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195. tumulo sub illo : 'under the rising ground yonder.'

205. hic: for meus ; this is a spirit which despises life.' est is repeated for emphasis : it is, in truth.'

205, 206. et Qui credat: •and (a spirit) such as believes.'
210. quae multa : the antecedent is contained in the idea of casus.

214. solita fortuna : 'wonted fortune'; fortune apt or wont to disappoint our hopes. With this punctuation, humo is dative of the indirect object with Mandet. Others join solita with humo as an ablative of place.

218. moenia Acestae: see V, 715 sqq. 223. regem : 'the prince'; Ascanius. Cf. riginae, VI, 28. 232. fore: dependent on an idea of saying implied in orani. 237. locum insidiis conspeximus : ‘we have seen a place for our secret exit.

238. in bivio portae: 'in the double road of the gate.' From the gate nearest the sea there was one route toward the south, occupied by the enemy; another passed along in the rear of their camp, and led toward Pallanteum.

241. Quaesitum : in order to seek.' The supine depends upon the phrase fortuna uti. The active supine does not always depend on verbs of motion.

243. Adfore: sc. nos.
255. integer aevi: cf. II, 638.
268. praedae dicere sortem : “to appoint the division of the spoil.'
273. omnibus : this probably is meant to refer only to captivos.

274. Insuper : preposition. campi quod : 'whatever of land'; partitive genitive.

281, 282. Me Dissimilem - cadat: ‘no day shall have proved me unequal to such daring exploits, provided only the (present) hopeful fortune do not end adversely.'

288. In: is separated from salutatam by -que, by tmesis; “unsaluted.' 291. tui: the final vowel is unelided here.

294. patriae pietatis : ‘of his love for his father. His own filial affection made him feel more deeply that of Euryalus.

296. Sponde : ‘promise (thysell ) ’; be assured of things worthy, etc.

305. habilem : 'fitted for use '; 'well formed.' Others refer the word here to fitness for the sheath.

309. iuvenumque senumque : • both young and old’; in apposition with Primorum.

314-366. Nisus and Euryalus penetrate into the quarters of the enemy, and slay many of them while buried in slumber.

315, 316. multis — Exitio: (doomed to die,) yet destined first (i.e. before they perished) to bring destruction to many. How literally? I have supposed an ellipsis of morituri, which the context seems naturally to suggest.

329. iuxta : 'near by' Rhamnes.

337. Membra: a Greek accusative limiting victus. deo : = Baccho or vino. 343. in medio : in the midst'; just as they lay directly in his path.

348. multa morte recepit: drew it back with streams of blood,' which gushed forth as the weapon was withdrawn.

361. iungeret: sc. eum ; i.e. Remulum.
363. Post mortem : sc. Remuli.
364. nequiquam: because he was so soon to die.
365. habilem : see note on l. 305.

367–449. Nisus and Euryalus leave the camp of the enemy, and are proceed. ing on their journey, when the helmet of Euryalus, gleaming in the obscurity of the night, attracts the attention of a hostile party of horsemen, who are just approaching the camp. The youths flee to the woods. Nisus, having already escaped, misses his friend, and returning finds him surrounded by the pursuers. He kills two of the enemy with javelins hurled from his place of concealment, and thereupon the commander, Volscens, lifts his sword to slay Euryalus. Ni. sus rushes into the midst, but too late to save his friend, whose death, however, he revenges by slaying Volscens, and then falls, pierced with many wounds.

368. Cetera legio: 'the rest of the army'; i.e. the whole body of the heavy infantry of King Latinus, which had remained in the rear near Laurentum. Three hundred horsemen under Volscens had been dispatched during the day to carry news to Turnus. So much must be inferred, though not narrated. Note the early use of legio, the levy' (from lego), and hence the 'army.' See note on VIII, 604.

369. regi — ferebant: “they were bearing a reply (from the commander of the infantry, legio) to Turnus the king.' Regi is preferred here by the best commentators to regis.

372. flectentes : sc. se.

374. immemorem: ‘unmindful’; not considering that his helmet would thus betray them.

377. Nihil — contra : 'they made no reply.' 386. imprudens : unconscious '; not noticing the absence of Euryalus. 388. Albani: some part of the wood, called the Alban forest.

393, 394. He is at first distant from the enemy (dumis silentibus); but soon he comes nearer (Audit).

407. si — auxi: if I myself have increased (added) any offerings) by the chase.'

412. aversi : ‘turned away’; looking away from Nisus.

427. In this rapid, passionate utterance, me, me is left without apparent grammatical government. Some word like interficite may be supplied. Later the structure of the sentence is made clear.

433. leto : ablative.

449. pater Romanus: probably means the emperor Augustus and his successors.

450-502. The Rutulian horsemen bear the heads of Nisus and Euryalus with the body of Volscens to their camp, which they find agitated on account of the slaughter, just discovered, of Rhamnes, Serranus, Numa, and others. At dawn the enemy display the heads of Nisus and Euryalus to the Trojans on the walls. Their grief, and the lamentations of the mother of Euryalus, are described.

458. phaleras: 'the trappings' which had been seized by Euryalus. See above, I. 359.

459. spargebat: see IV, 584. 464. rumoribus : with reports ’; news of the last night's bloody work.

471. maesti: "gloomy’; because of the threatened attack, and the absence of Aeneas.

477. femineo: retains its final vowel unelided.

480. dehinc: one syllable.

481. Hunc te aspicio: is it thus I see thee?' the full expression would be hic tu es, quem aspicio ? tune ille ? etc.: couldst thou, that one, (who wast) the last hope of my old age?'

486. tua funera: '(even) thy corpse’; thy body laid out for burial.

491. funus lacerum : “th mutilated body.' Hoc: refers to the ghastly head which she sees raised by the Rutuli on the point of a spear.

492. hoc: same reference as in the preceding line.

493. pietas : "feeling.'
499. infractae: 'broken,' nerveless.'

503-568. The Rutulians commence the assault on the camp. Invocation to the Muses. Many Trojans perish in the burning and fall of a tower, and Helenor and Lycus,

Fig. 73. — The Muse Calliope who had alone escaped from it, are slain.

(1. 525) 503. Note the purely dactylic line, which “well indicates the sudden trumpet flourish.'

505. testudine: see note on II, 441.

[graphic]

Cf. II, 335.

518. caeco Marte: 'in the blind (uncertain) warfare'; in which, being under the testudo, they can neither see nor be seen.

525. Vos: the plural has respect to all the Muses, though only Calliope is designated. Cf. vestras, I, 140.

527. Orco: the poetical dative of the goal for the accusative with a preposition.

528. ingentes oras belli: “the (whole) wide field of the war’; the war in all its parts and aspects.

530. vasto suspectu : of great elevation.' Cf. suspectus, VI, 579. pontibus : footways of plank leading from the tower back to the wall, in front of which it stood.

543. pectora : Greek accusative of specification limiting Transfossi. 546. Maeonio regi: “to a Lydian prince.'

547. vetitis: probably to be understood of the prohibition of the father, against whose will Licymnia had secretly sent Helenor to Troy.

548. inglorius: ‘without device'; distinguished by no device on his white (unadorned) buckler.

558. tecta : the battlemented top of the wall. socium : genitive plural. 566. Martius lupus: the wolf was sacred to Mars.

569-671. While the combat is raging, Numanus, a young Latin prince, and brother-in-law of Turnus, approaches the wall and taunts the Trojans with cowardice. Ascanius from the battlements hears the boaster, and, greatly incensed, for the first time aims his arrow at an enemy, first invoking the aid of Jupiter. His arrow pierces the temples of Numanus. But, through apprehension for the safety of Ascanius, Apollo descends, and in the guise of an old man warns him to abstain from further daring. The Trojans, recognizing the god as he vanishes, withdraw Ascanius from the ramparts.

572. Hic: Liger; hic: Asilas. longe fallente: lit. “stealing from afar’; more fully expressed, thrown from afar and hitting its unsuspecting victim.'

Cf. X, 754.

575. pro: equivalent here to the preposition in ; 'standing on the tops of the towers ’; perhaps with the notion of defense involved; though pre is often used in the sense of 'on' or 'upon,' or on the front part' of some elevated piece, without any notion of defense, e.g. pro rostris.

580. Spiramenta animae: 'the passages of the breath '; the lungs.
581. Arcentis: a prince of eastern Sicily.
586. positis : laid aside.'

588. liquefacto: melted'; since the ancients believed that a leaden bullet melted in rapid passage through the air.

589. multa harena: ‘on the spacious sand'; i.e. the space of sand over which his prostrate body extends, at the foot of the rampart from which he has fallen.

596. novo regno: 'with his new royalty,' or royal alliance by marriage. 602. fandi fictor: inventor of dissembling speech.'

603. ab stirpe : by nature'; join with durum; inheriting hardiness from their parent stock. genus: in apposition with the subject of Deferimus. primum : ‘at the first '; as soon as born.

609. Omne — ferro: ‘our whole life is spent with the spear.'

618. biforem cantum : its twofold (double-toned) music'; referring to the two pipes, one of a lower pitch than the other, both inserted between the lips and played at once, or both united at the end in one mouthpiece.

619. buxus : 'the boxwood'; synonymous here with tibia.
629. qui: subject of both verbs.
631. Intonuit laevum: a favorable omen.

632. adducta sagitta : 'the drawn (swift) arrow'; the arrow drawn back on the strained bowstring. Cf. V, 141, 507.

642. deos: Julius Caesar and Augustus.

643. Gente - resident: it is right that all wars destined to come should terminate under the race of Assaracus; i.e. under Augustus.

644. Nec te Troia capit: nor does a realm so limited as this new Troy confine thee; thou hast a spirit for wider dominion.

647. Dardanio Anchisae : cf. I, 617.

656. Cetera : “as for the rest’; accusative; as in III, 594. parce bello: abstain from war.' Cf. I, 257.

661. avidum : though desirous of,'« eager for.'

668. pluvialibus Haedis: 'in the season of the rainy Kids'; ablative of time. The Kids are two stars in the arm of Auriga, the rising of which in September was attended with heavy rains.

670. Iuppiter: who regulates the seasons and the weather.

672–716. Pandarus and Bitias, youths of gigantic stature, sons of Alcanor and the mountain nymph Iaera, throw open one of the gates, and provohe the Rutulians to assail them. A bloody encounter follows, and Bitias is slain.

677. pro turribus : 'before the towers'; in front of the towers that flanked the gates.

697. Thebana : Thebes in Mysia, the native place also of Andromache. 698. cornus: the shaft of the spear, made of cornel wood. •

705. phalarica : a heavy, spear-like missile, usually discharged by a machine. Nothing but such an instrument could have slain Bitias, and none of the enemy but Turnus could have hurled it.

706. duo terga: i.e. a shield formed of two hides.

707. squama et auro: hendiadys for aurea squama. The corselet was fortified with double or thick “scales,' or plates, “of gold.' Join the ablatives with fidelis, as ablatives of cause.

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