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of labour. All suggestions, and any offers of help, will be cordially welcomed. The rougher and the harder part of the work is already done, at a cost of time and exertion of which these few pages can give no adequate idea. The best of the writer's working days are over, and it is not much more that he can hope to do for the Surtees Society, very strong although the ties are which bind him to it. The preparation of this Glossary may be regarded, perhaps, as one of the fancies and the follies of a very laborious life. The writer is very grateful for the kind help and sympathy which many have shown to him. He would, perhaps, never have prepared the letter A unless he had been encouraged to go on with it and greatly assisted by the help and abundant kindness of Mr. Lawley, who knows by experience what such work is, and he has to thank the Rev. J. C. Atkinson, of Danby, for many suggestions which no person is better qualified to make or more willing to offer.
I. AN ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS IN A REMARKABLE
CASE OF ADULTERATION AT YORK.
[Reg. Civ. Ebor. A. Y. 255.]
IN ye name of God, Amen. Yt ys to hafe in mynde yat 1428. whare yar* ys a Constitucion in ye crafte of Girdelers in ye cite of York, yat nane of yat crafte wirke any lede amang other metaill, bot yf yt be in souldour, for deceyvyng of ye kyng’ys people, of perill of a certayn payne, apon thys ane of ye Sercheours, sworn of ye sayd crafte, come befor John Aldstanemor, Mair of ye kynge's cite of Yorke, and other many, and be ye vertu of hys athe he present in a forfet of John Fysshe girdeler, made in hys crafte, for stuthes of xxxiij gyrdels of menged metaill agayn ye ordenaunce of hys crafte, and in deceyvyng of ye kynge's people, ye whilk John Fysshe, impeched befor ye Mair of yis trespasse, sayd yat he boght yat metaill of yase stuthes of John Lyllyng, whilk was proved and founden fals, for tin and lede was menged togedyr; and, wyth thys, grete rumour sprang in the people, yat yar was in cite of York now makers and utterers of fals osmundes, and yat Burn, smyth in Bouthum, and John Holgate, marsshall in the suburbe of Walmegate in York, suld make yam. And so John Burn come before ye sayde Mayr, and be hys athe, made opon the haly Evangill, he sayde yat he cutted aboute xxvj peces of fals Inglysh iryn of John Lyllyng of York mercer, at ye byddyng of hym, and made yam in shappe of osmundes, and als he sayd he wold
y represents the so-called thorn letter, which is generally used in this document,
noght hafe had a pece of yam for a nother wyrkyng, and yay war made to blend with gude osmundes.
And ye sayd John Holgate come befor the sayd Mayr, and he, sworn apon a buke, sayd yat John Lyllyng sent hym with hys awen cariage iije & di. of landyren, and iiije and mo peces of fals drosseyren, every hundreth of vj«x peces, to make in osmundes to menge with other, for ye whilk ye sayd John Holgate when he had wrought, he sayd he wald noght hafe gyfen iij d, for iiij stane of yam. He sayd, forther mar, yat the sayd John Lyllyng delyvered hym a osmund to make all other of the same shappe.
Item ye sayd John Lyllyng, when he was first examined of thys mater, he wald hafe sworn apon a buke befor ye sayd Mayr and other, had noght Thomas Bracebrygg counseld hym nay and lettid hym, yat he gart make bot xxvj peces, nor yat had na ma fals osmundes in hys house. And than ye sayd Mayr, after ye custume of ye cite, sent to ye Sercheours of ye Irenmangers of the cite of York yat John Stertavant Esquier, the Mayr Sergeant, and thay suld wend in to ye house of the sayd John Lyllyng to serche what osmundes he had with in hym at yat tyme ; and so, att ye commandment of ye Mayr, yai yode, and
, serched, and yai fand yar ij barels of new made osinundes of drosse menged with gude osmundes, and other fals osmundes oute of barells. And the Mayr sent of yam to smyths to se be yayr crafte if yai war abill to putt in werk, and yar yai myght noght abyde ye hamer, bot brake in small peces. And also yai fand certein smale peces multen tyn menged with other metall, als wele is to shewe in ye chambre.
And, after this, come William Kyam of York merchaunt, and sayd to ye sayd Mayr and other that he was late at Hull, and come to John Bower stathe, and thar John Bower proferd to sell hym a laste of osmundes, and yar this William Kyam saw ij barells of osmundes market with ye marke of John Lyllyng, and he tuke uppe ye heued of a barell and yt semed gude abouen, and he opend ye heued of ye other barell and yt was bot drosse in
pecys, and he come to John Bower and told hym lyke als he fand, and John Bower sayd hym yat he had sald sex barells of John Lyllyng's of yat same sorte, every barell for xij s.
Here apon, in ye Vigill of Peter and Paule Apostells, in ye yer of ye regne of Kyng Henre Sext after ye Conqueste fyft, the sayd John Lyllyng come befor ye sayd John Aldestanemore Mayr of York, Richard Russell newly Mayr of ye Staple and Calyse, William Bowes, John of Moreton, Thomas Gare, Henre Preston, Thomas Esyngwald, Thomas Bracebryg, William Ormesheued, Piers Bukcy, John Bolton, Aldermen, Guy Rouclyff Recorder, William Gryllyngton ane of ye Shirrefes, Thomas Doncastre, Geffray Sauvage, Robert Yarom, Th. Snawden, John Lofthouse, John Gascoyngne, Thomas Aton, Thomas Kyrham, William Bedall, William Gaytesheued, Thomas Davy, William Craven of ye xxiiij, and thar he was empeched of forgeyng of fals osmundes of drosse and of landyren, and of utteryng of yam in foule deceyte and ryght grete harme of ye kynge's people, and ryght gret sklaundre of ye cite of York, and agayne ye course of trewe marchandise; and to thys he answerd and sayd yat he perceyved wele yat iren waxed skant and dere, and he had mykyll with in hym of dross and landiren; and tharfor he gart forge yt in shapp of osmundes for utteryng of his iren so into Iseland and so he gart yarof, als he graunted, ixxx peces & xij, and utterd many of yam at Hull and oyer places : and for this defaute he submit hym to abyde and fulfill ye jugement of ye Mayr and ye Counsell of ye chambre; and be ye avyse of ye Mayr and ye befor sayd Consell yt was awarded yat John Lyllyng suld fynd seurte of ve marke yat he suld abyde thaward of ye Mayr an ye Counseyll of ye chambre what tyme he war warned for trespasses abouensayd, als fer als fell to yair power or auctorite. And apon yis John Gascoigne and William Bedale become pleges and seurte for ye sayd John Lyllyng, yat he suld abyde and fulfill ye awarde of ye Mayr and ye Counsell what tyme he was warned. And als for a parcell of yair jugement and yair awarde at yat tyme, yai charged ye sayd John Lyllyng yat fra yan furth he suld bere ye kynge's pease to John Holgate mersshall and John Bron smyth abouensayd, wham he thret with bodily harme, for yai bar recorde agayne hym, and to all ye kynge's people, of payne of ve marke, to be raysed of ye landes and tenementes of ye sayd John Lyllyng, to ye oeps of