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225. latos : = late habitantes. sic recalls despiciens : 'thus (looking down. ward, I say). Cf. VII, 668; VIII, 488.
226. regnis : probably dative = in regna. Cf. Latio, l. 6.
227. tales - curas : "meditating upon such cares '; such, namely, as are occasioned by the present condition of Aeneas in Libya, to which especially Jupiter has turned his attention, while he stands on the summit of heaven.'
228. Tristior (quam solita): sadder than was her wont.' She was by distinction the “ smiling goddess." oculos: accusative with the passive verb suffusa, in imitation of the Greek. H. 416; LM. 510; A. 240, c; B. 180; G. 338; (H. 378).
230. terres, absolutely: .dost inspire terror,' “terrify.' 231. Quid : 'what offense.'
232. funera: “disasters. Funera signifies here not only deaths, but other great calamities.
233. ob Italiam : because of Italy'; because Juno desires to keep the Trojans from Italy, and so prevent the founding of the Roman empire, she is striving to render the whole world, or every shore, inaccessible to them, and will thus bring about their destruction. clauditur : in prose the subjunctive would be used here in a clause of result, quibus being equal to ut eis. The indicative presents the circumstance more vividly as an actual fact, not as a conceived consequence.
234. hinc: ‘hence,' or from them,' referring to Aeneas and the Trojans, and equivalent to ab his. Olim: ‘hereafter.' volventibus annis: sc. se; ' in the course of revolving years, or ages ’; ablative absolute.
235. fore is here equivalent to orituros esse. revocato : restored' or reëstablished. The blood or race of Teucer, the Cretan ancestor of the Trojans (III, 108), has well-nigh perished in the fall of Troy. Jupiter has promised that it shall be revived in Italy through Aeneas and his followers.
236. omni dicione : 'with unlimited sway.' qui tenerent: see note on verterel, I. 20.
237. Pollicitus : sc. es. Cf. X, 827.
238. Hoc: ablative; 'with this (promise).' occasum - Solabar : instead of me solabar de occasu, ‘I was consoling myself for the fall.' Cf. X, 829; XII, 110.
239. fatis : ablative of price. Sc. melioribus, or aliis, “with other (or propitious) fates’; i.e. the promised kingdom in Italy. rependens : ‘balancing,' offsetting.'
240. Nunc: is emphatic, “even now,' when we had a right to look for better fortunes.
243. tutus : safe,' notwithstanding the warlike character of the Illyrians and the Liburni, and the dangers of the navigation.
244. Timavi: the springs of the Timavus, a few miles northwest of Trieste, flow through an indefinite number of subterranean cavities into the Adriatic
at the distance of a mile from the source. Virgil here describes a strange phenomenon, by which the sea during a storm is forced back through these channels, deluging the fields. 245. Vasto - montis : i.e. from the reverberation of the waters in the
See note above on l. 55. 246. It - sonanti: “the sea comes bursting forth, and covers the fields with its roaring flood.'
247. Hic tamen: though he encountered these perils in coasting the Adriatic, 'yet here,' etc.
248. nomen: he called the nation Veneti, and thus 'gave a name to the nation’; or it may be understood, ‘he gave his own name to the nation,' calling them Antenoridae. arma fixit : "hung up his arms.' In token of gratitude he fastened his arms to the wall or doorposts of the temple of his patron deity. Cf. III, 287.
249. compostus: for compositus ; 'buried he rests in peace.' Componere often denotes, as here, the last offices performed in the sepulture of the dead, implying especially the depositing of the body, or of the funeral urn, in the tomb.
250. Nos: expresses the maternal feeling of Venus, which makes the interest of Aeneas her own. caeli arcem : 'the abode of heaven'; i.e. Olympus. The poets are fond of designating it by the expressions arx caeli, aetherea domus, lucidae sedes, igneae arces, and the like. adnuis: Jupiter has at some time promised that Aeneas shall be received into heaven after his death.
251. infandum: H. 421; LM. 512; A. 240, d; B. 183; G. 343, 1; (H. 381 and 557). amissis : only one ship was actually lost. unius: refers to Juno.
252. Prodimur: this word casts reproach, by implication, upon Jupiter himself, and is justified by the heavy grievances of which she complains. “ We are betrayed; we are left unprotected by thee from the cruel machinations of Juno, though we are but obeying thy will and that of fate."
253. sic — reponis ? dost thou thus restore us to power?' Is it thus that thou fulfillest thy promise of reëstablishing our Trojan empire in Italy? sceptra : the symbol of power, instead of imperium. H. 752, 3; A. 386, metonymy; (H. 637, III).
254. Olli: archaic form for the dative illi.
257. metu: for metui. See note above on I. 156. Cytherea : Venus was so called from the island of Cythera, near which she sprung from the sea. immota : in the predicate.
258. tibi: for the ethical dative, see H. 432; LM. 541; A. 236; B. 188, 2, 6; G. 351; (H. 389). Lavini: for Lavinii.
259. feres ad sidera caeli: in accordance with the promise alluded to above, I. 250.
261. Hic: refers to Aeneas. haec cura: anxiety on his account.
262. volvens: is descriptive of the unrolling of a scroll or volume, in which the decrees of fate are conceived to be written.
263. Italia: see note on Italiam, I. 2.
264. mores: is here constitution,' or civil organization and laws.' Cf. VI, 852; VIII, 316. viris : ‘for his people.'
265. He shall be engaged in this work of establishing his power three years after having subdued Turnus and the Rutulians. Then, we are to understand, he shall be taken into heaven. . Some traditions said that Aeneas was drowned in the Numicius; others, that he was slain in battle, and buried on the banks , of that river. regnantem : is not beginning his reign,' but 'continuing his reign. For the distributive numeral in Terna hiberna, see H. 164, 3; LM. 1081; A. 95, 6; B. 81, 4, 6; G. 295; (H. 174, 2, 3)).
266. Rutulis subactis : perhaps better regarded as a dative of reference with transierint, although possibly in the ablative absolute construction. Aeneas is conceived by Virgil as embodying in his character the qualities of a warrior, a ruler, and a civilizer of men, the legendary personification of all that was great in the achievements of Rome. His mission is to carry on a contest in Italy, to crush the resistance of its warlike tribes, to give them customs, and to build them cities. . . . His must be a life of struggle, of heroic endurance, and of great difficulties overcome' (Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, p. 103).
267. At: often denotes the transition to a new idea or new topic, not inconsistent with the foregoing, but merely different from it. Iulo : for the dative see H. 430, 1; LM. 543; A. 231, 6; B. 190, 1; G. 349, R. 5; (HI. 387, N. 1). The name lulus appears to have been invented by the Julian family, or by their eulogists, as the form from which to derive Iulius, and as bearing some resemblance to the name of the Trojan king Ilus, founder of Ilium.
268. Ilus : Ascanius is fancied to have been so called after his ancestor, the king mentioned in the last note. dum - regno: 'while Ilium's state stood in its sovereign power.' Regno is an ablative of respect.
269. magnos - orbes : 'great circles of revolving months'; i.e. great annual circles or years, each of which consists of revolving moons or months. Volvendis = se volventibus. Cf. IX, 7. mensibus : is an ablative of description.
271. vi: 'with strength, strongly,' not only in position and fortifications, but in population and resources. muniet: this verb often signifies, not to strengthen that which has been already built, but “to build strong,' or simply 'to build.'
272. regnabitur : passive and impersonal, “the government shall be administered by a king.'
273. Hectorea: an emphatic substitute for Troiana, as Hector was the most renowned hero of Troy. regina sacerdos Ilia : “a royal priestess of
Trojan descent ’; sacerdos and Ilia in apposition with regina, which we may translate as an adjective.
274. partu dabit: “shall bear.'
275. lupae nutricis: the infants Romulus and Remus were nourished by a she-wolf until they were discovered by the shepherd Faust ulus. Trans. : * exulting in the tawny robe of his wolf-nurse ’; i.e. “a wolf such as nursed him.' tegmine : ablative with laetus, which is used poetically to signify possessing or using, with the accessory idea of pleasure or advantage. It is analogous to the ablative with contentus, praeditus, and fretus.
276. Romulus — gentem: “Romulus shall receive the race' (under his power); i.e. succeed to the dominion. Gentem is the Alban or Trojan nation. The Ascanian dynasty of Alban kings terminates with Amulius and Numitor. Romulus receives the dominion which is passing away with them, and reëstablishes it in Rome.
276, 277. Mavortia Moenia: the walls, or city of Mars. Rome is so called because its founder, Romulus, is the son of Mavors, or Mars. de: cf. 11. 367, 533.
278. His: the Romans. ego: the expression of the pronoun gives greater weight to the promise; even I, who have the power both to promise and fulfill. nec – pono: “I assign neither boundaries nor periods to their power.' Metas refers to the territorial extent, and tempora to the duration of their dominion. 279. Quin: 'nay, even,' what is still more worthy of remark.
280. metu: perhaps better taken as an ablative of means or manner with fatigat. “She wearies out or exhausts with fears,' i.e. by exciting fears; by some taken as an ablative of cause, on account of her fears. Cf. l. 23, id metuens.
281. Consilia — referet: cf. XI, 426. mecum fovebit : shall cherish with me'; i.e. equally with
282. rerum dominos : lords of the world.' togatam: the toga was the distinguishing dress of the Roman citizen.
283. Sic placitum : 'thus I have decreed.'
284. domus Assaraci : the Romans are so called because their founder, Aeneas, was the great-grandson of Assaracus, the son of Tros. Phthiam: the
home of Achilles. Fig. 5. - Roman clad in the Toga (1. 282)
284, 285. Mycenas, Argis : the one ruled by Aga
memnon, the other by Diomedes. It is pleasing to Venus to hear that the descendants of the conquerors of Troy shall one day be subjugated by the descendants of the vanquished Trojans. Greece and
Macedon were brought under the sway of Rome by T. Quinctius Flamininus, L. Aemilius Paulus, and L. Mummius between B.C. 200 and 146.
285. Argis : here the ablative of place where. See note on campis, l. 97. CI. VI, 766. Dominor governs the dative only in the later Latin writers.
286. origine : join with Troianus as an ablative of quality. See note on 1. 164. Caesar : the reference here is plainly to Augustus, who was also called Julius (I. 288), in consequence of his adoption by the dictator, his full name being thereafter C. Julius Caesar Octavianus. The title, August us, was conferred in B.C. 27. Cf. 1. 289. The eulogy of Augustus is like many found in Virgil, Horace, and other writers of the period. Cf. VI, 792-798; VIII, 678– 688.
287. terminet: the relative clause expresses the end or purpose for which he shall be brought into the world by destiny. See note on I. 20. astris : in allusion to his expected deification. His glory shall be like that of Hercules, Achilles, and other heroes, who have been received into Olympus. Cf. Milton, Par. Lost, 12, 370:
'and bound his reign With earth's wide bounds, his glory with the Heavens.' 289. olim: of future time, as in l. 20. caelo : ablative. After accipere the place is either in the ablative or in the accusative with a preposition, spoliis Orientis onustum: August us at the battle of Actium, B.C. 31, according to the expression of Virgil, VIII, 687, gained Oriental spoils.
290. secura : “thou free from alarm.' hic quoque : ‘he also’; Augustus as well as Aeneas. Augustus was called Divus and Deus by the Romans, and temples were erected and sacrifices made to him in the provinces, even before his death and apotheosis.
291. tum : i.e. in the reign of Augustus, which was looked upon as the beginning of a new Saturnian or golden age, “ when first the iron age should cease, and the age of gold arise." Cf. VIII, 319. Aspera secula : “the age of strife.'
292. Fides : faith between man and man is the bond of society. Cana : also sometimes applied to Vesta, “hoary,' or 'venerable,' as pertaining to the primitive and most righteous period. Vesta : the goddess of the hearth, represents religion and domestic virtue. “Romulus reconciled with Remus' indicates the restoration of concord among the citizens of Rome.
293. Iura dabunt : «shall administer laws,''shall rule.' For the plural of the verb, see H. 389, 4; 463, II; LM.470; A. 205; B. 255; G. 285; (H. 461,4).
293, 294. dirae, portae: one of the arches of Janus, called here the 'gates of war,' situated at the foot of the Argiletum near the Roman Forum, was always closed in time of peace. This happened but four times before the Christian era, — first during the reign of Numa, next in the year B.c. 235, shortly after the first Punic war, and twice in the reign of Augustus, namely,