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the days on which men are registered) as liquor and willingly faced a jury, has been dismissed. remonstrants of all women who in the matter The dismissal occurred under circumstances of age, citizenship, and residence comply with which make it even more of a vindication than the requirements prescribed for male electors. acquittal would have been. The charge was, in

The measure provides that upon the filing substance, that Mr. Osborne, in order to conwith the proper court of a remonstrance ceal the fact of immorality in Sing Sing Prison, petition, signed by not less than fifty-one per perjured himself in making false statements to cent of the registered electors and registered a member of the Prison Commission. After liquor remonstrants combined, the court shall the Commissioner in question, Dr. Diedling, fix a day for hearing objections to the re- had given his testimony, the Judge ruled that monstrance and the signatures ; and if the this Commissioner had no legal right to make court shall find the petition valid, the political an investigation or to demand answers to his division covered by the remonstrance shall, inquiries, and that, moreover, Mr. Osborne's with the expiration of the license year, become “refusal to answer and his evasive replies prohibition territory for two years and there- were to make good the promise he had after until reversed by a petition of similar made to the men that, since they had form.

confessed and had been punished," he This ingenious proposition for a remon- would go to jail sooner than betray their strance petition really may be said to have had confidences.” On the stand Dr. Diedling, itsgerm in the present liquor law, a law which, who has been persistently inimical to Mr. to put it mildly, can hardly be said to be Osborne, discredited himself as a witness, drawn in the interests of temperance reform. For example, in answer to the question as to The present excise law provides that when whether he was discharged from the service the nearest entrance to a saloon lies within of a life insurance company for his part in a three hundred feet of the entrance to any plot to fleece insurance companies, Dr. Diedbuilding occupied exclusively as a dwelling, ling only replied: "I don't know. there must be filed with the application up

all
my

life insurance.” He testified also for the license a written consent executed by that he had indorsed an alleged violet-ray the owners of at least two-thirds of the total machine for curing rheumatism, on the number of buildings within the prescribed ground that "it eliminates the harshness of distance which are occupied as dwellings. treatment found in others,” before he had

From this consent proviso women property- tried it himself on a single patient. Dr. Diedowners are, of course, not excluded.

If they ling's testimony aroused laughter in the courtcan give the consent for the creation of a

Judge Tompkins, in dismissing the saloon, why can they not give an inverted indictment, made emphatic his statement that consent for its abolition ? The provisions of the dismissal was not on a technicality. this new bill in regard to separate registration - To make out the crime of perjury,” said days and the filing of a petition which elimi- Judge Tompkins, “it must appear that false nates the necessity of attendance at the poll- testimony was knowingly and willfully given ing-booth give to anti-suffragists an oppor- by the defendant, under oath, concerning tunity to express their opinion upon a subject material matter under investigation in a judiwhich most of them would doubtless choose cial or other proceeding authorized by law. as the one public question upon which they Two of these elements are lacking in this would most like to be heard.

case. The jury would not be justified in findThis bill ought to have behind it the full ing a willful intent or purpose on the part of force of the temperance sentiment of the the defendant. There is no proof here that State. The Outlook would like tɔ see the Dr. Diedling was authorized by law to conbill tried out in practice.

duct this investigation or administer an oath."

This first case, therefore, against Mr. OsBETTER THAN ACQUITTAL

borne ends with the chief witness discredited Thomas Mott Osborne, the public-spirited and the whole case thrown out of court, as Warden of Sing Sing, who has been haled not having enough substance of law or fact into court by those who for one reason or in it for submission to the verdict of a jury. another wished to discreait his efforts for The cause of prison reform for which Mr. prison reform, has made gr progress Osborne has stood ought not to be bound up toward vindication. The charge of perjury in his personal fortunes ; but there is no against him, on which he was brought to trial doubt whatever that a personal triumph

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similar to this in the other cases that may be clared to be anything from the First to the brought against him will remove one of the Seventh Wilhelm, while the capital of Servia greatest obstacles which the enemies of prison was given as Budapest as often as Belgrade. reform have attempted to put in its way. The Lack of interest in current events is a sad sacrifice which Mr. Osborne has been re- commentary on the mental processes of stuquired to make in holding to his convictions dents of history, but it may well be that the and in keeping his faith with men who have blame lies not so much with them as with trusted him will, we hope, impress upon the their teachers. So long as history is taught people of the State the seriousness of the a sort of monkish tale, stripped of all prison problem, the strength of the forces relation to modern life, it remains an exotic opposed to progress, and the vital importance growth, a cultural ornament to all but the of putting our whole prison system on a new, collector of culture. That is why the techa wiser, and a more humane basis.

nical and industrial colleges cut it to a mini

mum in their curricula. They would scoff THE CLASS IN HISTORY

at the term “laboratory method ” of teaching Should college students be able to name

history which is now coming to the front in the Sultan of Turkey, the capital of Servia,

our largest universities. This “laboratory and the location of Gallipoli ? Should they

method can best be explained by some condistinguish the portfolio of Sir Edward Grey crete example such as the Irish Home Rule from that of Lloyd George, and should they

Bill. Students are asked to describe the bill be able to give the Kaiser's title correctly ? as it was reported in the current news, then Since the first of the year these and sim

by individual research and reading to show ilar doubts have disturbed the academic the causes and economic conditions which inertia of history students and teachers in led to its introduction, its many defeats, and many a college class-room. At New York its final victory. University and Bowdoin College the pro

The test to which students of the different fessors of history have put to their students a universities were put was hardly fair. It was series of test questions designed to reveal drawn on mistaken lines, with a view to familiarity with current events. They wished ensnare rather than inform. Granted that to discover how well their classes read the many of the answers showed lamentable daily news in its relation to the great war. ignorance of current events, they evidenced The boys responded with an average grade neither for nor against acquaintance with the of barely fifty-eight per cent. Later sixteen causes which led to the present conflict. No of the members of the Civics Club at Rad- one cares and few can tell who is the present cliffe undertook the experiment, and funked

Sultan of Turkey, but to answer such a quesso seriously that a course in intensive study tion as why the Allies diplomacy failed at of current events has been considered for the Constantinople would reveal familiarity with college curriculum.

such antecedent history as the Crimean War. Aroused by these discoveries, Barnard It would require a knowledge of economic College at Columbia awoke to its oppor- and industrial conditions to explain the main tunity, Thirty-two young women who made causes, apart from the immediate incident, up a class in general European history

of the friction between Servia and Hungary. met the questionnaire in battle and came These two countries have always been ecoforth victorious with a gallant average of nomic antagonists. But such a point would seventy-five per cent.

probably never occur to the average student of Even at that some of the answers were history unless he were encouraged to discover remarkable. One young woman described the relation of modern life to past events. Gallipoli as being “on the peninsula where Turkey is ;" two could not recall the name WAR AND THE LABOR MARKET of the Prime Minister of England; another Has your household servant suddenly wrote down the President of France as given notice that she prefers packing car

Point-caret ;" few could correctly bound tridges to wiping dishes because it is more Servia ; Alfonso was respectively the King profitable and the hours are shorter? This of Italy and of Greece. At Radcliffe only has been the experience of some American two out of sixteen knew who Secretary Lan- housewives. The war has upset the Amerising was, and they were all at sea over Sir can labor market. Ian Hamilton. The Kaiser's title was de- The shortage of labor of certain kinds is

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MEXICO-OUR DUTY chinists who can perform the refined type of operations called for in connection with cer- For three years we have been drifting into tain details in shell-making are bid for as if more and more serious trouble in Mexico. they were shares in a gushing oil well or a What has occurred and what is occurring newly discovered Eldorado. Many manu- to-day is what any one with his eyes open to facturers of non-military articles have lost the facts could have foreseen, what many did many of their best men to the manufacturers foresee. Nothing is a surer invitation to of war munitions who can afford to pay a disaster than the shirking of respor sibility. very high price for labor.

One prominent Nothing brings trouble more certainly than manufacturer told a representative of The an attempt at all costs to avoid it. American Outlook that he had discovered that some of forces, for the second time during the term of his machinists were under contract to a war this Administration, are in Mexico. It is of munitions company to go to work as soon as the utmost importance that our people should the plant was ready. They were receiving try to think clearly about the situation, and the difference between the wages they were to define for themselves the Nation's ultimate being paid and five dollars a day, the amount purpose. they were to receive from the munitions In order to further this end, we here state company when the work began.

what it seems to us the Nation's purpose Mr. C. L. Green, Chief Inspector of the ought to be. Federal Bureau of Information, which regu- Our operations in Mexico should not be in lates the distribution of certain kinds of labor, the nature of war upon the Mexican nation said to The Outlook's representative, “ Any or the Mexican people. We have no quarrel man who has had sufficient training as with Mexico as a nation. Our quarrel is with machinist to read a blue print and use a the spirit of anarchy and misrule which has micrometer can get fifty cents an hour even been dominant there, and with which we, as if under normal conditions he is worth only a people, can never be at peace. Lincoln's twenty-five cents.”

statement that a nation cannot survive half The unskilled labor required in subway slave and half free states a principle that is construction and other types of rough, heavy applicable here. Democracy cannot survive work is also at a premium. Some contractors in territory which is half orderly and half are hesitating to bid on new work owing to anarchic. Anarchy is a contagious disease the uncertainty of the labor supply. At the from which we must protect our people as office of the Interborough Rapid Transit well as those of other nationalities for whom Company, for instance, a representative of we are responsible. The Outlook learned that wages for this Our operations in Mexico ought not to be type of labor had risen in the course of the what they have been called—a mere punilast few months from $1.60 to $2 a day. tive expedition.” It was a futile and wrong

After the war will labor be fully employed ? thing for the United States to engage in war If not, will it be satisfied with lower wages, against the man Huerta. It would be equally longer hours ? Immigration is an important futile and wrong for us as a Nation to engage factor that must not be overlooked. \Vith in war against another man—Villa. The the possible exception of one year, immigra- death of Huerta did not end the Mexican tion has not been so low within three-quarters problem. The capture of Villa would not of a century as during 1915. There is a end it. possibility that the demand for labor to recon- Our operations ought to be carried on with struct war-damaged Europe will put wages a view to ultimate police occupation in behalf so high that there will be an exodus of work- of order. They ought not to deal with sympers from this country. But there seems to be toms, but with causes. We have put our an even more likely possibility that the peo- hand to this task; and we ought now to see ples of Europe who have most suffered from that it is a task worthy of the Nation that the war, like the Serbs and the Russian undertakes it. It is a task like that which Jews, will stampede to America.

No one

called us into Cuba and into the Philippines. can prophesy with any certainty what will It is a task for laying the foundations on happen. But now, while we have little im. which something like civilization and selfmigration, is a good time to get ready for all government can be built. eventualities.

This task is one for the professional soldier,

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not for the volunteer. For the repelling of HOW NOT TO READ invasion or for general military operations

SHAKESPEARE volunteers, when trained, have proved and can prove useful; but police work requires It has been observed that the ancients had businesslike attention to detail, and for this at least one advantage which we moderns do we should depend upon the regular soldier,

not possess.

Their gods were generally who approaches his task in a matter-of- human and companionable souls. It is quite fact way, as the policeman and the fireman otherwise with us, for we even deny the attend to their duties.

qualities of human kind to our own fleshFor such a task the process must neces

and-blood divinities. We turn them either sarily be slow. If the task is undertaken into angels or devils—stupid angels or mewisely and deliberately, as well as firmly, a chanical devils. It may be that “single men small force can be efficient. The method to in barricks don't grow into plaster saints ;" be adopted in that case will have to be a but plaster is at least a very important elegradual, firm occupation of strategic points, ment in whatever

of fame we with the determination to win the approval accord to the saints of history and literature. and the welcome of the people at those points. Probably Washington has furnished the At present a large proportion of Mexicans are best illustration of the art of petrifaction in willing to give to such a man as Villa aid and American history. And Shakespeare has comfort, partly because they have no protec- furnished a no less striking example in the tion against him if they deny him his de- world of literature. Between the deadly mands, and partly because they regard him comments on Washington by the Rev. Mr. as a sort of Robin Hood. The mere capture Weems and the equally deadly comments of of Villa will not prevent another bandit from the average Herr Doktor upon the works of taking his place, and will, if not supplemented Shakespeare there is not much to choose. by other action, be likely rather to enhance It is no fault of Shakespeare that he has Villa's reputation as a Robin Hood. What become a "classic" and a perilously forbidding the people of Mexico need, first of all, is

pro- tradition. If there was ever another poet who tection against brigandage, and, second, such wrote more like a human being and less like beneficent protection by orderly processes as

the stuff of which pedantic theses are made, to enable them to see, through their own ex- he has successfully concealed himself in that perience, that the real friend of the peon and choir of mute inglorious Miltons which slumthe poor is not a brigand hero like Villa, but bers so soundly in the graveyards of the world. an orderly government.

Too often the average child is led to To this end it is essential that this policing Shakespeare with the injunction that he is be done as far as possible by Mexicans them- being brought into the presence of the inner selves, and that the army of the United shrine of Art, and the text of Shakespeare's States should be used for direct policing only plays is laid before him as the ritual of a new as may be unavoidable—chiefly for the train- and mysterious religion. As a special coning and direction of a Mexican constabulary. cession to human frailty, with bated breath

This is the task that lies before our coun- he may be told of that deer-stealing episode in try. If the present Administration has finally the park of Sir Thomas Lucy, or the fact that determined not to undertake this task now, Shakespeare once held horses for his betters it will simply have on its records another outside a London theater. He is lucky indeed Vera Cruz expedition, and some other Ad- if this information is not coupled with moral ministration will have to undertake the task precepts concerning the iniquity of theft and . which this one would avoid.

pious advice about admirable young men who are not too proud to begin at the bottom and

work their way up in their chosen professions. THE LUSITANIA

When our average child has grown a little On May 7, which is a Sunday this year, older, if he persists in his education, he may will occur the anniversary of the sinking of make the acquaintance of a host of comthe Lusitania. That day ought not to go by mentators on Shakespeare, from whom he without a Nation-wide observance: to serve, learns a long list of carefully credited disfirst, as a memorial to those whose lives were coveries concerning the sources, disputed and sacrificed ; and, second, as a reminder of our otherwise, of Shakespeare's plays. He is National duty.

told at length of readings over which the

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