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of its most enthusiastic advocates. Repre- delegate here is a prominent man.' The sentatives of twenty-two different nations number of delegates had been carefully and more than fifty different denominational limited, so that there were included only and interdenominational movements, Latin- the leaders of the more than fifty different Americans, North Americans, and Euro- organizations who had been invited to send peans, discussed together in the frankest representatives. Bishops there were everyway for ten days every angle of these prob- where, and so wisely and sympathetically did lems and adjourned with one mind, resolved they enter into the gathering that they seemed to work with a common programme for the to be, as one delegate said, “just folks." development of the spiritual life of these Presidents and professors of educational young, growing nations.
institutions, Government officials, officers of Panama proved to be the place of all places mission boards, heads of great business confor such a gathering. The crossroads of cerns, authors of notable books, missionaries the nations where men and products of all of nation-wide influence, justices, and enpeoples pass to and fro, the half-way house gineers, leaders of life in twenty-two different between North and South America, the scene nations, all contributed to make the Congress of the mightiest physical accomplishment of one of the most notable gatherings of the North America and of the greatest single times. contribution of man to South America, im- The representation about equally pelled the Congress to think in world terms divided between Latin America and the rest and plan for the seemingly impossible. The of the world, there being 149 representatives officials of the United States Government in from the former and 150 from the United the Canal Zone and those of the Republic of States, Canada, England, Spain, and Italy. Panama vied with one another in showing This did not include 174 accredited visitors courtesies to the Congress. The Minister of from Panama and the Canal Zone representForeign Relations of Panama delivered the ing Government officials and other prominent address of welcome at the opening session of citizens, and the some sixty hostesses who the Congress, and the Minister of Education generously opened their homes to delegates. presided over a special gathering at the At the opening session the Congress was National University, to which he invited the organized as follows : Congress to hear Dr. John R. Mott give an President: Professor Eduardo Monteverde, address on - The Religious Significance of University of Montevideo, Uruguay. the War." Among the many courtesies ex- Vice-Presidents: Bishop William Cabell tended to the Congress by Tio Samuel, the Brown, Protestant Episcopal Church of Virginia; Latin-American phrase for “ Uncle Sam,” was
the Rev. Eduardo Carlos Pereira, National an excursion through Culebra Cut on a Gov
Presbyterian Church of Brazil; the Rev. A. R. ernment barge, including the most fascinating
Stark, British and Foreign Bible Society, Chile;
Mr. Eben E. Olcott, President Hudson River experience of watching the process of putting
Day Line, New York. boat through the locks. The official
Chairman of the Congress in Committee : Dr. sessions of the Congress were held in the Robert E. Speer. commodious Hotel Tivoli, where most of the Executive Secretary: the Rev. S. G. Inman. delegates were also entertained.
This proved Chairman of Business Committee: Dr. John to be a most delightful and profitable arrange
R. Mott. ment, welding the delegates more and more The Business Committee of twenty-five closely together as the Congress proceeded (see illustration on another page), representaby intimate personal contact in the dining- tive of the Latin-American leaders, missionroom, the verandas, the refreshment booths, aries, and officers of mission boards, acted as and around the literature exhibit, which, by a clearing-house for the business of the Conthe way, was one of the most attractive fea
gress, and to the long hours of faithful and tures of the Congress. Whether mingling trying service of its members was due the informally in these groups or sitting in the fact that the Congress itself was freed from sessions of the Congress, one was impressed discussion of petty details and enabled to with the truth of the reply of a newspaper give itself to the great questions of principles man of large experience in the United States and strategy. The Committee was peculiarly in answering the question of a local corre- fortunate in having as its Chairman Dr. spondent about who were some of the prom- John R. Mott, whose wide experience as inent men present, when he said,
Chairman of the World Missionary Confer
ence and its Continuation Committee, as well this large committee, representing some as countless other important gatherings, was thirty mission boards, that the call came for given without stint to the Committee as it the Panama Congress, and, with the aid of a faced many most delicate and difficult prob- corresponding British committee, the thorlems. The Committee sat for protracted ough preparations made for the Congress periods daily. Much time was given to the were carried forward.
In pursuance of the preparation of the agenda for commission committee's decision that the Congress should reports, so as to assure the discussion by be a deliberative body, made up only of spethe Congress of the most vital questions in- cially capable leaders, to face the facts of the volved. Its sessions were open to others spiritual life of Latin America, there were than members, and when important questions appointed more than a year in advance eight were to be discussed those outside especially commissions to study the subjects of greatinterested were invited to be present and est importance, and their reports were to be give their opinions. The most significant the basis of discussion at Panama. These work of the Business Committee was that of commissions were composed of 215 persons, framing a resolution, to which further refer- widely representative of Latin America, North ence will be made later, providing for a com- America, and Europe, and their exhaustive mittee for the continuation of the work begun reports of some one thousand pages of by the Congress.
printed matter represent the most thorough Another means of saving the time of the study of the higher life of Latin America ever Congress was that of publishing a daily bul- undertaken. The reports, which were in the letin, in which were published the minutes of hands of the delegates for their study before the preceding day, all announcements, and
arrival at Panama, will be printed in permathe agenda for the discussion of that day's nent form, along with the discussions at commission report, avoiding thus the neces- Panama, in three large volumes for general sity of reading these from the platform. In circulation. many other ways it was evident that much The two great purposes of the Panama study had been given to keeping the ma- Congress were the promotion of friendship chinery of the Congress from intruding itself and the study of conditions. The former was on the attention of the delegates to the exciu- accomplished most satisfactorily, not only by sion of the more important and far-reaching the associations of the ten days, but in other business for which the gathering had been ways; the latter by the reports of the eight assembled.
commissions already referred to. The three The initiatory movement for a Latin- hundred picked men and women, each a leader American conference began at the World of an important enterprise, had come together, Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910. not to hear great oratorical efforts, but seriAs missions in Latin America did not come ously to consider the scientific investigations of within the purview of that gathering, it was representative groups of experts, and to try, by felt by a group of delegates especially inter- unhurried council, to find out the meaning of ested in Latin America who met together for these facts and their challenge to those who conference that it would be most advisable regard themselves as their brothers' keepers. to have a conference that should do for It was the discussion of the commission reLatin America what the Edinburgh Confer- ports, then, that was the heart of the Panama ence was doing so magnificently for the Congress. One report was taken each day. Orient. The first-fruits of this group meet
These voluminous documents, each averaging were seen in the calling of a small con- ing more than a hundred pages of printed ference on missions in Latin America under matter, had been printed and sent to the the auspices of the Foreign Missions Confer- delegates for study before arrival in Panama. ence of the United States and Canada. The The Chairman was allowed thirty minutes at conference, consisting of officials of mission the beginning of the day for the presentation boards and missionaries on furlough from of the most salient features, and fifteen Latin America, met in New York March 12- minutes to close the debate at the conclusion 13, 1913.
From a small committee on co- of the day. The rest of the morning and operation in Latin America appointed at that afternoon sessions, with the exception of half time there grew a large one with representa- an hour for a period of intercession, were tives from practically all the mission boards given to seven-minute addresses of those who doing work in Latin America. It was from had previously sent in cards announcing
their purpose to speak. As the Chairman announced the immediate speaker he also called the name of the following one, who came to the platform and was ready to begin immediately on the sound of the inexorable buzzer which insistently notified each speaker that his time had expired. This system · served most advantageously in giving uniform treatment to all, in encouraging each speaker to prepare carefully what he was to say, and to “get down to business” immediately, leaving out all irrelevant references, and to have the maximum number take part without excluding the really important in the contribution of each. In order, however, absolutely to assure each delegate that there was perfect liberty of expression and no disposition whatever to limit any one in speaking his whole mind, Chairman Speer several times during the discussion of the most vital questions put aside the cards and the buzzer and announced that any one
was free to rise in his seat and frankly express his feeling. This invitation was freely accepted, but a unity of spirit so restrained all that not once, even in the heat of discussion, was there a violation of the announced principle of the Congress that, "while frankly facing moral and spiritual conditions,” our approach should be “ neither critical nor antagonistic, but inspired by the teachings and example of Christ and that charity which thinketh no evil and rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.” No doubt the attainment of this spirit was due in a large way to the Chairman, Dr. Robert E. Speer, who presided over these daily discussions with persuasive fairness. His travels in Latin America, his study of its life for long years, and his personal acquaintship with the large majority of Latin-American workers, gave him the background so necessary for the task.
A devotional half-hour came at the close of each morning session. Those who were selected months before for conducting these services were among the men recognized as the great spiritual leaders, such as Bishop Lloyd, of the Episcopal Church ; Bishop Oldham and Bishop Lambuth, of the Methodist Church; President King, of Oberlin; President McLean, of the Foreign Christian Missionary Society; and Dr. de Schweinitz, of the Moravian Church.
The night sessions of the Congress were given to the addresses of such great themes
“ The Common Ideals of Anglo-Saxons
"“ The Power of the Bible in the Life of Individuals and Nations,” Principles and Spirit of Jesus Essential to Meet the Social Needs of Our Times, Claims of Christ on Thinking Men,
6. The Contributions of Latin America to the Higher Life of Humanity,” “ The Place and Influence of Womanhood in Latin America," one well-known speaker from Latin America and one Anglo-Saxon generally speaking each evening. Among these speakers were Professor Eduardo Monteverde, of the University of Montevideo; Professor Erasmo Braga, of the State University of São Paulo; Señorita Juana Palacios, Director of Primary Instruction, Mexico City; Miss Ruth Rouse, of England; Bishop Lucien Lee Kinsolving, of Brazil; Bishop Homer C. Stuntz, of Argentina ; the Rev. A. R. Stark, of the British and Foreign Bible Society, Santiago ; President Charles T. Paul, of Indianapolis ; Dr. John F. Goucher, of Baltimore. Two of the most significant addresses of the night sessions, especially because they came from men not members of the evangelical Church, were given by his Excellency Señor Lefevre, Minister of Foreign Relations of the Republic of Panama, and the Hon. Emilio del Toro, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Porto Rico. Señor Lefevre said:
I desire to welcome you, not because of the formalities of etiquette, but because I wish with all sincerity to contribute to the success of meetings like these which help to bring to my country elements of the highest civilization to which all good citizens aspire.
The Constitution of the Republic of Panama gives ample guarantees of liberty of conscience. As a proof of this and because our Government fervently desires to create a feeling of tolerance in the Republic, I have not hesitated to accept your kind invitation and to proffer a genuine welcome, although I am a sincere and devout Catholic.
Your purpose is to unify the moral and religjous forces of America. For this reason and with great foresight you have selected for this Congress the soil of Panama, as a central point from which its influences will widely radiate.
With all the respect and consideration which is due to such a gathering as this, I take great pleasure in saluting you in the name of the Government of Panama, and wish for you all success in your mission.
At no time was the Congress more prosoundly impressed with the spiritual challenge of Latin America than during the remarkable address of Judge del Toro, who, although not a member of an evangelical Church, came
to the Congress at his own charges to appeal points. The whole Isthmus was profoundly to the evangelical forces which he felt it must affected by this combined message from the have if it was to develop its latent spiritual greatest religious leaders of the two contipowers. Speaking in the beautiful, modu- nents. Not even at the Edinburgh Conferlating tones of the Castilian, he showed by ence was such a comprehensive plan carried out reviewing the history of Latin America how to give the general public opportunity to hear the democratic ideas of the Gospel had been the great religious leaders attending the Condenied her, and thought their introduction gress.
At one service at an army post Dr. would mean struggle ; yet it was only by Robert E. Speer addressed an audience of such struggle of conscience that a complete fifteen hundred soldiers. The spirit of helpnational character would be forged. This fulness and unity of welcome displayed at all appeal of Judge del Toro seemed to typify times by the citizens of the Canal Zone and the appeal that is coming from educated Panama was nowhere more prominently leaders all over Latin America who have lost manifested than in connection with these faith in the state Church and are earnestly meetings. The Panama Railroad gave passes longing for the coming of a new religion to all speakers traveling on its lines. Autowhich shall champion education, vitalize mobiles, coaches, and personal guides helped national and personal life, and furnish power others. No end of effort was spent in adverfor the fighting of those ethical battles which tising speakers, opening halls, and arranging in are pressing so hard in all parts of Latin the best way for the comfort of speakers and America. I have listened,” he said,
the crowds that attended these gatherings. ing these days to the voice of America ex- The community's interest in the Congress pressed in three languages. Its vast territory, was further shown in the large space given its many races, its complicated problems, have by the two daily papers to reporting its propassed through my imagination and my con- ceedings. At first there was an evident air science many times, and always at the close of suspicion, and it looked as though the of my meditations there shone with brighter Congress would receive scarcely any notice. light the words of Jesus : 'But I say unto The representative character of the Congress you, Love your enemies. Be perfect as your and its constructive purposes soon began to heavenly Father is perfect.'” " The labor, of be understood, and from a few paragraphs implanting this doctrine is great," continued at first the English daily gradually came, in Judge del Toro. “It means not only preaching the last few days, to give some three pages but living the Gospel, planting schools where to the Congress. The Spanish daily pubchildren can be taught and universities where lished in full the basis of the Congress and those who scale the heights of science, arts, answered editorially an anonymous pamphlet and letters may preserve the humility of attacking the Congress that was circulated in Christians and use their privileges for the the streets, saying that it was not the work good of their brethren. Withal there must of a Panamanian and that the author should be Christian literature in Spanish and Portu- be expelled as a pernicious foreigner. guese to lead child and adult into the living What was accomplished at Panama ? Darprinciples of Christ. May God illumine your ing would be the attempt to catalogue the hearts and minds for this great task !" results of such a many-sided gathering. But
Aside from the official meetings of the at least the following may be mentioned : Congress a great number of services were First, the most comprehensive survey of held in the churches, halls, club-houses, and the social, educational, and religious condimilitary posts in Panama City, Colon, and tions of Latin America ever attempted was all along the fifty-mile line of the Canal. presented through the commission reports Parallel meetings were held each night in and the ten days' discussions of the Congress. Panama at the Union American Church, the Second, this survey unquestionably showed Seawall Methodist Church, the Wesleyan that the existing moral and spiritual life of these Church, and the National Baptist Church. young nations demands help from the outside No church on Fifth Avenue, New York, ever for its proper development, and that the had a week of greater speakers than did one Latin-Americans, far from resenting such of these little churches in Panama. On the help, earnestly welcome its coming through Sunday the Congress was in session the evangelical missionary agencies. delegates addressed more than seventy serv- Third, the high quality of the Latin-Americes in Panama, Colon, and intermediate ican delegates to the Congress and their
constructive contribution to every phase of the gathering demonstrated the power of Latin America to furnish the highest kind of leadership for the world's spiritual life when given the proper opportunities for its development.
Fourth, it proved conclusively that the greatest impelling force to bring men of different nations and different creeds together is not uniformity of belief but the burden of great tasks. The remarkable unity of the Congress was due to its facing of human need, and this unity was threatened only when its attention was turned from the need by a suggestion that it define itself by dog, matic statement. The facing of the overwhelming need of Latin America brought the unanimous decision to continue the work of the Congress in the future by uniting in a permanent “ Committee on Co-operation in Latin America” to give effect to as many of the plans suggested at Panama as seems practical.
Fifth, it was demonstrated (a) that the spirit of Christ can so sway men that it is possible for those of such different inheritances and diverging prejudices as AngloSaxons and Latins to sit down together and discuss with perfect frankness the most intimate phases of their individual and national life in such a way as to come to an everincreasing regard for one another and agreement as to the solution of their problems; (6) that Protestant Christianity has developed to the point where it can meet in a Roman Catholic country and discuss frankly the religious problems of lands predominantly
Roman Catholic in such a spirit of fairness and humility, and withal fearlessness, as to commend itself to fair-minded men of all creeds and to contribute in a noteworthy way to the binding together of the divergent and often warring elements of such a polyglot community as Panama.
The carrying forward of the work done by the Congress was intrusted to the Committee on Co-operation in Latin America, under whose auspices the Congress was held. This Committee is to be enlarged and reconstructed so as to consist of an American and a European section, composed of one representative from each mission agency sending missionaries to Latin America, and a number of coopted members. The chairmen and secretaries of committees or councils representing missions on the fields are to be ex officio members also.
The American section of this Committee was organized at the close of the Congress at Panama, with Robert E. Speer as Chairman and S. G. Inman as Executive Secretary. So great was the enthusiasm manifested for the co-operative work to be done by this Committee that the first year's budget was subscribed by a few of the delegates at Panama without any public appeal for aid.
While the functions of the Committee will be purely consultative and advisory, it will be able to render large service to mission boards in co-ordinating their present work and outlining not only a larger but a much more effective spiritual service for Latin America. Panama, February, 1916.
S. G. INMAN.
THE NATIONS AT WAR
PRISONERS OF WAR IN RUSSIA
BY GREGORY MASON This is the ninth of the series of articles by Mr. Mason, of the editorial staff of The Outlook, resulting from his experiences as special correspondent of The Outlook in Russia.- THE EDITORS.
N admiring audience was giving its ons, and most of those that had done so had rapt attention to the tale of the broken out of prisons near the front, to skulk
Seven Who Escaped, as Ivan Kara- eastward and lie in some barn or bush within loff, the big Cossack lancer, told it. Karaloff, the very range of the Russian
tiil whose high-cheeked Tartar face vibrated lucky charge of a Muscovite advance party with excitement, had become the tacitly gave the hidden ones a chance to get back appointed leader of the Seven by the native
But to sneak through the force of his vital personality. Few men had very heart of Germany and get out across escaped from Germany's well-guarded pris- the Dutch border—ah, that was a man's feat !