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displeasure,' not “violently agitated' or 'roused to fury’; it is the stern displeasure of a god, conscious of his supreme power, and calmly exercising his authority to restrain or punish, without any external excitement. Hence placidum caput, in the next verse, is not inconsistent. alto Prospiciens :

looking forth upon the deep'; alto, the dative for in allum. Cf. pelago, I. 181.

129. caelique ruina : ‘by the destructive force of the air ’; lit. ' by the rushing down of the sky'; referring to the furious descent of the winds. 130. fratrem: Neptune was a son of Saturn, and therefore

brother of Juno. That this storm had been brought about by her stratagems was at once apparent to him.

131. Eurum Zephyrumque : all the winds are implied, although only two are mentioned. dehinc: is scanned as one syllable. H. 733, 3; LM. unt; A. 337, 6; B. 367, 1; G. 727; (H. 608, III).

132. generis, etc.: 'pride of your birth'; referring to the divine origin of the winds as sons of Aurora and Astraeus.

133. Iam: ‘now at length'; i.e. having been presumptuous in other ways, have you now dared to do this?

135. Quos ego -: for the fig. ure of aposiopesis, see H. 751, I, N. I; A. 386; G. 691; (H. 637,

xi, 3). The remainder of the Fig. 3. — Neptune

threat, will chastise,' is left unexpressed because it is better (now) to allay the excited waves.'

136. Post: adv., ‘hereafter.'

139. sorte : the whole kingdom of Saturn was allotted to Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto; the former receiving heaven, Neptune the water, and Pluto the regions under the earth.

140, 141. aula - regnet: ‘let him display his power (se iactet) in that court, and reign in the close shut prison of the winds.' Carcere is related to regnet, as in l. 52, antro, to imperio premit; i.e. the place in which his power

is exercised. Cf. VI, 766. Eurus alone is mentioned by name, though vestras shows that all the winds are addressed.

142. dicto: H. 471, 8; LM. 619; A. 247, 6; B. 217, 4; G. 398, R. 1; (H. 417, I, N. 5).

144. adnixus : instead of the usual construction in the plural, adnixi, refers both to the Nereid, Cymothoe, and to the sea god, Triton. H. 395; LM. 479; A. 187, b; B. 235, 1; G. 286; (H. 439).

145. scopulo : this is the same as the saxa latentia, above, 1. 108. For the case, see H. 462; LM. 601; A. 243, a; B. 214; G. 390; (H. 434, N. 1).

146. aperit syrtes :. 'opens a way through the sand banks'; the agger harenae mentioned in l. 112.

147. rotis: for curru; ablative of means.

148. Ac veluti, etc.: the poet has in mind such scenes as often transpired in the Roman forum in his own day. saepe : implies quod saepe accidit, as often happens.' Cf. X, 723.

150. Observe the caesura here in the fourth foot. arma: their fury leads them to seize such arms as stones and firebrands only. No citizen was allowed to carry warlike weapons

Fig. 4. - A Triton (l. 144) within the walls of Rome.

151. pietate gravem ac meritis : revered on account of his moral worth and (public) services.'

155. invectus, etc. : “borne along in the cloudless sky.' The perfect participle is used as a present. See II. 640, 1; LM, 1011; A. 290, b; B. 336, 5; G. 282; (H. 550, N. 1).

156. curru: another form (originally an instrumental or locative) for the dat. currui.

157-222. Aeneas, with seven of his ships, lands in a secure haven, not far from the new city of Carthage. Leaving his companions awhile, he ascends the neighboring rocks to obtain a view of the sea, in the hope of descrying the rest of his fleet. He falls in with a herd of deer, and thus secures food for his friends, whom he addresses, on returning, with consoling words.

157. Aeneadae : 'followers of Aeneas,' the Trojans.' quae --- litora : the shores which are nearest. H. 399, 3; A. 200, 6; B. 251, 4; G. 616; (H. 445, 9). For the omission of sunt, see note on famulae, 1. 703.

158. Libyae : the country around Carthage was strictly Xfrica, and Libya was the region between Africa and Egypt; but the poets use geographical terms with great freedom.

159. secessu longo : 'in a deep recess.' It is not likely that Virgil is describing a real scene on the African coast, though some have tried to identify the spot.

159, 160. insula — laterum : “an island forms a haven by its jutting sides.' Lying along in front of the cove, and against (ob) the sea, it forms a natural breakwater.

160. quibus : the ablative, expressing the means of frangitur and scindit;" by which every wave from the deep is broken, and divides itself into the deep windings of the bay’; i.e. rolls broken, and so with diminished force, into the haven.

162. Hinc atque hinc: 'on this side and on this'; 'on either side.' gemini: two rocky promontories, forming the opposite extremities or headlands of the cove.

164, 165. tum - umbra: ‘at the same time a curtain of woods with waving foliage, and a grove dark with roughening shadow overhang from above. The rocky heights which form the sides and inner wall of the haven are crowned all around with dark masses of trees. Virgil applies the term scaena to this landscape, because it resembles the stage of the Roman theater, when prepared for the sports of fauns and satyrs. silvis coruscis: an ablative of quality or description. H. 473, 2; LM. 643; A. 251; B. 22;; G. 400; (11. 419, II). Desuper : ‘from above,' in contrast with sub vertice, horrenti: I prefer the literal meaning, ‘rough, bristling.' nemus: is added to scaena by way of epexegesis.

166. Fronte sub adversa: 'beneath the brow (of the cliffs) opposite'; opposite, namely, to one entering the bay; therefore situated at the inmost point of the bay. scopulis pendentibus : 'of overhanging rocks.' See note on silvis, l. 164.

167. saxo : the ablative as in l. 164.

169. unco morsu : 'with crooked fluke.' An anachronism. In the Homeric period stones were used for anchors.

171. amore: ablative of manner.
173. tabentes: 'drenched.' in litore : see note on regnis, l. 226.

174. silici, etc.: H. 429, 2; LM. 539; A. 229; B. 188, 2, d'; G. 345, R. 1; (H. 386, 2). "First Achates struck a spark from the flint, and caught the fire in leaves, and placed dry fuel around (it), and rapidly roused the flame in the dry wood. Lit. “seized the flame in the dry fuel.' succepit : archaic for suscepit.

178. fessi rerum : II. 452, 2; LM. 575; A. 218, «; B. 204, 4; G. 374, N. 6; (II. 399, III, 2). receptas: “recovered'; i.e. from the sea.

179. torrere : “to roast'; in order to prepare it the better for crushing with the stone.

181. pelago : dative for in pelagus ; to be taken with prospectum, “a view far seaward.' See above note on l. 126. si quem : in agreement with Anthea ; "(to see) if he can discern any (one, as) Antheus, etc.' Cf. IV, 328. si is here interrogative; H. 649, II, 3; LM. 812; A. 334, s; B. 300, 3; G. 460, (6); (H. 529, II, 1).

182. biremes: for ships' in general.

183. arma: perhaps the shields were fastened on the stern and sides of the ship, as was the custom in the Middle Ages.

185. armenta : the plural is designed merely to indicate a large number.

190. Cornibus arboreis : join with alta. vulgus : 'the herd,' as opposed to ductores.

193. fundat et aequet: the subjunctive implies that he did not intend to cease from the chase before he had killed the seven. H. 005, I; LM. 878; A. 327; B. 292; G. 577; (H. 520, I, 2). humi: H. 484, 2; LM. 621; A. 258, d; B. 232, 2; G. 411, R. 2; (H. 426, 2).

194. Hinc: “thereupon.'

195. deinde: usually a dissyllable in poetry. In prose the order would be, deinde vina quae bonus Acestes heros, etc. Cf. III, 609; and the position of quippe, 1. 59. cadis : dative for the prosaic construction, quibus cados onerarat. Cf. VIII, 180. Acestes, the son of a Trojan woman named Segesta, dwelt in the western part of Sicily, and had hospitabıly entertained Aeneas and his followers there during the winter just passed.

196. Litore : ablative of place. abeuntibus: namely, at the commencement of their present voyage, as described above, l. 34.

198. enim: gives the ground of some proposition understood, as nil desperandum. ante malorum : 'of former evils'; equivalent to praeteritorum malorum. See note on I. 21.

200. Scyllaeam-experti: see III, 554. Adjectives derived from proper names are often substituted for the genitive case; as, Hectoreum corpus, II, 543; Herculeo amictu, VII, 669.

201. Accestis : for accessistis. H. 238, 3; LM. 383; A. 128, b; B. 116, 4, (; G. 131, 4, 6, 1; (H. 235, 3).

203. et haec: 'these sufferings also'; these we now endure, as well as those I have just mentioned.

204. discrimina rerum : ‘perils of fortune.'

205. fata – Ostendunt: the fates have been revealed to Aeneas by the ghost of Hector, II, 295; and by that of Creusa, II, 781; by the oracle at Delos, III, 94; by the vision of the Penates, III, 163; by the prophecy of Cassandra, III, 183; by that of the harpy Celaeno, III, 253; and by that of Helenus, III, 374.

206. illic — Troiae : 'there it is the will of the gods for the realms of Troy to rise again.'

209. Observe the emphasis given to spem vultu and corde dolorem, both by their position in the verse and by the reversed order of the words (chiasmus).

211. costis: denotes here the carcases, and viscera the fleshy parts, or all within the hide. Cf. VIII, 180.

212. Pars: as a collective noun, is followed here by a verb in the plural. H. 389, 1; LM. 477; A. 205, c; B. 254, 4, b; G. 211, Ex. a; (H. 461, 1). veribus : 'on spits.' See note on regnis, l. 226, and cf. III, 287. trementia : “still quivering.'

213. aëna : bronze vessels.' The water was heated, says Servius, not for. cooking any portion of the flesh, for boiling was not then practiced, but for washing the hands. Perhaps, however, the poet had in mind, as he has frequently, the customs of his own times.

215. Implentur : with the force of the middle voice, “they fill themselves.' Bacchi: is put for wine as above, I. 177, Ceres for wheat. So frequently Vulcan for fire, Jupiter for the sky, etc. For the genitive, see H. 458, 2; LM. 594; A. 223; B. 212, 1; G. 383; (H. 410, V, 1).

216. Postquam: H. 538, 3; LM. 881; A. 324; B. 287, 1; G. 561; (H. 471, 4). mensae remotae : 'the viands were removed '; lit. ‘the tables.'

217. Amissos — requirunt : “they mourn in continued conversation their missing friends.' Requirunt here very nearly desiderant, óregret.'

218. credant: depends on dubii. seu, Sive: are used by poetic license for utrum and an, whether — or.' See note on si, l. 181.

219. extrema : “the final (doom)'; i.e. death. vocatos: when called.' Perhaps Virgil alludes to the custom of pronouncing the word vale over the body of the dead at the moment of death, and also at the funeral pyre,

when the body had been burned. See note on II, 644.

220. pius : ‘loyal to duty.' “ His (Aeneas's) distinguishing epithet (pius) suggests not one heroic quality merely, but the character of a son who loves his father, of the king who loves his subjects, of the worshiper who reverences the gods” (Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, p. 104). See note to l. 10.

223-305. A scene in Olympus. Venus comes to Jupiter while he is contemplating the affairs of men, and with tears complains of the hardships of Aeneas, who is debarred through the anger of Juno from his destined home in Italy, in spite of his piety, and the fates, and the promises of Jupiter, while Antenor, another Trojan prince, has been permitted already to find a resting. place on the shores of the Adriatic. Jupiter consoles her by reaffirming the promise that she shall hereafter receive her son into Olympus, and that his descendants in Italy, the Romans, shall rule the world. Mercury is then sent down to Carthage, in order to exercise a secret influence on Queen Dido and the Carthaginians, that they may be prepared to give the Trojans a friendly reception.

223. finis: 'an end'; i.e. of their mournful conversation. aethere summo : ‘from the summit of the sky,' i.e. from Olympus.

224. Despiciens : looking down upon.' velivolum : sailwinged.' iacentes: spread out ’; as they would appear when seen from a great height above.

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