is perfectly legal to exclude of the country, American officers heading a persons from theaters on any grounds except native constabulary and navy paymasters in those of race, creed, or color, the manager charge of the Haitian custom-houses. Pendwho actually debarred persons because of ing the ratification of the treaty signed last those very grounds “ would be woefully lack- September by representatives of the United ing in fertility of invention if he could not States and Haitian Governments, this modus devise a reason that would serve his end continued as in the Dominican case. without incurring the risk of punishment." It While the newly ratified treaty does not would be interesting to see what the mana- differ in basic principle from that with the gers could do against a critic unfavorable to Dominican Republic, it does differ in very them if he happened to be a Negro.

important details. Among its provisions are We have not had, and are not likely to the appointment by the President of Haiti, have, in America, any censorship of the thea- upon nomination by the President of the ter by the Government. For the public the United States, of a General Receiver of most natural means of discriminating between Customs and of a Financial Adviser, the latgood and bad plays, moral and immoral, is ter to advise an adequate system of accountan independent and honest press. If this ing, to aid in increasing the revenues and means of discrimination is to be taken from adjusting them to expenses, to inquire into it, if the theaters, supported by the courts, the validity of the Government's debts, and

to accept only the responsibilities of to make recommendations. All sums colpurely “private property,” the only recourse lected by the General Receiver are to be apparently left to the public is to withdraw applied, first, to the payment of the, salaries from them patronage which it might give of the General Receiver, the Financial Adthem as “ public enterprises."

viser, and their assistants; second, to the interest and sinking fund of the Haitian pub

lic debt; third, to the maintenance of the The United States Senate has ratified the constabulary; the remainder going to the Haitian Treaty.

current expenses of the Haitian GovernThe island of Haiti is about the size of ment. That Government is not to increase New England. It is divided between two its public debt or reduce its customs duties nations. The island's eastern portion is ruled except by previous agreement with the Presiby Spanish-Negro Dominicans under the title dent of the United States ; it further obligates of the “Repúblicana Dominicana.” They itself immediately to create an efficient connumber less than a million, so it is stated, stabulary, urban and rural, composed of native though they occupy about two-thirds of the Haitians, the body to be officered by Ameriisland. The western third of the island is cans; finally, it agrees not to surrender any ruled by French-Negro Haitians under the of the territory of the Republic to any fortitle “ République d'Haïti." Though occu- eign government. pying a smaller territory than the Dominicans, Of course, the success of the financial and the Haitian people number over two millions, constabulary arrangements will largely depend according to late estimates.

upon the character of the men chosen to fill About a decade ago financial chaos among the offices; in that respect the recent unthe Dominicans caused our Government to necessary disturbances in the Dominican establish what was practically a financial pro- Republic, caused by certain unwise appointtectorate over the Dominican Republic at its ments, ought to be avoided. request. When the Roosevelt Administration

The treaty, as a whole, represents the took up the consequent Dominican Treaty, furthest extreme to which we have yet gone Congress was in recess, and pending ratifica- in the “big brother " attitude with regard to tion by that body the terms of the treaty were the small neighboring Latin-American nations. put into effect by means of a modus vivendi. It also represents the peculiar achievements After some hesitancy on the part of the of the State Department under its present


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leadership. All persons interested in the songs which relate to peasant life in Rumadevelopment of orderly government will hope nia. Queen Elizabeth was especially interthat the new arrangement may be crowned ested in familiarizing the children in the with complete success.

schools with the poetry and folk-lore of their Incidentally, the same Administration which country. Her poems early attracted attenwould protect the Haitians is proposing to tion, and in 1888 she received for a volume turn the Filipinos loose !

of prose entitled "The Thoughts of a Queen"

a prize awarded triennially by the French “CARMEN SYLVA”

Academy. Among her many books and Queen Elizabeth of Rumania, who has translations perhaps the best known, as it is cerbeen known to the world for a generation as tainly one of the most charming, is “A Real “ Carmen Sylva," and who died recently at Queen's Fairy Book.” In a letter written a Bucharest, was one of the most accomplished few years ago she expressed herself as sitting and brilliant women of her time.

She was a

at one of the windows of the castle looking Princess of Wied, and her childhood in a out into an ocean of green which the wooded little German Court was enlivened by her early hill spread out before her, and as finding her interests in art and literature. King Charles, greatest joy in the solitude and silence of the to whom she was married in 1869, was a very early morning. Pierre Loti, who made

. thoroughly trained and high-minded man of her acquaintance later, has described the the Hohenzollern type; it was believed by quiet, interesting room in the castle which some, however, that the sympathies of the she reserved for her own work and study. Queen, who was of the more cosmopolitan He has also described her at her work-table Rhine Valley type, were anti-Prussian in the in Venice writing poems, novels, and dramas Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1. During with almost feverish intensity; and in a few the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8, in which words he has admirably summed up the qualthe King, then Prince Charles, made a mili- ity of her work. “This work was of unequal tary reputation, the Queen devoted herself to merit; some was of sublime grandeur ; some the care of the wounded. A portrait of “ Car- again incomplete, thrust aside, as it were, by men Sylva” appears elsewhere in this issue. the budding germ of the work following. She

In 1881 Rumania became a kingdom, and did not take sufficient pains with her writPrince Charles and his wife were crowned ings, it being the Queen's opinion that in the sovereigns. The Queen was already widely matter of literature everything ought to be known, not only for her interest in art, her spontaneous.” generous encouragement of artists of all A courteous and beautiful woman of many kinds, and her own writings in prose and accomplishments and many sorrows, Queen verse, but for her tireless devotion to works Elizabeth was a sovereign who was devoted of charity, and because of her great interest to the most generous aims and especially to the in education in Rumania and in the social betterment and upbuilding of her people. She betterment of women. Ten years ago she will long be remembered as the greatest benecontributed to The Outlook an article on her factor the blind have ever had in Rumania. work among the blind.

The King built for her a very interesting THE CLERGY AND castle in a striking situation in the Carpathian Mountains ; and here, as in the capital, she A clergyman would not be true to his great was a generous and enthusiastic friend of calling unless he persistently and couraartists of all kinds. Her own accomplish- geously protested against the wickedness, ments were many. She was a delightful horrors, and human suffering that are ineviorganist and pianist; she had a fine voice, tably associated with war. More than any which was thoroughly trained; her skill as a other man he ought also to protest against a painter and illuminator were unusual; and war which is waged from motives of greed, she was a prolific writer of romantic temper aggrandizement, or a desire to enslave others and poetic spirit. She was especially inter.

for self-enrichment. It is not surprising, ested in the literature of her country and in therefore, to find some of the best clergymen bringing it to the knowledge of the people. in the United States enrolling themselves Rumania was still in the lyric stage, and one against a policy of preparedness on the of her maids of honor, Hélène Vacaresco, ground that it is militarism. made an extensive collection of the popular How much of the acrimony and discussion


of the day comes because men of like feel- of the Lafayette Fund, which was founded ings and desires for their country and hu- about a year ago by a number of Amermanity cannot agree on definitions ! The icans who wanted to repay France a fraction men who are most interested in preserving of the debt we owe her for her help to us in peace call preparedness Prussian militarism; our War of Independence, by relieving the the men who are most interested in opposing hardships of soldiers in the trenches who are injustice and international brigandage call fighting France's war of self-preservation topacifism a selfish fear of suffering. This day. The bulk of the exhibition consisted controversy between two camps of good of the famous Lafayette relics owned by the men cannot be settled by vituperation or the French Government and recently exhibited use of epithets. But something can be done at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, a collecif each side will try honestly to understand tion of Franklin relics relating to the Francothe other side's point of view.

American Revolutionary period, and a loan For this reason we print the following ex- collection of Americana having to do with tract from a letter just received in the ordi- the Lafayette epoch, gathered from assonary course of business. It is from a clergy- ciations and private collectors here and man who believes both in peace and in war. there. He is now a lieutenant in a Canadian regi- Among the many interesting items shown ment.

were Lafayette's sword, cartridge-box, hat, "I have been,” he says, “a regular reader of and other personal effects, an original field The Outlook for a number of years, although map of the Battle of Monmouth made by not always a subscriber. I expect to go to the Lafayette's aide-de-camp for Lafayette's perfront in Europe in the near future, and so want sonal use, intimate correspondence between to subscribe to The Outlook.

Lafayette and Fanny Wright, autograph let“For six years I was a Presbyterian minister

ters of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, (although a Canadian) in the Presbyterian Church of the United States. When the cause

busts of Washington and Franklin, a white of liberty and the ideals of democracy were at

silk flag used in the American Revolution, stake, I could not withstand the call '—not so and a letter from Lafayette to Baron von much of my country as of civilization--any Steuben describing the military situation longer.

around Petersburg and Richmond during the “I resigned my charge and came to Nova The portrait of Lafayette by Samuel Scotia, my boyhood home. It seems strange, F. B. Morse, which usually hangs in the City but true nevertheless, that to-day I am a happy

Hall of New York, attracted much attenman. I hate war and know something about

tion. It was painted in 1824, near the end it-I served through the South African War and saw its results—but there are things worse

of Lafayette's life, and is noteworthy. not than war.

only for the excellence of the workmanship, “I am going, as I find many of my comrades

but because it brings out strikingly the faller going, not because we hate the German people, face and heavier forehead that marked but because we believe that Prussian militarism Lafayette's aspect during his later years. would be an intolerable system for the world to There were also exhibited for sale paintlive under."

ings by some of the best modern French This clergyman hates war, and yet he is artists. The proceeds of the sale of these happy to make war as a soldier in the greatest works of art were given by the artists to the war of history. Is this a psychological and Lafayette Fund. The money raised by the moral paradox? We think not. Every man sale of small drawings and sketches done by who really grasps the meaning of the words artists wounded in the war went to the makrighteousness, justice, and peace, and their ers, however, as did the funds secured from true relations, will understand the state of the sale of laces and dresses made by the mind of this Canadian clergyman.

wives of poor French soldiers.




To those who love France and to those who love America the recent Lafayette exbi. bition in New York City made a strong appeal, and particularly to those who love both France and America.

The exhibition was held under the auspices

The floods in Holland prove to be the worst since 1825. Though the loss in human life has been comparatively small, the destruction of property is enormous. Cattle and sheep have been drowned in great numbers. Houses have collapsed. Worst of all, the land lies submerged under salt water, and that universities of this hemisphere, a profitable means that a long time must elapse before endeavor for them lies in a system of exit can be drained dry and many years before change professorships. it will regain its former fertility.


In the development of that idea Harvard The floods are caused by phenomenal tides. University has established a chair of LatinThese burst the dikes in the province of American History and Economics, and its North Holland. The well-known island of first incumbent is to be the very Señor Marken, in the Zuider Zee, is under water, Quesada who spoke at the Pan-American though no loss of life is reported. The Congress. hardly less well known towns of Volendam Ernesto Quesada is Professor of Sociology that artist's paradise—and Monnikendam and Economics at the University of Buenos are also under water. Edam, the cheese Aires, and also Professor of Political Economy emporium, seems fairly safe. But at Broeck, at the University of La Plata. But he is really only a short distance from Amsterdam, the better known as a Judge of the Federal Appelflood has poured in with terrific force and the late Court at Buenos Aires. He is a descendant inhabitants have proceeded in boats to other of one of the most prominent families in the towns and villages.

history of the Argentine Republic. His Fearful as is the visitation, the Dutch Gov- father, Vincente Quesada, was a great statesernment, with the sturdy self-respect charac- man and author. The son has already added teristic of the people, has taken prompt much to the family fame. His writings deal measures of relief and has actually requested with economics and constitutional problems, its agents and friends abroad not to open and he has paid much attention to comparifunds for the victims of the inundation ! sons between the conditions in his own and

This latest flood will of course deepen in other countries. In addition to books on interest in the great project to which The his own specialties, he has also won distincOutlook has formerly referred—that of re- tion by his volumes on Goethe and Disraeli. claiming most of the Zuider Zee.

The con

His works are published in Spanish, English, struction of an immense dike across the French, and German. His Harvard duties mouth of this sea, separating it from the are to cover the first half of the college year ocean, would ultimately turn the now inland 1916–17. He will give two courses. One of sea into a fresh-water lake, as it is fed by the these will deal with Latin-American history river Ijssel, one of the Rhine mouths—and and economics, with special reference to fresh water is greatly needed in Holland. Argentina. The other course, somewhat The Dutch propose to reclaim about three- more advanced than the first, will be on quarters of the Zuider Zee, expecting that tain constitutional and economic problems of in the seventeenth year after the building of Argentina. the embankment portions of the reclaimed Harvard, having already distinguished herarea will be fit for habitation and cultivation. self by such recent foreign additions to her They anticipate that the area will support a professorial staff as Professors Anesaki and population of about two hundred and fifty Hattori, of Japan, and Maurice de Wulf and thousand.

Léon Dupriez, of Belgium, now adds to her

distinction by including in her staff this emiTHE HARVARD


In inducing a good understanding be- THE COMPARATIVE LAW SCHOOL tween North and South America it has long AT SHANGHAI, CHINA been felt that we need to this end not only In the fall of 1915 there occurred an event diplomatic, political, and commercial, but also of great potential signisicance to China. This educational agents. Addressing the mem- was the opening on September 4 of “ The bers of the recent Pan-American Congress Comparative Law School of Saochow Uniin this country, Dr. Ernesto Quesada, of versity” at Shanghai, China.

The story of Buenos Aires, asserted that Pan-American- its origin is interesting. ism should be established through intellectual Professor Charles W. Rankin, who had the interchanges rather than through political chair of Political Science at Saochow Univerrelations.

sity, an institution under the control of the As no agency is better adapted to the Board of Foreign Missions of the Southern accomplishment of this purpose than the Methodist Church, was, upon his own re



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