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Mary, indeed, the slave of her own bigotry, the neglected of the cold and gloomy Philip, the detested of the majority of the nation, became a pitiable object, and very probably the opposite of that which she would have remained, had she not arrived at a rank that made her the representative of more designing and artful agents than herself. In the present volumes, however, we have not much that can instruct us regarding her feelings or conduct when sovereign, that can throw light upon her persecutions ; domestic letters when she was princess, and notices concerning the ceremonies attendant upon her marriage, forming most of the materials.
The fate of Lady Jane Grey and her sincere and amiable character do not grow less touching than what concurrent history has rendered the subject, from anything that here appears. But the manner in which Warwick and his coadjutors intrigued to the accomplishnient of the downfall of the Protector, comes out from a number of incidents, some of them very slight in themselves, with peculiar force and clearness. If, however, we look for salient points in the events during Edward or Mary's reigns, and graphic sketches of individual character, the fortunes and temper of the Admiral Seymour, brother to Somerset, the suitor for the hand of Elizabeth, and the husband of the widow of Henry the Eighth, will furnish the most striking examples to be found in these volumes.
Seymour, between whom and the Protector, his brother, there arose and continued so much misunderstanding and hostility as brought the former to the scaffold, seems to have been a sanguine, irritable, headstrong and obstinate man. Whether, from all the evidence that has yet appeared, bis conduct could be construed into high treason, admits of doubt ; although Mr. Tytler leans to that conclusion. Certainly in more modern times nothing like overt acts could have been discovered in the few documents which we are now to quote, and which we regard as the most significant in the collection.
Seymour's ambition was to supplant the Protector ; and numerous as well as various and rash were his efforts to accomplish this end. For instance, he set his mind on having the hand of the Princess Elizabeth, although dissuaded in the most distinct, sagacious, and prudent manner by Lord Russell, Lord Privy Seal. We quote the sequel of a dialogue on the subject that is characteristic of both parties :
“Riding in like sort together, within two or three days following, from my Lord Protector's house unto the Parliament House, my Lord Admiral said unto me · Father Russel,' you are very suspicious of me : I pray you tell me, who showed you of the marriage that I should attempt, whereof ye brake with me this other day?
“ I answered, he should not know the authors of the tale, but that I understood it by such as bare bim right good-will; and said therewithal,
my Lord, I shall earnestly advise you to make no suit for marriage that way.
"He replied, saying, it is convenient for them to marry, and better it were that they were married within the realm than in any foreign place and without the realm. And why might not I, or another, made by the King their father, marry one of them?
“I answered, my Lord, if either you, or any other within this realm, shall match himself in marriage either with my Lady Mary or with my Lady Elizabeth, undoubtedly, whatsoever he be, shall procure unto himself the occasion of his utter undoing ; and you especially above all others, being of so near alliance to the King's Majesty.
“ And he being desirous to know the cause, I alleged this reason : you know my Lord, that although the King's Majesty's father was a prince of much wisdom and knowledge, yet was he very suspicious and much given to suspect. His grandfather also, King Henry the Seventh, was a very noble and a wise prince, yet was he also very suspicious. Wherefore it may be possible, yea, and it is not unlikely but that the King's Majesty, following therein the nature of his father and grandfather, may be also suspicious. Which if it shall so prove, this may follow, that in case you, being of alliance to his Highness, shall also marry with one of their heirs of the crown by succession, bis Highness may perhaps take occasion thereof to have you hereafter in great suspect, and, as often as he shall see you, to think that you gape and wish for his death; which thought if it be once rooted in his head, much displeasure may ensue unto you thereupon. I added alsu, and I pray you, my Lord, what shall you have with any of them ?
• He answered, that who married one of them should have three thou
“ I answered, my Lord, it is not so; for ye may be well assured that he shall have no more than only ten thousand pounds in money, plate, and goods, and no land. And therewithal I asked him what that should be to maintain his charges and estate, matching himself there.
“ He answered, they must have the three thousand pounds a-year also. “ I answered, by G-d! but they may not.
He answered, by G-d! none of you all dare say nay to its “ I answered, by G-d! for my part I will say nay to it; for it is clean against the King's will."
Afterwards the following statement is made by Russell, -—“Riding together another time, in like sort together, toward the Parliament House, my Lord Admiral said unto me, what will you say my Lord Privy Seal, if I go above you shortly? I answered, I would be very glad of his preferment; and, concerning going above me, I did not care, so that he took nothing from me.
The Admiral's courtship and conjugal letters to the Queen Dowager are those of a gallant and accomplished person. But we must pass
them over, to have room, in justice, for one from the Protector to his wayward ambitious brother, which is affectionate as well as judiciously remonstrative :
“ The Protector to the Lord Admiral. After our right hearty commendations to your good Lordship. We have received your long letters of the date of the 27th of August, to the particularities whereof at this present we are not minded to answer, because it requireth more leisure than at this time we have, and therefore shall leave it until that we shall meet, when we may more fully declare unto you our mind in those matters. But, in the mean while, we cannot but marvel that you note the way to be so open for complaints to enter in against you, and that they be so well received. If you do so behave yourself amongst your poor neighbours, and others the King's subjects, ihat they may have easily just cause to complain upon you, and so you do make them a way and cause to lament unto us and pray redress, we are most sorry therefore, and would wish very heartily it were otherwise ; which were both more honour to you, and quiet and joy and comfort to
But if you mean it, that for our part we are ready to receive poor men's complaints, that findeth or thinketh themselves injured or grieved, it is our duty and office so to do. And tho' you be our brother, yet we may not refuse it upon you. How well we do receive them, it may appear in our letters; where we lament the case unto you, and exhort, pray, and admonish you so earnestly as we can, that
you yourself would redress the same, that there should no occasion be given to any man to make such complaints of you to us. In the which thing we do yet persist both in Sir John Brigg's matter and the other, that you
yourself look more deeply of matter, and not seek extremity against your neighbour and kinsman, or others of the King's Majesty's subjects; but to obtain your desire by some other gentle means, rather than by seeking that which is either plain injury, or else the rigour and extremity of the law, and that poked out by the words, which, peradventure, coming to learned and indifferent men's judgments, may receive according to equity and conscience a more gentle interpretation than a man in his own case, as he is affectionated, would judge. And this we do, not condemning you in every thing we write; for, before we have heard the answer, our letters be not so. But if the complaints be true, we require, as reason would, redress; and that you should the more earnestly look upon them, seeing you do perceive that the complaints do come to us. The which thing, coming as well of love towards you as of our office, can minister no occasion to you of any such doubt as you would make in the latter end of
We would wish rather to hear that all the King's subjects were of you gently and liberally entreated with honour, than that any one should be said to be of you either injured or extremely handled. Such is the hard affection we do bear towards you, and so glad we be to hear any complaints of you. Thus we bid your Lordship right heartily farewell. From Syon, the 1st of Sept. 1518.
“ Your loving brother,
Lord Admiral of England." But advice and remonstrance were of no avail to a wilful man ; for in the examination of Sir George Blagge we find the following evidence of the Admiral's dogged determination :
The Lord Admiral, talking of sundry matters which now I remember not, among other things said unto me, here is gear shall come amongst you, my masters of the nether House, shortly ; wagging a paper which he held in his hand. What is that, my Lord ? said I. Marry, said he, requests to have the King better ordered, and not kept close that no man may see him: and so entered with sundry mislikings of my Lord Protector's proceedings touching the bringing up of the King's Majesty, liker that way to grow a fool than otherwise ; whereby I perceived him not brotherly affected towards my Lord Protector's Grace; and I said, who shall put this into the House ? Myself, said he. Why then, said I, you make no longer reckoning of your brother's friendship if you purpose to go this way to work. Well, said he, for that I care not; I will do nothing but that I
may abide by “ I then, in as much as was in me, dissuaded him from attempting any such matter; objecting, as I then thought, the dangers which might ensue; and seeing my words likely to take small effect, said, what an my Lord Protector, understanding your mind, commit you to ward? No; by G-d's precious soul ! said he, he will not commit me to ward. No, no, I warrant you. But if he do, said I, how will you come out? Well, as for that, said he, I care not; but who shall have me to prison ? Your brother, said 1. Which way, said he ? Marry, well enow, said I; even send for you, and commit you; and I pray you, who shall let him? If the Council send for me, said he, I will go; he will not be so hasty to send me to prison. No; but when you are there, said I, how will you come out ? I asked him that question so often that he seemed not contented, and always answered me, care not for that. This was the sum of our communication; which I so misliked, as since that time I never talked with him."
There is in a letter of John Fowler, one of the gentlemen of Edward's privy chamber, who appears to have worked artfully to put the Admiral into the stead of the Protector, an allusion to the closeness with which the young king was watched. It is said he “ is not half a quarter of an hour alone.” So much for the trammels in which youthful and inexperienced sovereigns have been obliged to walk, to the abridgment of their personal liberty, as well as natural and requisite independence of mind.
The extracts we have given will sufficiently exhibit the nature of Mr. Tytler's contribution ; and although we may not value the Letters so highly as he does, they are yet unquestionably deserving of the care, talent, and time which he has devoted to them amid his other and more recondite historical labours.
ART. XIV. 1.- Ireland. By J. G. C. FEUILLIDE.—(L'Irlande.) 2 Vols. Paris. 2.-Rambles in the South of Ireland, during the Year 1838. By LADY
CHATTERTON. 2 Vols. 12mo. London: Saunders and Otley. 1839. It appears that M. de Feuillide is a French Count who visited Ireland at the time of the last general election, having been sent by
his government to take notes of what he should see there and think it proper to set down ; especially, may he be presumed, judging from the contents of his volumes, to note whatever might tend to hold up the imperial rule and English landholders to the scorn and detestation of foreigners. It is said, indeed, that in Paris his work has been greedily accepted, and that it has been made the text and authority for still more bitter revilings and exaggerations. And certainly to all who take his statements to be nothing else than unvarnished truths, and his pictures to be faithful representations,-to all who have not previously made themselves acquainted with the history of Ireland, and its real condition in as far as personal examination or judicious reading can go-to all who relish French flippancy, self-complacency, and mercurial sentimentality, the author has provided a suitable series of chapters. On the other hand, to all whose tastes and information are of quite an opposite description, there will only appear in the work the distortions which weakness, most imperfect information, and national antipathy or jealousy have wrought, taking alone outside evidences into account; he not even understanding the meaning and spirit of the most palpable of these superficial indexes. Well-informed and right-minded Englishmen may discover facts in the work in spite of the Frenchman's inflations, and by pursuing these soberly to their origin, or specu. lating upon their probable issue, turn them to some good account for themselves. But even in this view of the intemperate production, a wonderful lack of novelty will be felt; for not even among the misconceptions and exaggerations do we find the entertainment to be expected from the government-appointed specimen of our lively Gallic neighbours.
Feeling that M. de Feuillide, however much he may enlighten his countrymen regarding Irish politics, or the pulitical distractions of the sister island, has set down nothing that will leave a profitable impression upon the English mind, on account of the extravagance and passionate temper which he displays; and, at the same time, averse as we always are to enter such a thorny field, especially at a period when our readers must be worn out and embarrassed on the subject, we turn with pleasure to Lady Chatterton's genial “ Rambles,” that we may glean a few sketches and opinions, which, after all, though she had no royal or government mission to execute, no authoritative report to make, communicate a far fuller and more accurate picture of Ireland than it is in the power of the Frenchman to produce.
There is much fascination in the style and sentiment of Lady Chatterton's work. There is much of good sense and healthy feeling in her most lightsome and gossiping notices. Her descriptions are graphic, truthful, and picturesque. She possesses the taste and acquisitions of an artist in dealing with scenery, as the