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Scotch and American Missions, the Bank of Salonica, besides the shops and offices of the principal merchants. || A little while after the attack on the Bank an attack was made on the old fortress of Topkbané, which is about 300 yards from the Bank; but the assailants were beaten off towards the German School, which is situated about 200 yards further on. Two cartloads of dead were removed, but it is not known who suffered more severely -the troops or the Bulgarians. | The German School was also attacked by a man Elia of Keuprulu, said to be a Bulgarian officer - who, standing on a balcony overlooking the courtyard and the street, kept the soldiers at bay with bombs for one and a-half hours, during which time he is said to have thrown thirty or forty, doing little damage. He was finally shot by some soldiers who managed to break into the house. || At the same time (8 to 10 P. M.) bombs were also thrown into the Alhambra Café, on the quay, and one waiter was killed. The Bulgarian, when arrested yesterday afternoon, was in the possession of a quantity of bombs, which he said he was reserving for the Greek Consulate and Archbishop's house. || Another bomb was thrown into the Café Nonio by a certain well-known Bulgarian merchant, a man of wealth and position. His participation in the outrages proves that it is hardly possible for any Bulgarian, of whatever standing, to escape the clutches of the Committee. | Bomb-throwing went on sporadically the whole of Thursday. Three manufacturers of explosives were discovered in a house rented to them by a Catholic priest, and situated immediately behind the mass of buildings which constitute the French Church, Convent School, and Hospital. Two were killed when they had exhausted their stock of bombs; the other committed suicide. The former were officers the latter a student at the Bulgarian School. || On Thursday evening, the severest measures were taken to keep the streets clear; all circulation being prohibited after sunset; two men being discovered by the police lurking near the Constantinople line took to flight in the direction of a small house. On the arrival of the police, bomb-throwing began. Two of the occupants were killed by the explosion of dynamite, the other two were shot; the house was destroyed by fire. The police and military authorities have shown the greatest activity and courage in looking for and arresting all suspicious characters, many of whom offered a desperate resistance, and in searching houses for bombs. The great majority of the deaths among the Bulgarians was due to resistance or flight. The number killed is not exactly known. From Mr. Shipley's personal investigation of the ground, I know that thirty or thirty-two were buried in one of the Bulgarian cemeteries, but I do not know how many there

Staatsarchiv LXX.


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were in the other, and there is a rumour that some were carried off to be buried secretly. || From the impenetrable tangle of rumours and exaggerations, it is at present impossible to extract the truth, but one thing is certain, that there has been no approach to massacre". One was reported to me to have occurred in a khan near the German School. I went there myself, and found that one man, who was throwing bombs into the street from the roof, had been shot - nothing else. || As to the „regrettable but unavoidable incidents" which I reported, I find that the only one I can vouch for is the death of four Greeks, who when told to stop by the soldiers took to flight and were shot. || There is very little doubt that the precautions taken in anticipation of outrages during the Greek Easter week forced the Bulgarians to hold their hands then, and that the relaxation of official vigilance, once that week passed, gave them their opportunity. It is to be feared that there may be another such reaction on the part of the authorities, and that, after an interval of tranquillity, there may be a fresh outburst on the part of the Bulgarians. It is most essential that the precautionary measures now adopted should be continued till not only Salonica town but the province is reduced to such a state of order as to form a guarantee for its future tranquillity. I knew on the day before the Bank was blown up too late, therefore, to report that the Bulgarians in the town had drawn lots as to what each one should do towards the execution of their designs. The tranquillity of the interior is a striking fact, not a single disturbance having been reported so far. Alfred Biliotti.

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Nr. 13259. GROSSBRITANNIEN. — Der Vizekonsul in Monastir an den Generalkonsul in Saloniki. Bericht über die bulgarischen Banden.

Monastir, April 28, 1903. (May 11.)

Sir, I have the honour to submit herewith, for your information, a statement showing as accurately as is possible under the circumstances the strength and distribution of the various Bulgarian insurgent bands at present existing in this vilayet. I need hardly premise that absolute accuracy is unattainable, and, even were the contrary the case, the constant fluctuations in the composition of any given band and the necessity. for frequent changes of head-quarters prevent such a statement from having more than a very ephemeral value. | The number of bands now formed in the vilayet is twenty-nine or thirty, representing a force of at least 700 men, and the districts which they at present frequent in greatest strength are the Cazas of Monastir, Perlépé, and Florina. The in

surgents are principally men who have been "out" for some time, but their ranks are receiving constant accessions, and they appear so far to maintain a passive attitude except as regards suspected informers and any stray Turk whom they can kill for the sake of his arms. || I believe that the majority carry Gras rifles imported from Thessaly, but Martinis and Mannlichers are also used, and, now that the conveyance of arms from Greece has become more difficult, there is a great demand for Mausers, which are usually obtained by assassination. A few days ago, for instance, two mounted soldiers who were carrying the post-bag from Kyrchevo to Perlépé fell into a nocturnal ambuscade, and, although one of the men escaped with the bag, his companion was murdered and completely stripped, his naked body being thrown into the Kara-Sou, while the assassins made off with their victim's military equipment and uniform. || I am informed, moreover, by a person possessing exceptional opportunities for knowing the circumstances, that the importation of arms from abroad has by no means ceased entirely, for considerable quantities of rifles and ammunition arrived at Durazzo, where the Customs officials are said to be in the Committee's pay, and thence they are conveyed by Elbassan to Okhrida without any apparent misgiving on the part of the Turkish authorities. || The conspicuous failure of the Government either to inflict any serious damage on the various bands or to hamper their movements cannot but diminish the prestige of the authorities in the eyes of the population, both Christian and Mussulman, and, according to all I learn, Sarafoff and the other insurgent leaders are not only proclaiming a general insurrection as imminent, but are actively training their men in campaigning operations, and have ordered the inspection and registration of all the available means of transport. || On the 19th, 20th, and 21st instant, Sarafoff and Chakalaroff presided over an assemblage of all the Notables of the villages in the vicinity of Gherman on the shores of Lake Presba, and found leisure to keep Easter with the usual festivities, and also to deliver a series of addresses on the approaching movement, the date of which has, however, not yet been fixed. The authorities were informed in the course of time, and bodies of troops were sent in pursuit from Monastir and Florina; but, as the insurgent position was surrounded by outposts at eight hours' distance in every direction, it is not surprising that when the troops arrived Sarafoff and his followers had disappeared. || At the same time another band had been located at Tsapari, about three hours from Monastir at the foot of Mount Peristeri, and a detachment of troops was immediately dispatched thither. Here again the Turks were nonplussed, for the insurgents retired into

the recesses of the wooded gorge of Shiroka Reka above the village, and, on the departure of the soldiers after an unsuccessful search, quietly returned to their quarters.

The Vali of Monastir seems full of good intentions as regards the pursuit of the revolutionaries; but, in view of the fact that the terror inspired by the Committee renders it almost impossible for him to obtain timely information of their movements, his task is far from easy, and hitherto the handling of the troops has not been such as to inspire confidence in the capacity of his subordinates for operations of this nature. || The lot of the Patriarchist villagers, of whatever nationality, is particularly deplorable. Not only are their priests and schoolmasters dispossessed and persecuted by the Committee, but they themselves, knowing by experience the uselessness and danger of appealing to the authorities, are compelled to associate themselves with the insurgents, for whose misdeeds they eventually have to suffer. || I have spoken earnestly to the Vali on this subject, but his Excellency declares that, as he receives no definite statements of grievances, he can take no action. This is probably true as regards individual terror-stricken peasants, but I have every reason to believe that no effort has been wanting on the part of the Greek Metropolitans to place the state of affairs before the authorities, and the only conclusion that I can come to is that either the fate of the nonBulgarian Christians is regarded with indifference, or the Administration is so paralyzed by its own ineradicable vices as to be incapable of efficacious action. In this connection, I may mention that even the Mussulmans seem to be alarmed by the apparent impotence of the Government. Last week the inhabitants of the Mussulman village of Pribiltsi sent to beg that troops should be told off to protect them from the roving bands, while the Austrian Consul informs me that yesterday he received a visit from a deputation from a neighbouring Turkish village, who came to complain of their oppression by a local Mussulman tyrant. || I must, however, state that, in calling upon me to-day, the Vali said he had written to the Kaïmakam of Kastoria, sending him, for his observations, a list of grievances received from the Metropolitan of the diocese, and he was now awaiting a reply. James McGregor. Nr. 13260. GROSSBRITANNIEN. Der Gesandte in Sofia an den Minister des Ausw. Die Stimmung in Bulgarien ist sehr gereizt.


Sophia, May 26, 1903. (June 1.) My Lord, || The feeling aroused in this country by the proceedings taken against the Bulgarians of Macedonia after the Salonica explosions,

although not demonstrative, is deep and intense. Meetings were to have been held in several towns the day before yesterday, and I am told by the Minister of the Interior that, on the Prefects asking him if they were to be allowed, he replied in the affirmative, that the promoters should be advised to exercise a little patience, until the results of the efforts of the new Government shall be known. In the end meetings were only held at Shumla and Silistria, a telegram being dispatched from the latter place (as had been done from Gabrovo the week before) to the Ministers, the foreign Representatives and the press, protesting against the cruelties being perpetrated in Macedonia, and against the action of the Government in preventing aid from reaching the patriots in arms. || At Sophia there was no meeting, but the demonstration was even more striking. The 24th, being the feast of the Macedonian Saints Cyril and Method, is one of the great holidays of the year, when school feasts, ,,kermesses," &c., take place amid general rejoicing. This year, the usual open-air service was celebrated without music, no festivities were held, and no military bands played throughout the day. || On the other hand, I learn that the Mussulmans in the Deli Orman district are arming against possible contingencies. General Petroff, whom I questioned on the subject, confirmed the fact, but said it caused no uneasiness to the Government, since they were forewarned. He added that the Turkish population were quiet, peaceable people, who would have had no ideas of insurrection if they had not been put into their heads by travelling Softas. F. Elliot.


Der Botschafter in Konstantinopel an den Minister des Ausw. Die bulgarische Regierung hat eine Spezialverhandlung über Mazedonien mit der Pforte begonnen. Der bulgarischen Regierung gehen die Reformen nicht weit genug. Therapia, June 5, 1903. (June 15.)

(Extract.) || I have the honour to report that M. Natchovits, who was on several occasions a prominent member of previous Bulgarian Cabinets, arrived here a short time ago, and called upon me the day before yesterday. || M. Natchovits began by saying that he had come here at the special request of the Bulgarian Government, and with the assent of Prince Ferdinand, to discuss with the Grand Vizier their respective policies and interests in Macedonia, in the hope of coming to an understanding which would contribute towards the pacification of Macedonia, and bring about

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