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162. aut: see note on II, 602. Cretae: H. 484, 1; LM. 620; A. 258, C, R.; B. 232, 1; G. 411; (H. 426, 1).

163–166. Repeated from 1, 530-533.

167. nobis : the Penates identify themselves with the Trojans. Dardanus : the brothers Dardanus and lasius were natives of Corythus, a city of Etruria. They migrated from Italy to Samothrace, and from thence Dardanus passed over to the Troad, where he married the daughter of Teucer, and received with her a share of the kingdom, which thus took the name of Dardania. The later name of Troy was derived from his grandson, Tros.

168. pater : is applied to Iasius, as being, in common with his brother, an original member of the family, or one of the patriarchs. quo: must be referred to Dardanus as the conspicuous name; Iasius being merely appended as naturally associated with Dardanus.

170. requirat: ‘let him (Anchises) seek.' Anchises is recognized as the chief adviser and director of their movements.

171. tibi: Aeneas.

173. Nec sopor illud erat: ‘nor was that (all) a dream'; it was preter natural. illud : the regular construction would be ille. H. 394, 1; A. 195, d; B. 246, 5. Cỉ. VI, 12); (H. 438, 1).

174. Velatas comas: they were veiled or bound with the fillets. 175. gelidus: cf. I. 30. corpore: “from my body.'

177, 178. munera Intemerata : libations of unmixed wine.' focis : on the hearth'; the altar of the Penates. laetus: join with facio, not honore. honore: offering.'

179. ordine pando: “I narrate.'

180. prolem ambiguam: “the twofold lineage.' Adgnovit: governs the accusatives and the infinitive deceptum esse as direct objects.

181. novo: it was natural that at this late day Anchises should be liable to err in deciding which of the early homes of his ancestors the oracle meant. veterum locorum: an objective genitive after errore;

new mistake about the ancient land.'

183. tales casus: 'such fortunes’; namely, as that we should wander su far and settle in Italy.

184. repeto: 'I recall.' portendere: sc. eam ; that she prophesied.' 185. vocare: 'that she mentioned.'

187. Crederet, moveret: ‘who could believe,' etc.; deliberative subjunctive. H. 557; LM. 723; A. 268; B. 277; G. 265; (H. 486, II).

188. moniti: 'warned'; i e. by the vision.
189. dicto: the 'word' or 'command' of Anchises.

190. quoque: “also’this settlement as well as the one in Thrace. paucis relictis: leaving a few (of our number).' In Virgil's time, Pergamum and the supposed descendants of the Trojan colonists still existed in Crete.

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191. aequor : accusative with currimus ; 'we traverse.' See note on I, 67, and cf. V, 235.

192-266. The Trojans, having set sail from Crete, are driven about by a storm for three days and nights, and on the fourth reach the Strophades, small islands west of the Peloponnesus, where the Harpies dwell. They are annoyed by the Harpies and make an assault upon them. Celaeno, chief of the Harpies, pronounces a curse upon the voyagers, and they leave the island in terror.

193. caelum - pontus (apparet): sc. sed before caelum. 194. adstitit: a livelier word than surrexit.

195. inhorruit unda tenebris : the sea became ruffled with darkness'; the sea became rough, and was overspread with the gloomy shadow of the clouds. Cf. Tennyson's imitation (The Lady of Shalott, 12, 13): –

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'Little breezes dusk and shiver
Thro' the wave that runs for ever.'

199. Abstulit: cf. 1, 88. ingeminant, etc.: ‘the lightnings continually flash from the riven clouds.'

201. discernere, etc.: Palinurus does not perceive in the heavens (i.e. by looking at the heavens) when the day ends and the night begins. Caelo is the ablative of place.

202. With Nec supply dicit, which is occasionally omitted, as here, after negat. meminisse, etc.: sc. se; “and says that he does not distinguish his course in the midst of the wave.'

203. Tres adeo soles : 'three whole days '; adeo qualifies tres; three, even so many.' incertos caeca caligine: the days are called 'uncertain, since their course is uncertain on account of the profound darkness.

206. aperire montes : “to disclose its mountains ’; to bring its mountains into view. volvere fumum : therefore the Trojans suppose it to contain the dwellings of men.

207. remis insurgimus: they exchange sails for oars, in order to have the ships more under their command as they approach the shore, where there may be rocks and shallows.

209. Strophadum: the name of the islands is said to be derived from OT PÉDelv, since the pursuers of the lIarpies, by the command of Jupiter, at this point ‘turned back’to Greece.

210. stant: ‘are situated'; a lively substitute for sunt, as incedo, I, 46, and colitur, above, l. 73.

211. Insulae Ionio in magno: the diphthong æ in insula is not elided, and is shortened. See H. 733, 2, N.; LM. 110; A. 359, e, and 355, d ; B. 366, 7, 2; G. 720; (H. 608, II, n. 3.)

212. aliae: the others, whose names are known, were Ocypete, Podarge, Nicothoë, and Aëllo.

213. Clausa : the house of Phineus was closed against the Harpies after they had been expelled by the Argonauts, Zetes and Calais, who pursued them over the sea. They had tormented Phineus by constantly devouring or defiling the food that was placed upon his table.

215. Pestis et ira: “plague and curse.'

216. Virginei volucrum vultus: 'the faces of the winged creatures are like those of maidens '; “they are birds with the faces of maidens.'

220. laeta : abundant.'

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Fig. 27. – Harpies (1l. 216 sqq.) 221. Caprigenum: agrees with pecus. nullo custode: ablative absolute. They were sacred to the Harpies, and left to feed, as was usual with sacred animals, without a herdsman.

222, 223. divos — Iovem: we devote a portion of the prey as a sacrifice to the gods, out of gratitude for our preservation. In partem praedamque : hendiadys for in partem praeaae. Cf. I, 61.

224. toros: “couches,' or 'seats' of piled-up turf. dapibus : H. 476; LM. 645; A. 248, C; B. 218; G. 401; (H. 421, footnote 1).

225. subitae : instead of the adverb, subito. horrifico lapsu: 'with terrific swoop'; ablative of manner.

226. clangoribus : refers to the loud flapping of their wings. Cf. I, 397. 229, 230. Cf. I, 310, 311. 231. aris: altars erected for the sacrifices mentioned in II. 222, 223.

232. diverso caeli: 'from an opposite part of the heaven.' Cf. II, 716. 233. pedibus : see l. 217.

235. Edico: 'I order ’; as a verb of commanding, followed by the subjunctive (ut) capessant, and, as signifying 'I declare,' also followed by the infinitive, gerendum esse.

236. iussi: sc. facere.
236, 237. tectos, latentia : proleptic. See note on I, 637.
239. specula : some high rock serves as a watch-tower.
241. foedare: in apposition with proelia. See note on 1. 60.
242. tergo: 'on the body.'

246. Infelix: “ill-boding. rumpit : shrieks forth’; the word describes her fury.

247, 248. Bellum etiam pro caede, bellumne: 'war then in return for the slaughter of our oxen, is it war?' in return (pro) for the oxen of which you have robbed us. Laomedontiadae : in this passage a reproachful epithet, as Laomedon was faithless. Cf. IV, 542. But this is not always the case. See VII, 105; VIII, 18 and 158.

249. patrio: "hereditary'; since the Harpies were daughters of Pontus or Poseidon.

251. pater omnipotens: Jupiter was the source of all the attributes of his children, and thus imparted to Apollo the gift of prophecy, and the power to inspire others with prophecy.

252. Furiarum: the poets do not always distinguish the Harpies from the Furies.

253. ventis vocatis : ‘having invoked the winds.' Cf. above, I. 115. 254. Italiam: see note on I, 2. 256. nostrae caedis : ‘of the murder of us'; your attempted slaughter of us.

257. Ambesas: see note on summersas, I, 69. subigat: after antequam. H. 605, I; LM.878; A. 327,6; B. 292; G. 577; (H. 520, I, 2). malis : join with absumere. The prophecy was fulfilled, VII, 109 f.

259. gelidus: cf. 1. 30.

260. armis, etc.: 'nor do they now wish to seek security with arms, but with vows and prayers.'

262. sive — sint: their vengeance is to be deprecated if they are goddesses; their continued persecution, if they are only horrible monsters. The subjunctive is that of indirect discourse, dependent on an idea of saying contained in exposcere.

266. funem: the ‘hawser,' or “cable,' which moors the ship to the shore.

267-277. The Trojans sail by the islands of the Ionian Sea, Zacynthus, Dulichium, Same, Neritos, Ithaca, Leucate, and reach Actium in Acarnania, on the bay of Ambracia.

267. excussos – rudentes (see note on 1. 257): 'to loosen and fling free the sheets.' The rudentes were ropes which were fastened to the lower cerners of the sails, and by which the sail was adjusted to the direction from which the wind blew. See V, 830 and note.

270. Iam apparet, etc.: they coast along the west side of Greece to Buthrotum.

271. Neritos: probably a small island near Ithaca, though some understand it to refer to the mountain of that name on the island of Ithaca.

275. Et aperitur Apollo: “and (after we have passed by Leucadia) the temple of Apollo opens to the view.' This was situated on the promontory' of Actium, near the town of the same name, at the entrance of the Ambracian gulf. Shipwrecks frequently occurred here, and hence the temple is said to be dreaded by sailors.

278-289. At Actium they celebrate games in honor of Apollo, and leave a shield suspended on the doorpost of the temple, with an inscription to com memorate their visit.

278. insperata : because they have encountered such dangers on the sea, and sailed so near the homes of their enemies.

279. Lustramur Iovi: 'we perform lustral sacrifices to Jupiter,' because of the recent adventure with the Harpies; the verb is used in the middle sense. Cf. II, 383. Virgil represents Aeneas and his followers as performing a lustration according to the practice of the Romans, thus referring that custom to their Trojan ancestors. Augustus had ordered quinquennial games to be celebrated in honor of Apollo at Actium, to commemorate his decisive victory achieved there, in 31 B.C., over Antony and Cleopatra. By representing Aeneas as performing lustral games at the same place, and as thus being the founder of the Actian games, the poet pays a high compliment to Augustus. votis: meton. for sacris, 'sacrifices.'

280. celebramus litora ludis: hypallage for celebramus in litoribus ludes. Cl. note on l. 61. Celebrare may perhaps be used here in its original sense of throng.'

281. oleo labente: ablative absolute. The oil with which they were anointed flowed from their bodies while wrestling. palaestras: here athletic games.'

284. circumvolvitur, etc.: ‘the sun completes the full year.' The accusative expresses duration of time.

286. Aere cavo: ablative of description. gestamen Abantis: 'the equipment of Abas ’; carried by Abas. This was an ancient king of the Argives some one of whose descendants, Virgil imagines, was slain by Aeneas at Troy, thus leaving to the victor his shield as a trophy. This is now fastened upon

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