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dreds, if not thousands, of men on both ignorance and violence leap out to fight sides of this controversy have been going oppression and autocracy? Moreover, , about armed; the works of the Pressed the great industries which have made Steel Car Company have all but under- Pittsburgh and Pennsylvania such enorgone a siege ; the strike-breakers have centers of wealth have, by their been housed and fed in the works importations of low-grade foreign labor, lest they be killed or persuaded to join lowered American standards. These inthe strikers; the State constabulary and dustries have received in the past through sheriffs' officers have patrolled streets, high protective duties immense industrial searched houses for arms, and treated the advantages, and these privileges have people as if actual war were in existence; been bestowed very largely in answer to street cars have been wrecked; fights and the argument that only by protection can the firing of pistols have been common the American standard of wages be mainevents; and, finally, at least eleven peo- tained. But the labor-contract law has ple (strikers, troopers, sheriffs, and inno- not proved an obstacle to the bringing in cent citizens) have been killed, and many of countless thousands of low-priced, seriously wounded. Some weeks ago, ignorant, and sometimes dangerous workwhen the strike began, The Outlook men from abroad.
Where is labor's proasked the questions : Is the public con- tection from foreign competition ? It is cerned with the way in which a private the height of insolence for the employers company treats its employees ? Is the now to say, as they do in almost so many workingman to be treated otherwise than words: We, and we alone, will fix wages as a tool or a piece of machinery? The and hours ; if the men object, they may events of last week and the continued go starve ; if violence ensues, it is the bitterness of this labor war emphasize the business of the State to protect us. need of a reasonable answer to these questions. Beyond doubt the public has a right to be protected from the inevitable
In point of fact, the time is results of such a clash of hostile forces.
soon coming when that corFor this reason, as we have before as
poration will be considered serted, it must no longer be contended antiquated in its methods which does not that the sole control of industry belongs recognize the fact that industry is not to the owner of capital. Industrial autoc- war, but business, and that the essence of racy means industrial war to the knife, business is compromise, concession, and and that will not long be tolerated by the mutual benefit. Mark Hanna, whatever third party in interest, namely, the people may have been his political methods; knew at large. In this case it is instructive to this, and established conciliation courts in the turn from the employers' blunt refusals soft-coal mining country which have given to compromise, or arbitrate, or even dis- excellent results. The Anthracite Strike cuss the matters in dispute, to the sum- Commission, called into existence by Presimary made by Dr. Devine of what the dent Roosevelt at the time of the great Pittsburgh Survey found to be the indus- anthracite strike, was another long step in trial situation in Pittsburgh, of which this direction. President Baer, after fighting McKees Rocks practically forms part. the inception of the idea with all his might, Here are a few phrases from that sum- was quoted last spring, after six years' mary : An altogether incredible amount trial of the decision of controversies by of overwork by everybody; wages so low arbitration, as saying, " This award of the as to be inadequate to the maintenance of Strike Commission has been the most satisa normal American standard of living ; factory solution of the labor problem on absentee capitalism ; immigrants with low a large scale that the world has ever seen. standards ; the destruction of family life; Examples of the success of the conciliatory typhoid fever and industrial accidents — methods in industrial disputes might be
, both preventable, but costing in single multiplied with instances the world over. years in Pittsburgh more than a thousand Ex-President Eliot, in the current issue of lives ; archaic social institutions. With McClure's Magazine, and under the perthese conditions, who can wonder that tinent title “ The Best Way to Prevent
Industrial Warfare,"shows what have been standing. At the head was Dr. Ira Remthe results in two years of the Canadian sen, and members of the Board were Dr. law for the maintenance of industrial peace Russell H. Chittenden, Dr. C. H. Herter, in all public utilities. This has been de
This has been de- and Dr. John R. Long. The Board carscribed in The Outlook. In brief, it ried on three entirely separate and indemakes it illegal in any public utility busi- pendent series of investigations as to the ness (including mines) to resort to a strike effect of benzoate of soda in food products. or lockout until the matters in dispute All three of these investigations (which have been looked into by a Board of Con- included the actual consumption in food of ciliation and Investigation established by the benzoate by young men who offered the Minister of Labor of Canada. Either themselves for experiment for considerable party to the dispute, or both, may ask for periods of time) not merely gave similar such a board ; each selects one member, results, but showed the most exact and and the two choose a third. Out of fifty- minute scientific unity of chemical analysis. 'five such investigations held there have The Board reported that benzoate in doses been only two cases in which strikes were up to four grams a day is without deleterinot averted or ended—in other words, in ous effect on the human system ; and it is 96 per cent of these disputes conciliation not understood that doses as large as this and arbitration gained the day. Dr. Eliot are likely to be taken by food consumers points out that the law has been of im- under ordinary circumstances. The memmense value by convincing people that it bers of the Referee Board, or most of them, is a sound principle that “ the public has were present at Denver and defended a right to know much about any business their findings before the Convention. No which is conducted on rights or privileges one has doubted that, as Dr. Remsen conferred by legislation.” Strictly speak- says, they have “sought the truth only, ing, the law does not provide compulsory not by sentiment or hysteria, but by cold arbitration ; it really relies “ exclusively on scientific methods, without bias or prejudiscussion, conciliation, publicity, and pub- dice." Dr. Chittenden pointed out that lic opinion.” These are tremendous forces, benzoate is a chemical constituent of sevand the enactment of similar laws in our eral kinds of fruit, and declared that States would surely bring about a material “ the eating of a small quantity of huckleand moral gain for the community, as this berries, raspberries, or kindred berries is law has done in Canada. As Dr. Eliot accompanied by the taking into the system points out, this class of legislation appeals of more benzoate than in the administrato “ the ultimate reasonableness of the tion of three-tenths of a gram of sodium parties to the dispute when the facts on benzoate." He asserted that the use of both sides are publicly stated and dis- benzoate of soda in ordinary doses is no cussed, and to the fairness and sound more injurious than that of salt. With judgment of that long-suffering and pa- regard to the charge that benzoate of tient public which ultimately pars for the soda has been used as a preservative to greater part of the cost of industrial war- disguise the inclusion of inferior, and even fare."
rotten, fruit in canned products, Dr. Long
made the following statement : By formal resolution the
At the request of a large manufacturing Association of State and firm, there was sent to my laboratory a mass National Pure Food and
of rotten tomatoes with which to make cat
sup. Some of it was preserved with vinegar Dairy Officers, in session at Denver last
and spices, some with benzoate, and some week, indorsed the report of the Referee left unmixed. The odor and taste of the Board of consulting scientific experts, ap- last were bad ; that with the benzoate showed pointed by Secretary of Agriculture Wilson essentially the same condition; while with the at the direction of President Roosevelt
, vinegar and spices a fair grade of commer
cial catsup was secured. Benzoate has but upon the use of benzoate of soda in food
little taste and no odor, and therefore it canproducts. As the readers of The Outlook not conceal inferiority. know, the so-called Referee Board thus Although Dr. Wiley and many pure appointed consisted of scientific and prac- food advocates have maintained the contical chemists recognized as of the highest trary to this view of Dr. Long, and have
PURE FOOD AND
MR. JEROME ANNOUNCES
held also that pure food should contain bewilderment in any event. But the no chemicals—unless the ordinary condi- average American is all right down at ments and spices should be so regarded- bottom, and so far as he takes any interit seems to be a necessary conclusion that est in the matter at all will make up his the Secretary of Agriculture must accept final judgment on what I myself write, the opinion of the Referee Board, now which will begin to appear, I suppose, in indorsed by the Pure Food Association. the October Scribner's. We have certainly It still remains, however, an open ques- had great success so far. As a matter of tion whether there ought not to be main- fact, every animal I have shot, with the tained under the law a careful oversight exception of, say, six or eight, shot when as to the amount and proportion of harm- we had to have food, has been carefully less chemicals used in food products, and, preserved for the National Museum. I still further, whether public interests do can be condemned only if the existence not require that the labels of all canned of the National Museum, the American products should show plainly and clearly Museum of Natural History, and all simiexactly what each contains, whether of lar zoological collections are to be confood or preservatives. The settling of demned. I know nothing of politics at technical scientific points like those which home, and look forward to a collection of seem to us to have been very properly Outlooks which I shall find awaiting me at referred to the Board of which Dr. Nairobi." Remsen is head, does not, moreover, in the least remove or minimize the impor
\Villiam Travers tance of the most radical and thorough
Jerome, the Dislegislation, National and State, to guard
trict Attorney of the consumer from adulteration and mis
New York County, has offered himself as representation.
a candidate for re-election. This is the
first definite occurrence in the municipal The National Museum, at Washing campaign in New York City. Mr. Jerome
has been District Attorney for nearly ton, which is under
He was first elected on the the direction of the Smithsonian Institu
reform ticket headed by Mr. Seth Low. tion, has received a large number of cases
He was re-elected on an entirely indeof animal skins and other specimens coliected by Mr. Roosevelt and shipped to
pendent ticket, having been nominated by
petition, and having appealed to the voters the museum for mounting and permanent
solely upon his own record.
In both camexhibition. The specimens are said to be in better condition than those which gener- paigns he was the most picturesque figure ;
the success of the Low ticket was in no ally arrive under similar circumstances. It
small measure due to his fiery attacks upon is announced that it will be some months
the Tammany administration. Mr. Jerome before the skins are finally mounted by expert taxidermists and placed on public nated again by petition in these words:
now announces his willingness to be nomiview. The arrival of these specimens will doubtless excite again more of the
After having received for nearly eight
years the honor and benefit of this office, it newspaper criticism of Mr. Roosevelt
seems to me I should be guided in my deterwhich has led some supersensitive and mination, not by what may seem most to misinformed people to conclude that his
serve my personal interest, but by the con
sideration of whether a majority of the electexpedition is guilty of “brutal butcher
ors, desire that I should further serve them ies." With regard to this kind of criticism, in this position. Mr. Roosevelt has written to us, under I know of no way in which I can ascertain date of July 21, as follows : “ Not merely
this except by offering myself as a candiwill fake stories of my hunting appear
date, and I have decided to seek again a
nomination by petition, and to offer myself in the newspapers, but many would-be
as a candidate for election to the office of * comic stories,' which the puzzled-headed District Attorney of New York County. reader who would believe the first will be The later years of Mr. Jerome's term quite as apt to believe also, so that his of office have been marked by bitter accumind will be in a condition of helpless sations of failure to do his whole duty in
MR. ROOSEVELT AND THE NATIONAL MUSEUM
certain directions. But a short time ago this method of cutting off the supply of he presented himself before an audience adult criminals; outdoor employment as at Cooper Union and underwent a severe that best fitted for the health, the disciprocess of “heckling” in regard to his pline, and the morals of prisoners—the discharge of his stewardship. He emerged experience of Massachusetts, the South, from the ordeal with undiminished credit, and of the Pacific Coast showing the truth and, in the opinion of The Outlook, bet- of these ideas. On the law side there ter evidence must be produced than has were also earnest discussions as to the yet been brought forward before Mr. propagation of “the Indiana Idea,"
" ” Jerome can be convicted of dereliction in already adopted by Connecticut and Calioffice. The accusations, in almost every fornia, which allows the State to so treat case, related to the acts of “high finan- habitual and degraded criminals that they ciers" connected with insurance, traction, can never reproduce their kind, and as to and Ice Trust matters. Few charges, if the possibility of taking juvenile cases out any, have been made that Mr. Jerome's of criminal courts and transferring them to general conduct of his office was inade- the chancery courts.
Still another suggesquate. But in the cases in which he has tion demanding action, but which is now been criticized it should be remembered in practice in Maryland, was the advisathat in the complicated realm of modern bility of a law compelling the examination business it is one thing to have a moral of all prisoners by a physician before trial. conviction that a man has done wrong, As school-children must undergo a physiand quite another to have the evidence cal examination, which often reveals unwhich, under the impartial and critical suspected disease, so, it is argued, a careful eye of a court, will secure a legal con- study of the man or woman under arrest viction of the delinquent. Among the may show that they are proper subjects flying rumors of pre-campaign days it for probation, or, which is equally imporis frequently surmised that Mr. Jerome's tant, that they should be placed, not only candidacy will be indorsed by Tammany, where they may be guarded from doing that it will not be indorsed by Tammany, further harm in the community, but where that he will and that he will not be nom- they may receive proper medical and surinated by the Republicans, that he will gical treatment. Such a law should apply or will not receive the approval of the especially to the young.
The broad scope Committee of One Hundred.
of the Congress was further seen in the case, his presence in the campaign will three allied societies which make up help to save it from any possibility of the Association. The President. of the dullness.
Wardens' Association was from Virginia,
of the Physicians' from Canada, and of The American Prison the Chaplains' from the great Roman Association, which has Catholic Church, the Rev. Aloys M. Fish,
recently held its annual the devoted chaplain of the New Jersey meeting in Seattle, justified its name, with State Prison. The President elected for more than two hundred and sixty members the next year was Mr. Amos W. Butler, of from thirty-three States, and with a Cana- Indiana, a man who deals in principles dian for President and official delegates and with ideals, but who is not a warden. from Cuba. The subjects were also those It is of great value to this Congress to that all America needs to discuss if there have this close association of theorists and is to be widespread reform, such as the practical prison administrators. There abolition of sheriffs' fees, a vicious system, was once a time when the man who looked which was properly rebuked by men as far only at the scientific side was deemed a apart as Florida and Oregon; the indeter- crank by the turnkey. It is easy to recall minate sentence, which had its strongest the day when the advocate of supporter in a man who has undergone temperance would not have met a too the rigors of imprisonment in San Quentin cordial reception for his ideas, but the Prison ; the juvenile court, whose most Prison Congress has an open mind; no brilliant exponent, Judge Lindsey, was one theme called forth such prolonged kept talking morning, noon, and night on and vehement applause as the suggestion
a elf of
THE SMOKE ERROR
that prohibition should be invoked for the least 10 cents a week more for laundry sake of preventing crime. The next ses
than he would if there were no smoke. This sion of this Congress will be contempo
is very conservative, as the white dresses
and waists worn by women and washed at raneous with the International Prison
home make a large item of expense. Then Congress, which meets in Washington in there is the loss caused by soot coming into October, 1910, with Dr. Charles Rich
contact with merchandise in the stores and
factories. There is oil in soot, and this causes mond Henderson as President, in place of much damage. S. J. Barrows. There will be a good
Even these figures, however, fall into representation coming from Europe and South America, and from Australia and insignificance in comparison with those
given at the last annual meeting of the Tasmania also, it is hoped. Each adhering
International Association for the Prevencountry has one official representative, but
tion of Smoke, by H. M. Wilson, Chief it may send as many more delegates as it
Engineer of the United States Geological pleases. The American Prison Associa
Survey, who, in the course of his paper, tion has a strong committee to act in
declared : harmony with this wider organization, and
The evil is one of the great dangers of further knowledge and greater usefulness
modern times, insidiously taking the health are looked for from this next double con- of the individual, lowering his vitality, invention of penologists and criminologists creasing the death rate, and causing untold from many States and many lands.
injury to property. In our cities live more than 30,000,000 people, and these suffer
all the loss which is shown in the total This is the happy des
of $600,000,000. The statement is based ignation by the St.
upon estimates made by Chicago, with
$50,000,000 loss a year; Cleveland, with perLouis Times of the all-prevailing smoke haps $4,000,000, and a number of other cities. nuisance. The Times points out to the It means a per capita loss of $20 a year to new Mayor that the smoke nuisance of every man, woman, and child in these cities.
The smoke nuisance means uncleanliness, that city costs the businessmen a round
poverty, wretchedness, disease, and death. million of dollars a year, unconsciously, of The medical men of the country are unani
The principal sufferers are the mous in the declaration that the breathing of large stores of various kinds, including
coal smoke predisposes the lungs to tubercuthose that deal in fabrics which lose value
losis, and even more violent lung trouble,
such as pneumonia. by being soiled through the intangible drift The brighter side of this depressing picture of a sooted atmosphere. Clothiers and
is that Inspector Krause and Engineer department stores and haberdashers, who
Wilson believe that conditions are improvdeal in easily soiled goods, are the princi- ing. The former is authority for the pal losers from the cause. These figures,
statement that conditions in Cleveland are ħowever, large as they would seem to
better now than they were. Mr. Wilson be, are underestimated if those of John has declared, not only that smoke prevenKrause, Cleveland's Smoke Inspector, are
tion is feasible, but that he stands ready well founded. Here they are :
to prove it by actual demonstration at Let us say that there are about 3,000,000 tons of coal used in Cleveland in a year, and
the experiment station in Pittsburgh. that the use of 10 per cent of this amount is Altogether,” he adds, “ the investigations unnecessary. That means an annual loss of show that the smokeless American city is $600,000 through an unnecessary use of coal. entirely possible, and that it will come Houses must be painted more frequently when the public conscience is thoroughly when there is much smoke in a city. There are about 75,000 homes in Cleveland, and,
awakened to the
waste of estimating the average cost at $50, the total natural and human resources through this cost of painting all the houses would be evil. The smoky city is to be a sign and $3,750,000. I should say that a fair estimate
relic of barbarism." of the painting waste would be about 25 per cent of this amount, or about $900,000, as homes must be painted a great deal oftener
The announcement that the on account of smoke. Then there are laundry bills. If 100,000 men in Cleveland wear
COOPER UNION" trustees of the Ford Build
ing, on Boston's Beacon. laundered collars and shirts, it would be fair to say that the waste each year amounts to
Hill, have granted the use of their hand$500,000, as every one of these men spends at some assembly hall, on twenty success