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“Maaleh-akrabbim,” and in another as the “ascent of Akrabbim." Comp. Num. xxxiv. 4, with Jos. xv. 3.

It may be added that all copies of the Bible are not alike, in respect to the proper names. The Septuagint often differs from our present. Hebrew Bible, both in giving different names to persons and places, and in adding to, and taking from, the numbers. In some passages, made up mainly of names, the Septuagint adds a large number. This is the case in Jos. xv. containing a list of the towns of Judah. We must suppose the copy of the Hebrew Bible, made use of by the Seventy, differed from ours in this regard. In like manner, the Septuagint gives David half a score or so of sons, whose names do not occur in our copy, In our present chapter, we shall be entirely satisfied, if we succeed in finding and naming all the places that are mentioned in our present books. This is what we aim to do, and we omit none on the ground that “they are not important. Every place becomes important, when you wish to find it, and learn what is known of it.

In Joshua there is a list of the towns belonging to each tribe, at the time the land of Canaan was divided among them. These we propose to give as there presented, to which we will add such others as we may find in the history.

That part of the country, which was occupied by the Israelites east of the Jordan, was apportioned to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseb, by Moses himself. The portion of each tribe is given as follows:

SECTION I. - THE TOWNS AND CITIES OF REUBEN. The following names are given in connection with the tribe of Reuben: Aroer, on the border of the tribe; Medeba, Heshbon, Dibon, Bamoth-baal, Beth-baal-meon, Jahaza, Kedemoth, Mephaath, Kirjathaim, Sibmah, Zareth-shahar, Beth-peor, Ashdoth-pizgah, and Beth-jeshimoth. Jos. xiii. 15 - 23.

Aroer was situated on the bank of the river Arnon. It was the same city, or another spoken of in connection with it, that was "in the midst of the river.” It has been identified by Burckhardt. There was another place of this name, in the tribe of Judah, west of the Jordan. Jos. xii. 2; xiii. 25; 2 Sam. xxiv. 5.

Heshbon was the capital of the kingdom of Sihon, before it was taken by Moses. The name denotes a city and a district. The city was two miles east of the Jordan, as identified by modern travellers. It was situated on an eminence, from which one could see to a great distance in all directions. The ruins are numerous and magnificent. See Buckingham's Travels. Jos. ix. 10; xii. 5; xiii. 10.

Dibon was on the border between the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and is spoken of as belonging to both. We shall find a number of such instances. Jos. xiii. 17. See Num. xxxii. 34.

Jahaza, Heshbon, Kedemoth, and Mephaath were cities of the Levites. Jos. xxi. 36, 37, 39; 1 Chron. vi. 78, 79, 81. This is all we know of them, except what we have said of Heshbon, and that Jahaza was the place where a great battle was fought by Moses and Sihon, in which the latter was defeated. Deut. ii. 32, 33.

Kirjathaim was built by the children of Reuben. Modern travelers think they have identified it ten miles west of Medeba. There was a town of this name in Naphtali

. Num. xxxii. 37; Comp. Gen. xiv. 5. Sibmaħ was near to Heshbon. St. Jerome says that there was no more than 500 paces between them. It was distinguished for its excellent wine. Num. xxxii. 38; Isai. xvi. 8, 9. Beth-peor was the place where Baal-peor was worshiped, and where the Israelites were enticed into idolatrous practices. Num. xxv. 1-5; Deut. iii. 29; iv. 46. Peor is the same as Beth-peor. Jos. xxii. 17.

Ashdoth-pizgah has the adjunct from mount Pizgah, near which it was situated. Beth-jeshimoth was ten

The one

miles, says Calmet, south-east of Jericho. Of the other localities, here named, Bamoth-baal, Beth-baal-meon, Zareth-shahar, we know nothing.

The territory of Reuben was the most southern of the lots east of the Jordan North and east of it was that belonging to Gad, and north of Gad was Manasseh. The river Arnon separated Reuben from the country of Moab on the south. That river entered the Dead Sea about half the distance between the north and south ends. There are a few places that are mentioned in other parts of this history, that were included in the territory of Reuben, but they are not on the foregoing list. Bezer was a city of the Levites and a city of refuge. The site can not be ascertained. Jos. xx. 8; xxi. 36. Nebo was built by Reuben. This name applies to a city and a mountain.

was named from the other. Num. xxxii. 3, 38; Deut. xxxii. 49; 1 Chron, v. 8. Abel-shittim or Shittim was the place where the Israelites had their camp, before crossing the Jordan. It was opposite to Jericho, and appears to have been in the tribe of Reuben. Jos. ii. 1; ii. 1. The country may once have been noted for that kind of timber, called Shittim wood, out of which the frame of the tabernacle was made. SECTION II. — Towns, CITIES AND OTHER LOCALITIES, IN THE TRIBE OF

GAD. These are the following: Jazer, probably the same as Jahaza on the preceding list, being on the border and in some sense belonging to both tribes. Aroer is repeated for the same reason, and so is Heshbon; and from Heshbon the author tells us, the territory of Gad extended to Ramath-mizpeh and Betonim; and from Mahanaim to Debir. Then mention is made of the valley of Betharam and Beth-nimrah and Succoth and Zaphon. The sea of Chinnereth was on the border a well-known body of water, afterwards called the sea of Tiberias or sea of Galilee. Jos. xiii. 24 - 28.

Ramath-mizpah signifies the high place of Mizpah, and


is doubtless the same as that ancient Mizpah where Jacob and Laban had their interview. It was in the mountain

range of Gilead, and was the residence of the renowned Jephthah. Gen. xxxi. 49; Jud. xi. 11, 29, 34. There are several other places that have the same

Betonim bordered on Manasseh. Jos. xii. 26. Mahanaim was an ancient city, having received its name from a vision of angels, seen by Jacob on his return from Padan-aram. It was a city of the Levites. Here Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, established himself, and made it his head quarters, while he operated against David. At a later period David made it his place of retreat, during the rebellion of Absalom. Jos. xiii. 26, 30; xxi. 38; 1 Chron. vi. 80; 2 Sam. ii. 8, 29; xyii. 27; 1 K. ii. 8.

Succoth is another city, to be attributed to the return of Jacob from Syria. He spent some time here, and built booths for his cattle; and this gave the name to the place. It was near the Jordan ; and not far from this place the vessels for the temple service were cast. Its location cannot now be ascertained. Gen. xxxiii. 17; 1 K. vii. 46.

Lake Chinnereth, that bounded Gad on the west, was about sixteen miles long, from north to south, and six broad. The Jordan ran through the center lengthwise, and is said to mingle with the waters of the lake very little, showing a perceptible current all the way.

Debir, Beth-aram, Beth-nimrah and Zaphon, we know nothing about.

There are some places belonging to Gad that are not on the foregoing list. Ramoth-Gilead is one of these, and probably the most important. It is doubtless the same as the Ramath-mizpah, just noticed. It was a city of the Levites, and a city of refuge. In Ramoth-Gilead, Jehu was anointed king over Israel, by the order of Elisha, the prophet. Here Joram, king of Israel, was wounded in battle with Hazael, king of Syria. It has not been located with certainty; but the more probable opinion is that of Seetzen and Van de Velde, which places it a few miles north of el Salt, the latter being fifteen miles west of Rabbah or Philadelphia, and five miles east of the Jordan, that is, five miles east of the place where the Jabbok enters into that river. Jos. xx. 8; xxi. 38; 1 Chron. vi. 80; 2 K. ix. 1, 14; 2 Chron. xviii. 3, 5, 11, 14; xxii. 5; 2 K. viii. 28, 29.

Peniel or Penuel was an ancient city, taking its name from a vision of Jacob, wherein he thought he saw the face of God, as the name indicates. It was fortified by Jeroboam, king of Israel. Gen. xxxii. 30; 1 K. xii. 25.





These are found in Jos. xiii. 29 – 31. But the general limits of the territory are given, rather than the names of towns and cities. Mention is made of “all Bashan and "all the kingdom of Og iu Bashan," and "all the towns of Jair, three score cities.” Also "half Gilead, and " Ashtaroth and Edrei, cities in Bashan."

Bashan included the district of Argob. It lay north of the river Jabbok, and south of Mount Hermon. The mountains of Gilead were on the east, and the Jordan on the west. It was one of the most fruitful countries in the world. Half of Gilead, meaning the northern half

, was given to Manasseh, the rest was assigned to Gad. The river Jabbok separated the two portions. That river emptied into the Jordan about half way between lake Chinnereth and the Dead Sea, which were sixty miles apart. Num. xxi. 33; xxxii. 33; 1 Chron. v. 16; Deut. iii. 13; 1 K. iv. 13.

Edrei was the scene of an important battle, between Og the king of Bashan, and the Israelites under Moses. There was another town of this name in Naphtali

. Jos. xii. 4; Num. xxi. 33. Ashtaroth was a city of the Levites. It was probably the same as the Ashteroth-karnaim, mentioned in Genesis. It was named from the goddess Astarte, represented with horns, for that is what

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