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690. Talia : such spots (as these).' relegens retrorsus Litora: 'coasting back again along the shores.' Virgil conceives Achemenides to have approached the coast of the Cyclops from the southern point of Sicily. He is now sailing with Aeneas in the contrary direction. errata : = pererrata ; .by which he had wandered.'

692. sinu: dative with praetenta. The harbor of Syracuse is formed by Ortygia and Plemyrium.

[graphic]

Fig. 32. — The Fountain of Arethusa in Modern Times (11. 694 sqq.) 696. The story was that the nymph Arethusa was loved by the river god Alpheus. When he pursued her, she was changed by Artemis into a stream that flowed beneath the sea to Ortygia. The god continued to pursue her, and his waters were mingled with hers in the fountain which bears her name.

697. Iussi : 'commanded'; i.e. by Anchises.

698. Exsupero: for praetervehor ; “I sail by.' Helori : the river Helorus runs into the sea a little above the promontory of Pachynum with a very gentle current, which is sometimes even rendered stationary by the easterly wind, so that the neighboring lands are overflowed and fertilized.

701. Camarina : not the city itself, but a lake near the city, was forbidden by the oracle of Apollo to be removed. When the inhabitants, on account of pestilence, caused the lake, in spite of the oracle, to be drained, the city was thus exposed to its enemies, who passed over the bed of the lake and captured it.

702. Immanis : “impetuous,' to be taken with Gela. Gela : takes the long a final from the Greek.

703. Acragas: a hill on which was situated the splendid city of Agrigen. tum, some ruins of which are still in existence.

704. magnanimum, etc. : this would seem to be the remark of the poet rather than of Aeneas.

705. datis ventis : ablative absolute. Selinus: mentioned both by ancient and modern writers as remarkable for the abundance of palm trees in its vicinity.

706. saxis caecis : "by reason of the hidden (or submerged) rocks.' Join with dura, `dangerous.'

711. nequiquam : *(saved) in vain ’; because he was not suffered to see the end of all their wanderings, and the accomplishment of their enterprise.

718. Conticuit: refers to the voice of the speaker; he ceased to speak.' quievit: to the task and fatigue of narrating; ‘he rested.'

BOOK IV

Dido — her love and death.

1-89. Dido confides to her sister Anna the passion she has conceived for Aeneas, and, encouraged by her, she begins to think of winning him to an alliance in marriage; meanwhile the public works of Carthage and the duties of government are neglected.

1. At: denotes the return from the narrative of Aeneas to that of the poet, which was interrupted at the end of the first book. gravi cura: 'with deep passion. saucia: see I, 719-722.

2. alit: not voluntarily, for at first she resists the feeling

3. Multa, multus: to be taken closely with recursat and equivalent to adverbs, ‘oft ... oft.

4. honos: the glory of his family, as sprung from Jupiter and Venus. Cf. 1. 12, and X, 228.

8. male sana: cf. II, 23. 9. insomnia : = somnia graviora et terri. Fig. 33. — Cupid bending his

Bow bilia, “startling dreams.?

10. Quis — hospes: an elliptical expression, equivalent to: quis est hic novus hospes, qui successit ?

11. Quem, etc.: ‘presenting what a noble mien !' lit. 'bearing himself what in countenance!' pectore et armis : ablatives of quality with hospes. Supply est.

Armis is from arma. 12. genus: predicate accusative with esse. Eum (understood) is the subject.

13. Degeneres animos: ‘souls of base descent.' The heroism of Aeneas confirms his claim to a divine origin.

15. fixum immotumque : in agreement with the following clause, which is the logical subject of sederet.

17. deceptam : see note on I, 69.

18. pertaesum: sc. me. H. 457; LM. 585; A. 221, 6; B. 209; G. 377; (H. 410, IV).

19. potui succumbere: 'I might have yielded.' H. 525, 1; LM. 693; A. 308, c; B. 270, 2; G. 254, R. 1; 597, R. 3; (H. 476, 4). culpae: loving and marrying another after Sychaeus was, to her mind, a fault; for she had resolved to remain true to him.

21. sparsos Penates: for the construction, see note on II, 413.

22. hic: refers to Aeneas. The quantity here is short, as in VI, 792. labantem: an instance of prolepsis, ‘has shaken my resolution until it totters.'

24. optem : H. 556; LM. 719; A. 267, r; B. 280, 2, a; G. 260; (II. 484, I). prius: is expressed again in Ante, l. 27, owing to the length of the inter. vening passage.

24, 25. dehiscat, adigat: see note on memoret, II, 75.
26. Erebi: a god of Hades, put for Hades itself.
29. habeat: sc. eos, referring to amores; let him keep them.'
30. sinum – obortis : she bedews her bosom with gushing tears.'

31. luce: in prose would be quam vita. sorori: “to thy sister'; more expressive than mihi.

32. Solane - iuventa: “wilt thou through thy whole youth in loneliness pine away with grief ?' lit. ‘be wasted away grieving.' Iuventa is an ablative of time, modifying the phrase maerens carpere.

33. noris: future perfect (noveris) with the sense of a future.

34. Id: i.e. your abstaining from marriage. sepultos: naturally transferred from the buried body to the Manes, at rest in Hades and free from earthly anxieties.

35. Esto: “granted (that)'; referring to what follows. aegram: 'in thy grief'; mourning for Sychaeus.

36. Libyae : locative case. Tyro: ablative of place where.

37, 38. triumphis Dives: because it abounded in warlike tribes and chiefs continually engaged in internal wars.

38. amori: pugno, bello, certo, and luctor take the dative by poetic usage. 40. Gaetulae urbes: the Gaetuli dwelt in the country south of Numidia. genus : in apposition with urbes. See note on genus, I, 339.

41. in hospita syrtes: inhospitable on account of the barbarian tribes in its neighborhood.

42. siti: ablative, expressing the cause of deserta.

43. Tyro: “from Tyre.' The idea of motion from is implied in surgentia. dicam: see note on temperet, II, 8.

44. Germanique minas: added by way of epexegesis, to define more particularly the nature of the war.

45. Iunone : ablative absolute with secunda. As Juno is the guardian of Carthage, if she has favored the coming of the Trojans, it must be for some good to her people.

49. quantis rebus, etc.: 'with what fortune will the Carthaginian glory raise itself!'

50. Tu: both here and in l. is used to impress the advice more forcibly.

54. incensum : '(already) burning.'

55. pudorem: her regard for the memory of Sychaeus led her at first to look upon the love of Aeneas as a violation of duty and as a cause of shame.

56. per aras: ‘at the altars ’; namely, of the gods immediately mentioned.

57. de more: join with mactant. Cf. III, 369. bidentes: bidens, as a victim for sacrifice, usually, though not invariably, means a sheep,' i.e. a sheep intended for sacrifice. Sheep two years old have two conspicuous teeth of the permanent set.

58. Legiferae: a Greek title (= 0e0 uopópos), the lawgiver’ as goddess of civilization.

61. inter cornua fundit: 'she pours the libation between the horns '; thus consecrating the victim. She is occupied both in propitiating the gods by sacrifice, and in divining the future by inspecting the entrails (inhians exta).

62. pingues: because of the numerous victims sacrificed upon them.

63. Instaurat: 'celebrates the day with offerings '; “renews' the sacrifices throughout the day.

64. Pectoribus: has the final syllable long.
66. Est: from edo ; .consumes.' molles : 'melting,' “tender.'

69–73. qualis - arundo: such as the hind, struck by an arrow, which unawares a shepherd, hunting with his weapons, in the Cretan woods, has transfixed from afar unwittingly, leaving the winged weapon (in the wound).' liquit: is closely appended by -que to the foregoing proposition, and is equivalent to a present participle.

75. Sidonias opes: “Phoenician wealth'; the splendor of her new city. paratam: prepared' to receive Aeneas, and thus to save him from longer trial and delay.

77. eadem convivia : i.e. a repetition of the banquet of yesterday.

80. ubi digressi (sunt): 'when they (the guests) have retired. vicis. sim: 'in her turn'; in contrast with labente die.

82. stratis relictis : 'on the couch left ' by Aeneas.

84. Ascanium: he too is absent, but in fancy she caresses him; in the same sense as she hears and sees Aeneas. Conington, however, takes Detinet literally.

85. si: “(seeking) whether.' See note on I, 181.
87. bello: dative with parant.
88, 89. minae Murorum ingentes : for muri ingentes et minantes.
89. machina: "derricks,' or 'cranes.'

90-128. Juno seeks to entrap Venus, and to prevent the founding of the destined Trojan empire in Italy, by proposing to bring about a marriage between Aeneas and Dido, to which Venus, knowing that the fates cannot thus be frustrated, artfully consents.

90. Quam: refers to Dido.
91. famam : i.e. care for fame.

94. numen : subject of est understood; 'your power is great and famous.' Others read nomen, “fame.'

96. adeo: adds force to me; nor me, at least '; even if it escapes others. veritam: limits te.

98. quo, etc.: sc. tenditis. What further object have you to accomplish by such a contest? You have already entrapped Dido.

102. Communem : 'in common.'
102, 103. paribus Auspiciis : ‘with joint authority.'

104. dotales: “as a dowry.' By the Greek and Roman custom, a gift was presented by the bride, or by her father, to the bridegroom. Here Juno takes the place of the parent. tuae dextrae: i.e. to thy protection and control.

105. Olli: see I, 254, and note. Venus meets Juno with still deeper dissimulation.

106. regnum Italiae: “the (destined) kingdom of Italy,' the Roman empire that the fates had decreed. Juno intends, if possible, to detain Aeneas and the Trojans in Carthage, so that Libya, instead of Italy, may be the seat of the great dominion; thus the destined empire would be “turned away' or 'diverted' to Africa.

109. factum : 'the act'; namely, of uniting the two races.

110. fatis : ablative of cause of incerta feror, not of incerta alone. I am moved with doubt by the fates.' si: interrogative; "whether.'

114. excepit : 'replied'; lit. 'took (the discourse) from (her)'; i.e. took it up where she ceased.

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