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to Keller and Holder. The vetustissimus (V) he places in Class II. along with a Vatican Ms., R, of the ninth century and the Gothanus of the fifteenth century, which reveals its kinship with V. The readings of Class II. are often to be preferred to those of Class I.

In 1912, in revising for the Clarendon Press Wickham's text edition of Horace, Professor Garrod of Oxford carried this simplification still further. He adopts Vollmer's classification, but drops some mss. which he finds to have little significance, viz. from Class I., A, which is a mere duplicate of a, and K ; while from Class II. he omits R, Goth., . (Parisinus 7972), andl(= Leidensis Lat. 28). On the other hand, he recalls M, which Keller had overestimated but Vollmer had rejected as of little value. V, placed outside the two classes, is held high esteem.

The mss. cited in this edition are as follows :

a = codex Ambrosianus 136, from Avignon, now in Milan.

Tenth century. Available for Satires and Epistles,

except from Sat. ii. 7. 27 to ü. 8. 95. A = Parisinus 7900 a. Tenth century. Used for Epistles i.

(here by a second hand), and to supplement a. B = codex Bernensis 363; in Bern, Switzerland. Written

by an Irish scribe at the end of the ninth century. Available for Satires up to i. 3. 135, and for Ars Poet.

up to 1. 441. C and E=codex Monacensis 14685 (two parts). Eleventh

century. C is available from Sat. i. 4. 122 up to i. 6. 40; for Sat. č. 8; and for Ars Poet. up to 1. 441. E is available for Satires and Epistles, except for Sat. ü. 5. 87 up to ü. 6. 33; and for Ars Poet., except ll. 441

to 476. D = codex Argentoratensis. Destroyed at Strasburg 1870.

Tenth century. Available for Satires and Epistles, except from Sat. ii. 2. 132 to ii. 3. 75; from Sat.ü.5.95

to Epist. ii. 2. 112. Not available for Ars Poet. K = codex S. Eugendi, now St. Claude. Eleventh century.

Available for Satires up to ii. 2. 25, and for Ars Poet. M=codex Mellicensis. Eleventh century. Available for

Satires, except from ii. 5. 95 and a portion of ii. 3;

and for Epistles, except from i. 6. 57 to i. 16. 35. The above mss. constitute Class I.

R = Vaticanus Reginae 1703. Ninth century. Available

for Satires and Epistles, except from Sat. i. 3. 28 to

i. 8. 4, and from Sat. ii. 1. 16 to ü. 8. 95. Ò = codex Harleianus 2725. Ninth century. Available

for Satires up to i. 2. 114; and for Epistles up to

i. 8. 8, and from ii. 2. 19 to the end of Ars Poetica. λ Parisinus 7972. Tenth century. Complete. 1 = Leidensis Lat. 28. Ninth century. Complete. = codex Parisinus 10310. Ninth or tenth tury.

Available for Epistles and Ars Poetica, but for Satires

only up to i. 2. 70. 0 = codex Parisinus 7974. Tenth century. Complete. y = codex Parisinus 7971. Tenth century. Complete. Goth. = Gothanus. Fifteenth century. This lacks the

Ars Poetica.
These constitute Class II.

Besides these, account must be taken (through the edition of Cruquius) of the four lost Blandinian mss. (designated as Bland.), the chief of which was V 1 = vetustissimus). In a number of cases V alone (or in conjunction with Goth.) preserved the correct reading. The most striking instance of this is given in Sat. i. 1. 126, but other examples are afforded by Sat. i. 1. 108 ; ii. 2. 56 ; ii. 3. 303 ; ii. 4. 44 ; ii. 8. 88;

3 Epist. i. 10. 9; i. 16. 43. On the whole, however, V was probably just as faulty as are most of the extant mss., no one of which stands out as conspicuous for accuracy. Yet, as a group, the mss. of Class I. are distinctly superior to those of Class II., though not infrequently the latter preserve correct readings which the former had lost.

Collections of Horatian scholia, or explanatory notes, have come down to us from antiquity under the names of Porphyrio and Acron. These scholars lived probably in the third century of our era, Acron being the earlier of the two, but the scholia now surviving under Acron's name are as late as the fifth century. Both collections are largely interpolated. Both, however, precede our mss. in point of time, and are therefore valuable in determining the priority of conflicting readings.

The term Commentator Cruquianus is given to a collection of notes gathered by Cruquius from the marginalia in his Blandinian mss.


The editio princeps of Horace appeared in Italy, without date or name of place, about 1470, and was followed by the annotated edition by Landinus, Florence, 1482. Lambin's, which first appeared in 1561, was frequently republished in Paris and elsewhere. The complete edition by Cruquius was issued at Antwerp, 1578. Modern editions may be said to begin with Heinsius, Leyden, 1612. Bentley's (Cambridge, 1711, Amsterdam 1713, and frequently republished) marks an epoch in Horatian study. Among nineteenth-century editors may

be mentioned Döring (Leipzig, 1803), Lemaire (Paris, 1829), Peerlkamp (Harlem, 1834), Dillenburger (Bonn, 1844), Duentzer (Brunswick, 1849) and Orelli, whose text and commentary (revised by Baiter 1852, then by Hirschfelder and Mewes-fourth large edition, Berlin, 1892) became the standard. Ritter's edition is dated 18561857, Leipzig. Keller and Holder's (editio maior, Leipzig, 1864-70; editio minor, 1878) is based on an exhaustive study of the mss. Vollmer's important edition (2nd, 1912, Leipzig) has a serviceable apparatus criticus. One of the best annotated editions is A. Kiessling's, Berlin, 1884 and later ; revised by Heinze, 1910. Another good one is that of Schütz, Berlin, 1880-83, and one by L. Müller, Leipzig, 18911893. English editions are Macleane's, London, 1869 (4th, 1881); Wickham's, 2 vols., annotated, Oxford, 1878 and 1891, and the Page, Palmer and Wilkins edition, London and New York, 1896. Wickham's text edition, Oxford, 1900, was revised by Garrod, 1912 (see p. xxv). In America the best complete editions are those by C. L. Smith and J. B. Greenough, Boston, 1894, and by C. H. Moore and E. P. Morris, New York, 1909. In France, there is the Waltz edition, Paris, 1887. Of the Plessis and Lejay edition only the volume of Satires by Lejay has thus far appeared (Paris, 1911). The best complete edition in Italy is Fumagalli's, Rome, 5th, 1912. Special editions of the Satires and Epistles are

A few that we may mention are those by A. Palmer, Satires, London and New York, 1883 ; A.S. Wilkins, Epistles, London and New York, 1885; J. Gow, Satires, i. Cambridge, 1901 ; J. C. Rolfe, Boston, 1901 ; P. Rasi, Milan, 1906–07; Sabbadini, Turin, 1906; E. P. Morris, New York, 1909-11.


Among other works of importance for the study of Horace may be mentioned the following: F. Hauthal, Acronis et Porphyrionis commentarii in

Horatium, Berlin, 1864–66. W. Meyer, Porphyrionis commentarii in Horatium, Leip

zig, 1874. R. M. Hovenden, Horace's Life and Character, London,

1877. 0. Keller, Epilegomena zu Horaz, Leipzig, 1879–80. W. Y. Sellar, Horace, Roman Poets of the Augustan Age,

Oxford, 1892. R. Y. Tyrrell, Latin Poetry; Johns Hopkins Lectures, 1893. J. W. Mackail, Latin Literature, New York, 1895. Gaston Boissier, The Country of Horace and Virgil, trans

lated by Fisher, New York, 1896. A. Cartault, Étude sur les Satires d'Horace, Paris, 1899. 0. Keller, Pseudacronis scholia in Horatium vetustiora,

Leipzig, 1902-4. F. Marx, C. Lucilii carminum reliquiae, 2 vol., Leipzig,

1904–5. C. Cichorius, Untersuchungen zu Lucilius, Berlin, 1908. J. W. Duff, Literary History of Rome, London, 1909. F. Leo, Geschichte der römischen Literatur, Berlin, 1913. Courtand, Horace, sa vie et sa pensée à l'époque des

Épîtres, Paris, 1914. Lane Cooper, A Concordance to the Works of Horace,

Washington (The Carnegie Institution), 1916. Mary Rebecca Thayer, The Infuence of Horace on the

Chief English Poets of the Nineteenth Century, New

Haven, 1916. J. F. D’Alton, Horace and his Age, London and New

York, 1917. G. C. Fiske, Lucilius and Horace : a Study in the Classical

Theory of Imitation, Madison, Wisconsin, 1920. Grant Showerman, Horace and his Influence, Boston, 1922. H. N. Fowler, A History of Roman Literature, New York,

1923 (2nd edition). E. E. Sikes, Roman Poetry, London, 1923.

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