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the doorpost (facing the visitor, adversis), so as to meet the eye of one entering the temple.

287. rem : 'the fact' that it is an offering made by Aeneas. carmine: with the verse'; the verse following.

288. Aeneas: sc. dedicat; Aeneas (consecrates) these arms (taken) from the victorious Greeks.'

290-505. Aeneas sails again to the northward, and lands at Pelodes, the seaport of Buthrotum, in Epirus. At Buthrotum he has an interview with Helenus, the brother of Hector, and Andromache, formerly the wife of Hector, and more recently the slave of Pyrrhus, but now the wife of Helenus. By a wonderful combination of events, Helenus and Andromache have come to be the rulers of Chaonia, a district in Epirus. Just before parting with Aeneas, Helenus, who is a priest and prophet, gives him instructions about his future course; informing him that his new kingdom is to be planted, not on the nearest (or Adriatic) shore of Italy, but on the farthest (or Tyrrhe. nian) shore; that he must pass round the peninsula, shunning the new Greek colonies established by Idomeneus, the Locri, and Philoctetes; that he must not enter the straits of Scylla and Charybdis, but sail round Sicily by the south, and enter the Tuscan Sea from Drepanum; that he must seek an interview with the prophetess or Sibyl at Cumae, who will give him directions for his future guidance.

291. abscondimus : 'we lose sight of.' arces : 'heights' or mountains.' 292. portu: dative.

293. Chaonio: the harbor is so called because situated in Chaonia, a region of Epirus. The name of the port pertaining to Buthrotum was Pelodes. celsam: a common appellative of walled cities. The city was at some distance from the port, but not on high ground.

295. Helenum: one of the sons of Priam, renowned as a prophet. Being made prisoner by the Greeks, he was carried by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, to Epirus. That the son of the principal enemy of the Greeks should now be a king in Grecian cities fills Aeneas with wonder. The position of the words aids the contrast of ideas.

296. Coniugio: as in II, 579.

297. patrio marito: 'a husband of her own country'; i.e. of Troy, the country which had become hers by marrying Hector. iterum cessisse : ‘has again become subject to. Helenus is her second Trojan husband.

299. The infinitives after amore, as in II, 10.

300. Progredior: Aeneas goes attended with a part of his companions only and without Ascanius. Afterwards the Trojans are all entertained by Helenus. portu: ablative; see note on I, 2.

301. Sollemnes dapes: 'annual funeral sacrifices.'

302. falsi Simoentis : “the fictitious' or 'pretended Simois.' Helenus and Andromache had indulged their love of country by applying Trojan names to this stream and to other objects in their new kingdom. See ll. 335, 336, 349, 497.

304. Hectoreum ad tumulum : at the tomb of Hector.' This was a ceno. taph. The real tomb was at Troy. viridi, etc.: 'which (formed) of green turf, a cenotaph (lit. empty), she had consecrated.'

305. geminas aras: see note on arae, I. 63. causam lacrimis: 'an occasion for tears’; because the tomb and the altars would remind her of Hector. For the dative, see note on scaenis, I, 429.

307. magnis exterrita monstris: astounded at the great prodigy.' To her the sudden apparition of Aeneas and his followers was the more likely to seem supernatural, because her mind was on the deceased Hector.

309. longo tempore: for longo post tempore. H. 479; LM. 655; A. 250; B. 223; G. 403; (H. 430).

310. Vera facies: “a living form.' te: addressed to Aeneas.

311. recessit: “has departed (from thee).' The sense is: If thou art dead, and comest from the lower world, and from the assembly of Trojan heroes there, tell me where in that world is my Hector?

313. clamore: 'with loud lamentations.' 314. Subicio: “I answer in reply.' raris, etc.: “I gasp in faltering words.' 316. Answer to the question in l. 310. 317. deiectam : 'deprived of'; lit. 'cast down from.' 318. Excipit: “awaits.'

319. Hectoris Andromache, etc.: dost thou, once the Andromache of Hector, preserve the marriage ties of Pyrrhus?' Not said in reproach, but in grief that her hard fate is such. With the genitive, Hectoris, cf. Oili, 1, 41. e in the interrogative

-ne is elided. 320. Deiecit: she is the victim of necessity and fate, but she can not escape some sense of shame in the thought of her connection with Neoptolemus.

321. virgo: the allusion is to Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, slain as a sacrifice at the tomb of Achilles, who had been enamored of her, and had sought her hand in marriage.

323. Iussa : “when commanded.' The participle indicates the cause of felix. sortitus: “allotments,' • distributions by lot.' Compare the style of this passage with that of I, 94 sqq.

325. Nos: for ego; in contrast with Polyxena.
326. Stirpis Achilleae : for filii Achilli, i.e. Pyrrhus.

327. Servitio enixae: having borne children in bondage.' According to Pausanias, I, 11, she bore three sons to Pyrrhus, – Molossus, Pileus, and Pergamus.

328. Lacedaemonios: Hermione was the daughter of Menelaus of Lacedaemon, and of Helen, the daughter of Leda. Her grandparents, Tyndarus and Leda, had promised her in marriage to Orestes, but her father gave her to Pyrrhus. Orestes, already frantic with the consciousness of having murdered his mother (scelerum furiis agitatus), and still more maddened at the loss of his betrothed (ereptae coniugis), came upon Pyrrhus either at Phthia, his paternal home, or at Delphi, where he was worshiping at the altar erected to Achilles (patrias aras), and slew him.

329. famulamque: the particle -que is grammatically unnecessary; 'gave me to Helenus a slave, (being) also myself a slave.'

332. patrias : equivalent to patris.

333. Morte: ablative of time; ‘at the death.' -reddita : ‘being delivered up.'

335. Troiano a Chaone: Chaon was a friend or brother of Helenus, for whom he is said to have sacrificed his life.

336. Pergama Iliacamque arcem: the second term defines the first by epexegesis. Cf. I, 2: Italian Lavinaque litora. iugis : dative with addidit.

339. Quid : sc. agit; how fares the boy?' vescitur: cf. I, 546.

340. Quem tibi, etc.: this is the only fragmentary verse of the Aeneid in which an idea is not fully expressed. See note on I, 534. The general sense seems to be : ‘whom Creüsa bore to thee when Troy was being besieged.'

341. tamen: 'still, (though she be no more). The story of Creüsa's disappearance at Troy may have reached Andromache during the several years of the wanderings of Aeneas.

342. Ecquid: an emphatic indefinite interrogative particle. See H. 416, 2; LM. 507; A. 240, a ; B. 176, 2; G. 333, R. 2; (H. 378, 2). Do their deeds, and the knowledge that he is related so nearly to them, stimulate him in any respect to noble conduct ?

343. avunculus: Hector, according to one account, was the brother of Creüsa.

345. Incassum: “in vain,' for grief can not restore the dead. 347. suos: ‘his countrymen.'

349–351. Troiam, Pergama, etc.: see note on 1. 302. arentem- rivum : 'the shallow stream with the name of Xanthus.' For the ablative, see H. 473, 2; LM. 643; A. 251; B. 224; G. 400; (H. 419, II). amplector: it was the ancient custom to embrace and kiss the threshold, the gate, and the doorpost, either on leaving or revisiting the ancestral roof.

Cf. II, 490. The Trojan names bring Aeneas to his home again.

352. Teucri: after the interview between Aeneas and his friends above described, all the Trojans are summoned, and invited to share in the hospitalities of King Helenus.

354. Aulai medio: “in the midst of the court.' Aulai is the archaic form of the genitive singular. See note on media, I, 505. libabant pocula :

'they poured out cups of wine in libations. Cf. I, 736. So remarkable a meeting required special honors to the gods.

355. Impositis auro dapibus : “having placed the feasts (or sacrifices the gods) on golden chargers'; as at a Roman lectisternium. pateras tenebant: they held the goblets while making libations. These religious ceremonies open the banquet given to the guests.

359. interpres divum: the knowledge of future

events was derived either from direct inspiration or Fig. 28. — Sacrificial

from signs. Helenus had both gifts. He receives the Scene, showing Use

direct influence of Apollo, like the Pythia on the triof the Patera (1.355)

pod at Delphi, or like the priests in the oracular grotto of Claros, in lonia; he also understands the warnings of the stars, and the notes and the flig of birds.

362, 363. prospera : grammatically with religio, but logically with cursum. numine: ‘by revelation '; by divine tokens. The clause is explanatory of the foregoing.

364. repostas: for repositas ; 'remote.' Cf. VI, 59.

365. dictu nefas: H. 635, 1, 2; LM. 1007; A. 303; B. 340, 2; G. 436; (H. 547, 1 and 2).

367. Obscenam famem : 'revolting hunger.' vito: cf. II, 322.

368. Quid sequens: ‘(by) pursuing what course.

369. de more: cf. I, 318.

370. vittas resolvit: the fillets must be removed from his head when about to be inspired, that the god might work freely in him. See VI, 77 99.

Fig. 29. — Cortina and Tripod (1. 360) 371. limina: Virgil understands that Apollo has a temple in the new Pergama of Helenus, as in the old Pergama.

372. multo: 'powerful.' suspensum : 'awed.'

374, 375. nam : introduces the ground on which Helenus reveals the will of the gods to Aeneas; namely, the fact just mentioned by Aeneas in

[graphic]

11. 362–364. maioribus Auspiciis : 'under higher auspices ’; i.e. under those of the greater gods. Jupiter himself directs Aeneas. manifesta fides (est): “there is clear proof. Ire is the subject of est.

376. Sortitur : «determines.' volvit vices: disposes events. See note on volvere, I, 9 and 22. is vertitur ordo: "this is the fixed order of events that revolves '; i.e. upon the wheel of destiny.

377. quo: followed by the subjunctive. H. 568, 7; LM. 908; A. 317, b; B. 282, 1, a ; G. 545, 2; (H. 497, II, 2). hospita: “foreign.'

380. fari, etc.: Juno (i.e. the fear of Juno) forbids him to utter.'

381. Italiam: not the whole of Italy, but that part which is destined for the Trojans. “A pathless (invia) path and long separates (that destined) Italy afar by continuous lands (longis terris).'

383. terris : an ablative of means, to be joined with dividit. It refers to the southern part of the peninsula, and also to Sicily, which they must pass round before they can reach their new country.

384. lentandus : 'must be bent'; must be dipped.

385. salis Ausonii: of the Ausonian sea'; that part of the sea which lies between Etruria and Sicily.

386. Infernique lacus: Lake Avernus. Lustrare here is used in the sense both of 'traverse' and of 'survey.' H. 751, 2, N.; A. p. 430, zeugma ; B. 374, 2, a; G. 690; (H. 636, II, 1). Aeaeae : from Aea, a city of Colchis. insula : refers to the promontory of Circeium, having the sea on one side and the Pontine marshes on the other, and probably once an island.

387. possis : the subjunctive after antequam. See note on l. 257.

389. Cum, etc.: the sow and her progeny of thirty young, found near the Tiber (as described in VII, 82), will indicate the place where Aeneas shall build the new city. tibi: dative of the agent; to be joined with inventa. secreti: "solitary.' Cf. VIII, 44 sqq.

392. nati: sc. iacebunt.

396. Has, hanc: these coasts,” “this part (of the Italian shore),' near us, on the Adriatic and the gulf of Tarentum.

399. Narycii Locri : a colony of Locrians from Naryx, or Narycium, opposite Euboea, said to be the followers of the Oileian Ajax, settled on the coast of Bruttiuni.

400. Sallentinos: the Sallentine fields, between the Tarentine Gulf and the Adriatic, milite: 'soldiery'; collective, as in II, 495.

401. Idomeneus: was driven from Crete, 11. 121, 122. ducis Meliboei: Philoctetes, being driven out of his native town, Meliboea in Thessaly, settled in Petelia, on the east coast of Bruttium.

402. Philoctetae: limits muro. subnixa: “resting on. Cf. I, 506. 404. litore: the shore where the first landing shall be made in Italy. 405. velare comas: imperative passive, with the force of the middle; 'be

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