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after noon on March 15 marched south across the border from Columbus, a week later was perhaps a hundred and fifty miles almost directly south of the point of entrance. After occupying the town of Casas Grandes, where there is a large American Mormon colony, for the safety of which fears had been entertained, our forces, hitherto advancing in two columns, were divided into three divisions, which advanced severally upon three towns—Carmen, El Valle, and Babricora—situated nearly, but not quite, on a line running east and west, with a distance of perhaps twenty-five miles between each two places.

This disposition of our forces was evidently to prevent Villa from making a rapid turn around army and escaping to the northward into the mountains. Meanwhile Carranza's troops were advancing from the south, and on March 21 it was reported that Villa's bandits, thus barred from movement northward and southward, had been forced into an engagement with Carranza's force at, or near, the town of Namiquiba. The exact result of this engagement is not known in detail as we write, but it is believed that Villa was repulsed, and it is probable that he escaped by turning to the westward and taking refuge in the Sierra Madre Mountains, every pass and hill of which is to him familiar ground. This is exactly what was to be expected from the first. The Sierra Madre Mountains run in a nearly north-andsouth direction along a line from New Mexico to far south of Namiquiba. The trapping and capture of Villa in the mountains (or on the Sonora side of them in a region where there are no railways and few highways) present serious and increasing difficulties.

Meanwhile, General Funston, who is in command of the entire situation on the border, has telegraphed from San Antonio, Texas, to the War Department asking for reinforcements—how many is not known ; but he is reported to have used the words, "a fairly large force.In response, a regiment of cavalry, the squadrons of which were widely scattered in different parts of the country, has been ordered to concentrate and to come under General Funston's command. Other bodies of regulars are expected to follow, and meanwhile recruiting is going on rapidly under the recent action of Congress to fill the present army organization up to its limit. That a short and quick rush into

Mexico and the resulting capture of Villa are feasible seems daily less reasonable.

So far, everything seems to indicate that there is at least outward harmony between the United States and the Carranza Government in regard to the entrance of our troops into Mexico and the campaign against Villa. A joint protocol is, as we write, under negotiation between Mexico and the United States which will arrange details of the conduct of both parties. One important request by our Government included in this protocol is for the use of the railway which runs from Juarez to the country in which our troops are operating, for the carrying, not of troops, but of supplies and munitions. This is almost a necessity for our troops, especially as they get farther

away from their base; and there should be no reluctance on the part of Carranza to grant it. At present an elaborate system of motortruck conveyance is in use for supply purposes ; but as our troops go farther and as reinforcements are sent railway supply service is essential.

Another point to be adjusted in this protocol is the question of the occupation of towns by our troops. It is understood that this is to be avoided unless necessary, and it is hoped that a plan can be devised which will not cause friction between Americans and Mexicans. Our principal base of supplies is now at Columbus, and from that town are being forwarded, so correspondents write, enormous quantities of ammunition by a steady stream of automobiles, motor trucks, and wagons.

This method of conveyance will give way to mule and burro trains as our troops reach the mountain regions. There have been many rumors of attack

Americans by Mexican sympathizers with Villa, but there is no evidence of any large movements of this kind. The antiAmerican feeling seems to be strongest in the neighborhood of Tampico, whence it was reported on March 21 that the immensely valuable oil-fields near that town were in the hands of Villistas.

On March 23 the War Department announced that General Herrera, ex-Governor of Chihuahua, and formerly a Villa supporter, has revolted from Carranza and has joined Villa in war against the United States; there are also rumors that the garrison at Juarez (2,000 men) are in revolt against Carranza. Of course any large desertion of men from Carranza to Villa would constitute a menace to the American line of




communications, and therefore a peril to the representative. It also provides that those American troops.

who have expatriated themselves may repatriate themselves by obtaining permission

through the same procedure. DUAL ALLEGIANCE

The neighborliness of this action may be Good will on the part of Japan toward the made clear, perhaps, by stating it in terms of, United States is strongly indicated by the for example, France and the United States. passage of a law through the Japanese Diet A child born of American parents in France which will enable people of Japanese par- is by French law a Frenchman and by entage born in America to become released American law an American. Similarly, a from allegiance to Japan. An account of this child born of French parents in the United measure is given in the “ Japanese-American States is by French law a Frenchman, but by Commercial Weekly" for March 11, and it American law is an American citizen and is from that paper, published in New York, eligible for the Presidency of the United that we get the information which we here States. In each case, therefore, of the summarize. According to that weekly, this American baby born in France and of the measure is an amendment to the existing law French baby born in America there is the of nationality, and will become effective when claim of double allegiance. Both countries it is sanctioned by Imperial ordinance. In claim both children. The neighborly thing brief, it may be said to yield to the sover- to do, of course, is for each country of its eignty of America natives of America who own volition to provide a way by which the up to this time have been claimed as subjects child born in the foreign country may beof Japan, just as other natives of America come, if he remains there, a citizen of are claimed as subjects or citizens of other that country without any obligation toward nations. It provides a method for doing the country of his parents. Germany has away, so far as Japan and the United States not only failed to do that, but has encourare concerned, with a large part, if not all, of aged double allegiance in those who do not the evil known as “ dual allegiance.”

even have the excuse of being born in a forJapan's reported action is in strong con- eign country, but emigrate to it; while Japan trast with that of Germany. Not only does discourages by its new measure this double Germany claim as a German subject, the child allegiance of those who are born of Japanese of German subjects, wherever he may be born, subjects. Japan's action, if it is correctly but, by a law which was passed in July, 1913, reported, is distinctly that of a good neighbor. it legally encourages Germans who go into other parts of the world to retain allegiance THE HAY ARMY BILL to Germany while going through the form of By the middle of last week the House offering their allegiance to another nation. Army Bill (called the Hay Bill, from the name Such people are, of course, the real and con- of the Chairman of the Committee on Miliscious and deliberate " hyphenates.” These tary Affairs) was well on its way toward pasare the people who not only willingly but sage through the House of Representatives. purposely undertake to serve two masters. The original details of this bill are of no pub

This is the German way of dealing with this lic interest except as some of them are perquestion of dual allegiance. The Japanese nicious. One good feature, for years opposed way is exactly the opposite. Japan already by Mr. Hay, has been added to the bill by by law provides that when a Japanese sub- a provision for a short term service with ject becomes naturalized in a foreign country the colors, thus increasing the number he may become expatriated. Now Japan by of trained soldiers available for the this new measure, which will, it is expected, soon become law, provides, further, that the There are, however, only three matters of child who is born of Japanese parents in a prime importance on which the attention of the foreign country and remaining permanently public should be, or very well can be, directed there may have his repudiation of allegiance with reference to the reorganization of our milito Japan formally recognized by the Japanese tary establishment: first, the enlargement of Government by obtaining the permission of the regular army to a size sufficient to enable the Minister of the Interior.

This law pro

it to meet emergencies ; second, the instituvides that this may be done with children tion of a system of universal military training under fifteen years of age through a legal and service ; third, the establishment of a

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Council of National Defense. None of these President Lowell should have taken this part things is done or even undertaken by the Hay in the “ Brandeis controversy ”. has aroused BiH. The provision for the regular army is a good deal of interest throughout the counabsurdly inadequate. It does not meet the try, and has excited a lively discussion among needs as set forth by military experts. It is Harvard alumni-a discussion of such moment a makeshift. The total number which it that a recent issue of the “ Harvard Alumni would ultimately add to the force of the Bulletin ” contains both an editorial on the regular army equals the estimated average episode and a letter from President Lowell number of German casualties for less than explaining his position. nine days.

The “ Bulletin's ” editorial points out that The worst part of the Hay Bill, however, Mr. Brandeis has had a very unusual and is not in its failure to provide for the Nation prominent relation with Harvard University, needed means of defense, but in the positive of which he is a graduate in the Department harm that it will do to National defense if its of Law, and from which he received the honprovisions are adopted. By providing pay- orary degree of Master of Arts at the hands ment for the men, and especially the officers, of President Eliot. He has received an honof the State militia organizations it proposes orary election to membership in the Harvard to do two wrongs to the country. First, it Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, has been secrehelps to fasten upon the country more tary of the Harvard Law School Alumni securely than ever a military system which Association, and has been for many years a has always failed and always must fail, and member of the Committee officially appointed thus will give new sanction and power and by the Board of Overseers to inspect the political prestige to forty-eight little armies Law School. " Few members of his prowhich cannot, by their very nature, be unified fession,” says the “Bulletin,” “have reinto one effective National force.

ceived more signal recognition from the the second place, it does this by buying University." patriotism. The men whom this bill pro- The “ Bulletin” goes on to say that it poses to pay are not professional soldiers, regards President Lowell's protest against but are supposed to be civilians trained for the nomination of Mr. Brandeis as a mistake military duty. Such civilians should (and of judgment. But it adds: most of them do) count their military duty as It is far better for the President of Harvard a part of their civic obligation. Instead of


sometimes to make a mistake than always to that, this bill approaches it as if it were a stand aloof and refrain from using his entire commodity. It places National defense on influence in public matters of vital import. The the basis of a commercial contract.

freedom of speech and action which have acted, the bill would commit the country to

always belonged to the Harvard Faculty should

pre-eminently be his also. a repudiation of the essence of democratic principles in National defense.

With this sentiment The Outlook heartily It would be better to have no army bill concurs, as it does also in the general principassed at all than to have the Congress of ples laid down by President Lowell in his the United States adopt such a bill as that letter to the “ Bulletin.” He says rightly proposed by Mr. Hay and his Committee. that “the University as such can have

no opinion on public questions, but each MR. BRANDEIS, HARVARD, AND

and every member is free to state his perACADEMIC FREEDOM

sonal views according to his conscience.” Our readers know by this time that we He admits that when the president of a hope that the nomination of Mr. Louis D. university speaks there is danger that a Brandeis as a Justice of the Supreme Court popular impression shall be created that he of the United States will be confirmed by the speaks for the university as a whole. Against Senate. They also know that this hope is this popular error he protests : " From that not shared by some citizens of National dis- freedom”—that is to say, the freedom of a tinction. For example, a group of Boston university teacher to state his personal views lawyers signed and sent to the Senate Com- according to his conscience/" the president mittee which is considering the appointment ought not, I think, to be wholly cut off.” a remonstrance. Among those who signed And President Lowell concludes : this Boston protest was President A. Law- He may be mistaken. He may unconsciously rence Lowell, of Harvard University. That be prejudiced, or he may be opposing prejudice.

If en


He may differ in opinion from many people the Tammany leader, and Roger Sullivan, of whose judgment he respects. His views may Illinois, Thomas Taggart was conspicuous be unpopular; but it is not only opinions which

in the Baltimore Convention in 1912. These are popular that it is right to express.

three men, outwardly representing the oppoWe have seen no better statement than site type of politician to that of Woodrow that which the “ Harvard Bulletin " and Wilson, skillfully managed to make it evident President Lowell make of the true principle that the Wilson nomination depended upon of academic freedom in a democracy. While their support; they proved that they held the we do not share President Lowell's views balance of power in that Convention, and that regarding Mr. Brandeis, we are very glad that they thus were entitled to the spoils of the he made his protest to the Senate, if for no party, whoever was nominated. other reason than because it has given occa- When, in the fall following that Convention, sion for a fine and broad example of aca- the Democratic party was successful, The demic freedom, upon a clear and convincing Outlook pointed out that the election meant statement of the principles which underlie that the strengthening of the power of the bosses. freedom.

The course of events since then has verified

that statement. The nomination of Mr. SENATOR TAGGART,

Taggart to the Senate is but one illustration OF INDIANA

of the hold which machine oligarchy has Thomas Taggart, for many years head of upon the party. the Democratic machine in Indiana, has been Whenever the people of Indiana, want a appointed United States Senator by Governor

different kind of Senator to represent their Ralston. The occasion of his appointment State they can have their way. The responwas the occurrence of a vacancy through the sibility rests upon them. It is, in the last death of Senator Shively. When such a analysis, the people of that State who must vacancy occurs, the Governor has authority to decide whether they want as their representafill the vacancy by appointment—the ap- tive a man of the type of Oliver Perry Morton, pointee to hold office until his successor can Indiana's great war Governor, or a man of be elected.

the type of Thomas Taggart. Few men have been so powerful in the Democratic party as Taggart.

He is a mem- LIQUOR LEGISLATION ber of the Democratic National Committee, and as Chairman of that Committee in 1904 We had not supposed that a measure of managed the Parker campaign. He has any kind could be so drawn that it would almost invariably had his way in directing appeal equally to suffragists and anti-sufparty affairs in his State, and has been suc- fragists and to all shades and degrees of cessful in the party's National counsels. His temperance advocates. Apparently, however, methods have been those of the genial hand- this has been accomplished by the Antishaker. If he has any convictions on great Saloon League in New York State. ReNational questions, they are not generally cently The Outlook. reported and known. He has been three times Mayor mended the excellent Optional Prohibition of Indianapolis ; but, aside from that and Referendum Bill which that organization had from holding the office of auditor in Marion introduced in the New York State Assembly. County for two terms, he has wielded his With the thought that perhaps this bill might power not as a public official but as a party be killed and thus delay all temperance legismanager.

His name has been in the news- lation for another year, the Anti-Saloon League papers in connection with his headship of has now introduced in the New York State the company which conducts the French Senate an Optional Prohibition Remonstrance Lick Springs Hotel and resort, and with Bill identical in all respects with the Optional the indictment which was brought against Prohibition Referendum Bill, except that it him, and later dropped for lack of evi- gives the women of the State a voice in the dence, in connection with the alleged In- control of the liquor question. And it does dianapolis election frauds. With all due so without raising the question of a Constituallowance for the bitterness of politics in tional amendment, by providing for a remonIndiana, there can be no doubt that Taggart strance petition instead of a vote at an election. has represented a discreditable type of politics. The new bill provides for the registration

With Charles F. Murphy, of New York, (by the regular registry officials, but not on




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