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to the rest of the Greeks, whereas Juno was angry with the whole of the Trojan race. The i in l’nius is scanned short here, as frequently in genitives of this termination. H. 93, 4; LM. 1088; A. 347, a, 1; B. 362, 1, a; G. 722; (H. 577, 3, (3)). ob noxam : the outrage offered to Cassandra by Ajax the Less, or the Oilean Ajax, in the temple of Minerva, during the sack of Troy. See II, 403-405. Pallas, enraged on account of this violation of her sanctuary, raised a storm against the fleet of Ajax, on his return from Troy, when passing near the Euboean promontory of Caphereus, destroying the fleet, and killing Ajax himself with lightning. His body was then cast by the waves upon the rocks. Oili: gen, of Oileus (cf. Achilli, l. 30), here a patronymic, son of Oilçus.'

42. Ipsa : signifies that Pallas did this herself,' personally, without the interposition of any other divinity.

44. transfixo : 'pierced' by the lightning.

45. Turbine : 'with the lightning-blast,' the wind supposed to accompany the bolt. Infigo takes indifferently the dative or ablative. Cf. V, 504; IX, 746.

46. ego: contrasted with Pallas. divum: for divorum. incedo: suggests a majestic mien. Cf. l. 405. It is substituted here for sum to express in a livelier manner the conscious superiority of Juno. regina : H. 393, 10; LM. 465; A. 185; B. 167, 168; G. 325; (H. 362, 2, N. 1). 47. soror : Juno and Jupiter were children

Fig. 2. — Juno (Ludovisi) of Saturn.

48. Iunonis : is more forcible than mcum would have been. See note on



49. Praeterea: fur posthar, 'hereafter.' The intli.., adorat and imponet, expresses the idea more forcibly than the subj.; “surely no one henceforth adores, no one will bring sacrifice.' The present is occasionally used for the future in lively or earnest discourse, indicating strong assurance. See II, 322.

50-63. Description of the realm of Aeolus in the Liparaean islands. 51. austris : the names of particular winds are often put for the general term.

52. antro: not the situation of Aeolus himself, but the place in which the winds are restrained and bound.

54. vinclis, carcere : ablative of means.

55. magno cum murmure montis : with the loud reëchoing of the mountain.' The hollow mountain resounds with the roaring of the winds, furious to burst the barriers. Cf. below, I. 245. Here and in 1. 53, the spondees, which predominate, suggest well the power of the struggling winds, and the alliteration their roar.

56. arce : the palace was built on the summit or slope of a mountain, and is called, in l. 140, aula. Virgil probably conceives of the king seated on a throne in the open air. Some, however, think that the poet has in mind a throne within the castle or palace.

58. Ni faciat, ferant, verrant: for the present subjunctive, see H. 576, 2; A. 308, e; G. 596, R. I; (H. 509, N. 2). Cf. II, 599; VI, 293. In prose the imperfect subjunctive would be used.

59. Quippe : ‘for,' because '; is removed from its proper place, at the beginning of the sentence, by poetic license. Trans. : : For should he not do this, they would swiftly bear away,' etc.

60. speluncis : for the case, cf. II, 553; though the ablative also occurs after abdere.

61. molem et montis altos: an instance of hendiadys (two nouns joined by a coördinate conjunction, equivalent logically to one noun modified by an adjective or a genitive) for molem montium altorum. insuper : “above' or upon’them. Cf. III, 579. Some render it'moreover.'

62. foedere certo: 'according to a determinate law. H. 475; LM. 612; A. 245; B. 219; G. 408; (H. 416). Join with the infinitives.

63. premere : 'to restrain (them).' sciret : who might' or 'that he might know. See note on l. 20. iussus : “when ordered'; i.e. by Jupiter.

64-80. The address of Juno to Aeolus, and his reply.

65. namque: is elliptical here, as enim above, I. 19. It introduces the ground of her appeal to Aeolus: “I come to thee, for -.' Cf. I, 731; VII, 195.

66. mulcere, tollere: are governed by dedit as accusatives, instead of being in the form of the participle in -dus. H. 622; LM. 994; A. 294, d; B. 337, 7,6), 2); G. 423; (H. 544, N. 2).

67. Tyrrhenum aequoi : 'the Tuscan sea'; that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. For the accusative after navigat, see H. 409; A. 237, d; B. 176, 4; G. 333, 2, R. 2; (H. 371, II).

68. victos: the household gods of Troy, as its protectors, must be considered vanquished in suffering the city to be captured and destroyed.

69. summersas obrue puppis: lit. the ships being sunk, bury (thou) in the waves '; a Latin idiom which should be turned into English by two independent verbs, “Sink and bury the ships in the waves.' H. 639; A. 202, R.; G. 664, R. 1; (H. 549, 5).

70. diversos: '(their crews) asunder.'

71. bis septem : bis or ter with a numeral is a favorite mode of expressing numbers in poetry. corpore : an ablative of description. See note on l. 164. 72. Quarum quae, etc.: 'and Delopea, who (is) the fairest of these in beauty, I will unite to you in lasting wedlock, and pronounce your own.' The nominative, Deropea, is put by attraction in the case of the relative quae, instead of the accusative, which would have been the regular construction. H. 399, 3; A. 200, b; B. 251, 4; G. 616; (II. 445, 9). Quarum is translated as if earumque. The preference for the relative in Latin often gives rise to the construction, which we have here, of two relatives in the same sentence; cf. the frequently recurring expression in Cicero, quae cum ita sint. The genitive is governed by the superlative, pulcherrima, as a genitive of the whole. See note on l. 96. ?

73. Conubio: is scanned as a trisyll. H. 733, 3, N. 4; LM. 1112; A. 347, «; B. 367, 1; G. 723; (IT. 608, III, N. 2). propriam : is a strong word, denoting sure and perpetual possession.

75. pulchra prole: seems to modify faciat in the same way as if the expression were enixa pulchram prolem ; that she may make thee a parent, having borne to thee (by bearing to thee) a fair offspring.' Thus it is an ablative of means.

76. haec: supply ait or dicit. See H. 388, 5; LM. 461; A. 206, (; B. 166, 3; G. 688; (H. 368, 3). Tuus - labor : it is thy task to consider what thou desirest '; i.e. I have not the responsibility of deciding whether that be right or wrong which you wish.

77. Explorare: to look into the nature of the request. Aeolus will excuse himself, when called to account for trespassing on the dominion of Neptune, by pleading the command of Juno, and his duty to her.

78. Tu mihi: in ascribing to Juno's intercession with Jupiter the power and dignity conferred upon Aeolus, Virgil has probably followed some ancient. myth, in which Juno, as the impersonation of the air, was represented as exer. cising some influence over the winds and in the creation of a king under whose control they were placed. quodcumque hoc regni (est): this domin. ion, such as it is.' sceptra: as above, l. 57, and below, l. 253, indicates the kingly power with somewhat more fullness than the singular number. For the case of epulis, see H. 429; LM. 532; A. 228; B. 187, III; G. 347; (H. 386).

79. accumbere: the infinitive with dare, as in I. 66.

80. Nimborum: H. 451, 2; LM. 573; A. 218, a; B. 204, 1; G. 374; (H. 399, I, 3).

81-123. The storm; the despair of Aeneas, the loss of one ship, and extreme peril of his whole fleet.

81. conversa cuspide : 'with his shifted spear ʼ; not with the point turned downward, but turned from a vertical to a horizontal position. While still seated, Aeolus strikes the point of the spear, which he had previously held as

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a scepter resting vertically on the ground, into the side of the hill; or, as some understand it, against the door of the prison. Note the alliteration • which marks the ring of the blow on the hollow mountain side' (Page).

82. in latus: a more vigorous construction for in latere. Cf. In puppim below, l. 115. agmine facto: 'in battle array’; lit. 'a battalion being formed'; a military higure.

83. Qua : 'where,' by whatever way. H. 476; LM. 644; A. 258, g; B. 218, 9; G. 91, 2, (; (H. 420, 1, 3)). Cf. Milton's Par. Regained, 4, 413:

Nor slept the winds
Within their stony caves,

but rushed abroad
From the four hinges of the world.'


84. Incubuere: they descended upon. The verb in this sense is followed by the dative. Cf. II, 514. totum : sc. mare, in the accusative after ruunt, which is transitive here, though intransitive in the foregoing sentence.

87. -que — que : see note on l. 18. virum : the Trojans.

92. solvuntur frigore : ‘are paralyzed with chilling fear.' Fear is analo gous to cold in its effect on the blood. Cf. III, 175; XII, 905.

93. duplices : for ambas, 'both’; as in VII, 140; X, 667, and elsew here.

94. terque quaterque : a climax is usually expressed by thrice'; but Latin, as well as Greek poets, sometimes add “four times,' for still greater emphasis.

95. quis: H. 182, footnote 3; LM. 288; A. 104, d; B. 89; G. 105, N. 2; (H. 187, footnote 5).

96. oppetere: sc. mortem, 'to meet death.' gentis: limits fortissime. H. 442; LM. 560; A. 216, a, 2; B. 201, 1; G. 372; (H. 397, 3).

97. Tydide: his contest with Aeneas is described in the Iliad, V, 239-318. Aeneas was saved on this occasion by Venus. occumbere : sc. morti. pis : ablative of place where. H. 483; LM. 627; A. 258, f; B. 228; G. 385; (H. 425). See note on Italiam, I. 2.

97, 98. mene Non potuisse : for the exclamatory infinitive, see note on 1. 37 Trans. : “That I could not have!'

99. telo iacet: lit. 'lies by the spear'; i.e. lies slain by the spear. Instrumental ablative.

102. iactanti: the dative limits the whole proposition, procella adversa ferit. H. 425, 2; LM. 537; A. 235; B. 188; G. 352; (H. 384, II, 1, 21). *As he utters these words, a blast, roaring from the north, opposite (to the course of the ship), strikes the sail.' Aquilone : ‘from the north.'

104. tum prora avertit: sc. sese. et undis Dat latus: the ship, o.) longer impelled by the oars, falls into the trough of the sea, and is inmedi. ately struck by the whole weight of a mountainous wave, breaking upon its side.

105. cumulo: 'in a mass ’; join with insequitur as an ablative of manner.

106. Hi: those in one ship; his : those in another. Cf, below, l. 162, hinc - hinc.

107. harenis : ablative of means, 'with the sands'; not of the shore, but of the bottom of the sea.

109. quae in fluctibus : sc. sunt. The rocky islets referred to are possibly the Aegimuri, thirty miles north of Carthage.

110. mari summo: at the surface of the sea '; an ablative of place.

111. brevia et syrtes : ‘shoals and sand banks'; not the so-called Syrtes Maior and Minor on the African coast. miserabile: H. 394, 4; A. 189, d; (H. 438, 3). visu: H. 635; LM. 1007; A. 303; B. 340, 2; G. 436; (H. 547).

114. Ipsius: refers to Aeneas. The i in the genitive as in Unius, l. 41. a vertice: for desuper ; 'from above’; from the point to which the wave has risen so as to stand almost vertically to the ship, and to descend 'right down' upon the stern. pontus : equivalent to fluctus; as when we say, "A sea strikes the ship.'

115. In puppim: cf. in latus, 1. 82. excutitur magister : “the helmsman is struck from his seat.' The helmsman, or pilot, of Orontes's ship was Leu. caspis. See VI, 334.

116. in caput : "headlong.' illam: the ship, in contrast with the persons on board.

118. rari: here and there'; referring to the voyagers seen struggling in the sea, less numerous than the arms, planks, and valuables floating all about

Note the spondees, in strong contrast with the dactyls of the preceding line, which suggest the fierce whirl of the eddy.

121. qua vectus (est) Abas: '(the one) in which Abas sailed.'

122. Vicit : 'has overpowered '; either by driving them away at the mercy of winds and waves, or by casting them on rocks and sands. It does not mean 'destroyed,' for all were saved except the ship of Orontes. laxis compagibus : H. 489; LM. 638; A. 255, a; B. 227, 1; G. 409; (H. 431, 4). omnes: SC, naves.

123. rimis : ablative of manner.

124-156. Neptune hears the storm raging on the sea, and is indignant that Aeolus has sent the winds to invade his dominion. He rises in his chariot to the top of the waves, rebukes and disperses the winds, and rescues the Trojan ships.

124. misceri: 'agitated.' 125. Emissam : 'let loose.'

126. Stagna: the waters near the bottom of the sea are supposed not to be disturbed by ordinary winds; hence, they are called here “standing' or still waters. These are now “thrown up' (refusa) from the bottom to the surface by the violent agitation of the whole mass of the waters. vadis : the ablative with refusa. graviter commotus : 'deeply indignant' or 'with deep

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