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710. The Romans erected many palatial buildings at Baiae, the foundations of which often extended into the sea. The fall of Bitias is compared to masses of rock thrown into the sea for such foundations. Euboico litore: becausę Cumae, a short distance to the north, was founded by a colony from Chalcis in Euboea. See note on VI, 2.

715. cubile: in apposition with Inarime.

716. Jupiter is here supposed to have cast this island upon the giant Typhoeus. Cf. III, 578 sqq., and note.

717-818. Mars now inspires the enemy with fresh courage, and unnerves the Trojans. Pandarus closes the gate, and in doing this shuts in Turnus, whom he at once assails, incited by his brother's death. Pandarus is slain, and Turnus then attacks the daunted Trojans. He is soon surrounded, but finally saves himself by plunging from the battlements into the Tiber, whence he hastens to join his countrymen.

718. stimulos: cf. VI, 101. 720. conveniunt: sc. Rutuli.

729. ultro: ‘with his own hand.' Turnus under any other circumstances could have effected an entrance only by force; but now he is admitted by Pandarus without resistance.

733. mittit: sc. Turnus as subject. 736. Emicat: ‘darts forward.'

748. is: 'such'; equivalent to talis; not such (as thou) is the sender of the weapon and the wound.'

763. Excipit: 'overtakes,' 'catches.' raptas: captured'; taken from those already slain.

765. comitem : 'a companion’; i.e. to the others whom he has just killed.

766. Ignaros, etc. : this and the following line refer to Trojan combatants on the wall, who are intent on the conflict outside, and are ignorant that Turnus is inclosed within the walls. Some of these Turnus, springing upon the wall, strikes down while their backs are turned toward him.

767. Noëmonaque: the final e is lengthened here.

768–770. Lyncea - Occupat: while Turnus, on the embankment behind the battlements, was slaying those mentioned in 1. 767, Lynceus thought to advance upon him from behind, and take him at a disadvantage; but Turnus, from the rampart on the right (dexter), anticipates (Ocupat) the attack, and, with a blow of his descending sword, severs the head of Lynceus from his body.

773. The infinitives are explanatory, depending upon felicior (1. 772).

776. numeros intendere nervis : “to string the tuneful chords '; a poetic transposition for ad numeros intendere nervos.

781. deinde: still farther.'

785. The verbs are future perfect.
787. segnes: cowards’; accusative agreeing with vos (understood).
803. Sufficere : 'to afford,' or 'supply'; as I1, 618.
804. germanae : Juno. See I, 47, and XII, 830.

806. subsistere : 'to withstand.' tantum : ‘so much'; so much as would be necessary to maintain the fight. Cf. V, 21.

813, 814. piceum Flumen agit: “urges along a pitchy stream'; the sweat breaking out from his face and body flows mingled with blood and dust, and looks black, like pitch.

816. Ille : refers to fluvium ; the Tiber.

Council of the gods. Pallas, Lausus, Mezentius.

1-117. Jupiter calls the gods to a council in Olympus, and persuades them to put an end to discord. Venus complains of the hard persecution of the Trojans, and Juno bitterly replies. Jupiter declares at last that the fates shall decide the conflict without any interference of the gods.

1. Panditur: Olympus was opened in the morning and closed in the evening. CI. I, 374.

The general sense of the line is there. fore 'at daybreak.' omnipotentis: 'supreme' or “sovereign,' as the seat of the all-powersul Jupiter.

5. bipatentibus : ‘with folding doors. See note on II, 330. Others trans., * with double gates.'

7. Versa retro : i.e. turned back again to the same bitter hostility as in former times during the

Fig. 74.– Jupiter and the Olympian Gods Trojan war.

9, 10. hos, hos: the two opposing forces, Trojans and Italians.

13. Alpes immittet apertas: 'will open a way over the Alps'; a bold expression for hostes per Alpes apertas immittet; the reference is to the invasion of Hannibal.





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24. Aggeribus murorum : cf. IX, 769. For murorum some Mss. give the archaic form moerorum.

28. Arpis: called Aetolian because Diomedes, its founder, was of Aetulian descent.

29. vulnera : Diomedes had inflicted a wound on the hand of Venus in battle at the siege of Troy. The occasion was the same as the one alluded to in I, 94 sqq.

40. movet: sc. Iuno as subject.

42. super imperio: 'concerning the supreme dominion '; namely, that

promised to the Trojans in I, 257. of reposanon

47. nepotem : since Venus was the mother of Aeneas.

53. hic: i.e. domi meae, .in my home' in either or all of the three favorite resorts mentioned.

54. (ut) premat: the infinitive is the regular construction with iubere. inde: “from that quarter '; i.e. from Ascanius and his posterity.

64. obductum : 'concealed.'
70. summam belli: 'the direction of the war.'

71. Tyrrhenam quietas: “to stir up an Etrurian league or peaceful tribes.' To excite the peaceful Tyrrhenians to a warlike alliance. Agitare is used rather with reference to gentes than to fidem.

73. hic: ‘here'; in this present difficulty, where is the hand of Juno or Iris?

77. Quid: 'what do you think of this, that the Trojans, etc.?' The infini. tive with subject accusative results from the influence of Indignum est (1. 74). face atra: see IV, 384.

79. soceros, pactas : referring to Latinus and Lavinia.
80. praefigere arma: see note on I, 183.

83. It was by Cybele that the ships were actually transformed; but every favor to the Trojans, by whomsoever effected, is ascribed by Juno to Venus.

90. The use of the infinitive is an irregular construction with quae causa fuit. The prose would be quae causa fuit Europae Asiaeque consurgendi?

102. tremefacta solo: 'trembling in its foundations. Sc. silescit.
103. placida : is proleptic.
108. fuat: an archaic form for sit.

109. Italum: genitive plural, to be joined with fatis. castra: i.e, of the Trojans.

110. Sive errore, etc.: 'or whether by a mistake of Troy (i.e. of the Trojan party in the departure of Aeneas at this crisis), and by the fatal warnings of Iris to Turnus, now working mischiel).' Some editors see no special refer. ence in errore and monitis.

111. Sua exorsa, etc.: ‘his own enterprises (lit. ‘beginnings ') shall bring to each,' etc.

113-115. Cf. IX, 104-106.

118-145. The Trojans are distributed along the ramparts, and, though dejected, resolutely maintain the defense under the direction of Mnestheus and other leaders.

118. circum: adverbially; ‘round about.' portis : ablative, “at the gates.' instant: with infinitive as in I, 423.

133. caput: Greek accusative limiting detectus.

136. buxo: may be regarded either as dative or ablative. Cf. II, 19. The final -o is not elided.

145. Campanae urbi: Capua. The derivation of the name from Capys is, of course, fanciful. Both Campania and Capua probably have the same root as campus.

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146–214. Aeneas forms an alliance with the Etrurians, who immediately set out with him in their ships to carry succor to his beleaguered camp. The poet enumerates the ships and the forces on board, and mentions the leaders of the Etrurians. There are thirty ships, and the troops are arranged under four leaders, Massicus, Abas, Asilas, and Astur.

146. Illi: refers both to the Trojans and their Rutulian assailants.

148. castris ingressus Etruscis: the narrative is resumed from VIII, 607.

149. regi: Tarchon, the Etrurian commander.

153. haud fit, etc.: the apodosis aster ut preces. Others, perhaps rightly, understand est with ingressus (1. 148), place a comma after Etruscis, and make adit, memorat, etc., the apodosis.

154. libera fati: 'free in respect to fate”; no longer held by the prohibition of the fates, mentioned in VIII, 502 sqq. For the genitive, see note on II, 638.

155. Lydia : see note II, 781.
156. duci: the final -i is not elided.

157. leones : Greek accusative, while rostro is dative after sub- in

Fig. 75. – An Etruscan Warrior composition. Cf. III, 428.

158. Ida : perhaps a personification of Mount Ida carved in wood, drawn in a chariot by lions, the latter projecting from the prow of the ship.

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159. Hic: ‘here,' or 'in this ship.'

180. solo: ‘in respect to soil,' or territory, i.e. in location; contrasted with ab origine.

188. Crimen amor vestrum: your fault (is) love. The words may refer to Cycnus and Phaëthon; or, possibly, to Cinyras and Cupavo. formaeque insigne paternae : ‘and your device (crest) is of your father's form '; explanatory of olorinae pennae. The ornament on the helmet of Cupavo was the form of a swan, worn to commemorate the transformation of his father, Cycnus, into a swan.

190. umbram: the sisters of Phaëthon were transformed into poplar trees. 195. Centaurum: the name of the ship. See note on V, 116.

196. saxum - minatur: *threatens (to hurl) a huge rock into the waves.' The figurehead of the ship is thus represented. The Centaurs were sometimes sculptured in the act of hurling rocks, as if in battle.

199. Tusci amnis: the Tiber. See note on II, 781.

202. triplex: Virgil assigns to his native city a threefold origin, Etruscan, Greek, and Umbrian, while each of these three elements is represented in four towns (quaterni populi), making twelve in all, of which

Mantua is the chief. The strong. Fig. 76. — Cybele and the Corybantes

est element, however (vires) is

Tuscan. 204. in se: Mezentius, by his cruelty, has excited the Tuscans to take up arms against him.

205. Benaco: sc, ortus,
206. Mincius: the river god, Mincius, is the figurehead of the ship.

207. gravis: "mighty. centena arbore: for centum remis. Cf. terno, V, 120.

215-286. While Aeneas is pursuing his voyage in the moonlight, the nymphs into which the Trojan ships have been transformed appear to him on the water, and one of them, Cymodoce, informs him of the assault on his camp. He prays to Cybele, and directs his followers to be instantly ready for battle. On his approach to the camp, the Trojans on the ramparts raise a shout, and engage

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