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is worth securing or preserving. Were we merely to speak of Cheveley as a tale or a novel meant to be illustrative of modern fashionable life, and without any idea that it was intended to be taken as a story of certain living characters and a record of real occurrences, we should pronounce it to be a disagreeable work, mainly because its author evinces throughout a bitter, intemperate spirit, which must always be repulsive in fiction, especially when the writer is a female. Perhaps, however, if she threw herself upon a less irritating subject, and allowed the talent and accomplishments which unquestionably are apparent in these offensive volumes, a more kindly range, the result might be an appreciation by novel readers that would place her on a level with her husband. To that sort of level or rivalship we advise her to confine her literary ambition; to the secrecy of her own bosom, or that of the most affectionate and discreet friends, the history of her real or imagined wrongs.

To pass from “ Cheveley” to “ Deerbrook” affords no small measure of relief ; for no two works, ostensibly of the novel class, can be more unlike, whether we regard their purposes, their matter, or their manner.

Miss Martineau's work may be called a novel, but it contains the fruit of an original thinker, a moralist of no ordinary attainments, and a heart teeming with tender and matured principles, as well as details of pure and ardent affection towards her species. Those who are familiar with her tales, illustrative of Political Economy," or with the cast of her mind as mirrored in any of her works, whether the scenes, characters, and delineations belong to England or America, will readily beliere that when she, as in the present instance, transports herself to a country town of no great magnitude, and paints the personages and scenes characteristic of such limited spheres, the best scope is allowed for the earnestness, sincerity, and powers of her sympathies ; and for the introduction of strongly marked actors upon whom to build her habitual modes of speculation, and from whom to extract forcible lessons for the instruction of the classes who most prominently figure in such localities. Indeed the faults of this very clever work, considering it as a novel, are no doubt attributable to the natural and cherished manner with which the writer overloads her facts, and forces them to become the starting posts of moral harangues, lofty or refined sentimentalities, and ingenious speculations. The dialogue in Deerbrook is felt to be particularly affected on the accounts now noticed. The speakers are persons who pursue and subtilize reflection like Miss Martineau herself, and are wonderfully given to explain the discoveries they have made in the recesses of thought and the sources of action. Tbey are even at pains to express and criticize their emotions. Now this is not the manner of ordinary, simple, and serene charac

VOL. 11. (1839.) No. I.

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ters, unless when occasionally under the reign of such sincerity as takes pleasure in revealing the tenderest and most indwelling things. On the other hand, the tendencies and habits now mentioned save the sensible reader from that infliction of merely smart conversation and melo-dramatic colouring, which depends upon the flimsy transient conventionalities so observable in fashionable and romantic fictions ; so that the fairest way to test “ Deerbrook," is not to think of it merely as a novel, but a work that employs assumed names and scenes, by means of which the springs of human action, in certain situations, are developed, and impressive lessong, somewhat dramatically, sent home to persons in many conceivable states of society.

We, as is our wont, avoid assisting our readers even to an understanding of the outline of the story. We merely announce that the heroine is Margaret, that she has a friend, Maria, the decriped governess, and sundry other well-wishers, as well as enemies. There is also a worthy and intelligent medical practitioner, Hester, &c. &c. We now quote a long passage, which will much better explain what we have intended to communicate in our general observations than any extent of criticism could do. We observe that this very specimen has been particularly noticed in a contemporary journal ; and certainly it is worthy of being warmly recom. mended and extensively read :

" You are surprised,' said he,' that I am come from a dying patient to play with the children in the fields. Come, acknowledge that this is in your minds. If it is, it is an unreasonable thought,' said Margaret. • You must see so many dying people, it would be hard that in every case you should be put out of the reach of pleasure.' • Never mind the hardship, if it be fitting,' said Hope : hard or not hard, is it natural,-is it possible?" I suppose witnessing death so often does lessen the feelings about it,' observed Hester; ' yet I cannot fancy that one's mind could be at liberty for small concerns immediately after leaving a house full of mourners, and the sight of one in pain. There must be something distasteful in every thing that meets one's eyes,–in the sunshine itself.' • True. That is the feeling in such cases : but such cases seldom occur. Yes: I mean what I say. Such cases are very rare. The dying person is commonly old, or so worn out by illness as to make death at last nu evil. When the illness is shorter, it is usually found that a few hours in the sick-room do the work of months of common life in reconciling the mind of survivors. I am sure that is true,' observed Margaret. It is so generally the case that I know no set of circumstances in which I should more confidently reckon on the calmness, forethought, and composure of the persons I have to deal with, than in the family of a dying person. The news comes suddenly to the neighbours : all the circumstances rush at once into their imaginations : all their recollections and feelings about the sufferer agitate them in quick succession; and they naturally suppose the near friends must be more agitated, in proportion


to their nearness. The watchers, meanwhile,' said Hester; have had
time in the long right to go over the past and the future, again and
again ; and by morning all seems su familiar, that they think they can
never be surprised into grief again. So familiar,' said Mr. Hope, that
their minds are at liberty for the smallest particulars of their duty. I
usually find them ready for the minutest directions I may have to give.'
'Yes; the time for surprise, -for consternation,-is long afterwards, said
Hester, with some emotion. • When the whole has become settled and
finished in other minds, the nearest mourners begin to wake up to their
mourning. And thus,' said Margaret, the strongest agitation is hap-
pily not witnessed.' Happily not,' said Mr. Hope. I doubt whether
any body's strongest agitations ever are witnessed. I doubt whether the
sufferer himself is often aware of what are really his greatest sufferings ;
and he is so ashamed of them that he hides them from himself, when it is
possible. I cannot but think that any grief which reveals itself is very
endurable.' Is not that rather hard ?' asked Margaret. · How does it
seem to you hard ? Is it not merciful that we can keep our worst sor-
rows-that we are disposed, as it were, forced, to keep them from aflict-
ing our friends ?' But is it not saying that bereavement of friends is
not the greatest of sorrows, while all seem to agree that it is ?' • Is it,
generally speaking, the greatest of sorrows ? I think not, for my own
part. There are cases in which the loss is too heavy to bear being the
subject of any speculation, almost of observation ; for instance, when the
happiest married people are separated, or when a first only child dies : but
I think there are many sorrows greater than a separation by death of
those who have faith enough to live independently of each other, and
mutual love enough to deserve, as they hope, to meet again hereafter. I
assure you I have sometimes come away from houses un visited, and un-
likely to be visited by death, with a heart so heavy as I have rarely or
never brought from a death-bed.' •I should have thought that would
be left for the rector to say,' observed Hester. 'I should have supposed
you meant cases of guilt or remorse.' Cases of guilt or remorse,' con.
tinued Mr. Hope, and also of infirmity. People may say what they will,
but I am persuaded that there is immeasurably more suffering endured,
both in paroxysms and for a continuance, from infirmity, tendency to a
particular fault, or the privation of a sense, than from the loss of any
friend upon earth, except the very nearest and dearest ; and even that case is
no exception, when there is the faith of meeting again-which
mourner has, so natural and welcome as it is.'


infirm friends the high opinion you have of their sufferings ? asked Margaret. Why, not exactly; that would not be the kindest thing to do : would it? What they want is, to have their trouble lightened to them, not made the worst of; lightened, not by using any deceit, of course, but by simply treating their case as a matter of fact.' Then surely you should make light of the case of the dying too : make light of it even to the survivors. Do you do this ? • In one sense I do ; in another sense, no one can do it. Not regarding death as a misfortune, I cannot affect to consider it so. Regarding the change of existence as a very serious one, I cannot, of course, make light of it. • That way of looking at it regards only the dying person ; you have not said how you speak of it to survivors.'

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I speak of it to yon now, or to myself when I see any one die ; with the added consideration of what the survivors are about to lose. That is a large consideration certainly; but should not one give them credit for viewing death as it is, and for being willing to bear their own loss cheerfully, as they would desire to bear any other kind of loss ? especially if, as they say, they believe it to be only for a time. This is looking on the bright side,' observed Hester, in a low voice; but she was overheard by Mr. Hope. “I trust you do not object to the bright side of things,' said he, smiling,' as long as there is so much about us that is really very dark. What can religion be for,' said Margaret, or reason, or philo. sophy, whichever name you may call your faith by, but to shew us the bright side of everything—of death among the rest I have often wondered why we seem to try to make the most of that evil (if evil it be), while we think it a duty to make the least of every other. I had some such feeling, I suppose, when I was surprised to hear that you had come hither straight from a death-bed; I do not wonder at all now.""

Here is another and much shorter illustration of Miss Martineau's mannerism, if we may be allowed the use of the term. It has been pointed out to us as very striking ; but we suspect that which it pictures is not likely ever to be realized, unless in some searching and contemplative mind resembling the author's closely. And yet it is but the beginning of a conversation, and of a number of scenes; some of them becoming more elevated still as to their tone and matler :

“ Here we will not talk at all, unless we like ; and we will each groan as much as we please.' — I am sorry to hear you speak so,' said Margaret tenderly. Not that I do not agree with you. I think it is a terrible mistake to fancy that it is religious to charm away grief, wbich, after all, is rejecting it before it has done its work ; and, as for concealing it, there must be very good reasons indeed for that, to save it from being hypocrisy. But the more I agree with you, the more sorry I am to hear you say just what I was thinking. I am afraid you must be very unhappy, Maria.'

There is no writing for an ephemeral purpose in the work, as even these extracts must testify; nor will its popularity be that merely of a month or a short season's endurance.

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ART. III.- Insurrection of Poland in 1830.1; and the Russian Rule

preceding it since 1815. By S. B. GNOROWSKI, London : Ridgway.

1839. The first thing that we remarked as extraordinary in the present work was this, that a Pole should write in English with the freedom and general accuracy of a well-educated native of our country. The second thing was, that the enthusiasm, often verging upon rhodomontade, which has characterized the Polish nation has found a clever and apt representative in M. Gnorowski. The third was, that the Liberals throughout Europe appear to have been sometimes inclined to lend too ready an ear to the wholesale abuse that has been thrown upon England and France for not having embroiled themselves with Russia during the Insurrection of 1830-1. That the Poles are a brave people is not more true than that they have shown themselves to be reckless, inconsistent, incapable of a preconcerted system or dextrously ramified national union in behalf of complete independence, and even apt to adopt treacherous measures when legitimate methods would have a far better chance of success. The insurrection of which our author has so much to say, ought rather to be called a conspiracy on the part of the military cadets under Constantine in Warsaw, guided or misled as these enthusiastic youths were by certain ambitious officers who had not at the time of the rising formed any distinct plan of proceeding, or been in the habit of contemplating any positive and tangible result of national moment. Factions have long been rife amongst the nobles of Poland, to the internal destruction of the country. But why should the nobles consider themselves the only people of the nation, and treat their serfs as the most degraded slaves ? If they desire to establish complete independence for themselves upon rational grounds, why do they not endeavour to enlighten the peasantry and to set them free, instead of regarding them as a distinct race, and themselves as forming alone the state? Yet such has been the jealous policy of the privileged class to one another and the great body of the people, that though their valorous deeds and their sufferings have outstripped the creations of poetry and romance, they have yet been so wanting in regard to the higher inoral claims of society as to have fallen short of the true sublime of patriotism. The passages we are about to extract will show that, in the heat of indiscriminating enthusiasm, the author overlooks the contradictions to which we have alluded, and mistakes, to, rashness, disorganized attempts, and contempt of death in the course of Quixotic and romantic undertakings, for true inagnanimity. There is too frequently a waste of theatrical display in the pictures, as drawn by our author, to doubt of its being a national tendency. The Poles are great boasters as well as great warriors; and what is more, they seem, from the specimen before us, to brag mightily from the spur of the moment, without bearing in mind that those who tell many wonderful stories run the risk of sometimes forgetting what was the purport of a former vaunt.

We are far from thinking that M. Gnorowski intentionally exaggerates, or expecting from one of his country, who seems to have been actively engaged in the troubles and exploits which he describes, a tame narration. The heroism of friends and comrades, when the grinding rule of Russian despots are the themes, may well awaken &

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