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Zanoah, En-gannim, Tappuah, Enam, Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah, Sharaim, Adithaim, Gederah, and Gederothaim. Jos. xv. 33 – 36.
Some of these cities were afterwards given to Dan, and are noticed more particularly in connection with that tribe. It was between Eshtaol and Zoreah that the Danites had a camp, at which Samson became aware of his great strength. His residence was near, and that was the place of his burial. Jud. xiii. 2, 25; xvi. 31.
Enam occurs in the account of Judah and Tamar, but is not translated. Instead of it, we have “an open place. It is easy to see, from the narrative, that it was a city or village. Gen. xxxviii. 14. Jarmuth is located by Jerome, ten miles from Eleutheropolis (from which he always estimates) toward Jerusalem. "Adullam was the name of a cave, as well as a city. It was one of the places of David's resort, while hiding from the infuriated Saul. 1 Sam. xxii. 1; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13. See Jos. xii. 15; 2 Chron. xi. 7 ; 2 Maccabees xii. 38.
Socoh, Sochoh, Shochoh was near the place where David killed Goliath. At a little distance was Azekah. Both occupied high ground, with the valley of Ephesdammim, or Pas-dammim,' between them. Near this was Elah, another valley. There was another place called Sochoh, in the "mountains” of Judab. 1 Sam. xyii. 1; 2 Chron. xxviii. 18.
Sharaim appears to be referred to as the limit to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines, after the death of Goliath. But the translation is doubtful. See comments on L Sam. xvii. 52.
3. The next list of names is not located, and may reasonably be referred to the “valley” with the foregoing. They are Zenan, Hadashah, Migdal-gad, Dilean, Mizpeh, Joktheel, Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon, Cabbon, Lahmam, Kithlish, Gederoth, Beth-dagon, Naamah and Makkedah. Jos. xv. 37-41.
Lachish and Eglon, as well as Jarmuth on the preceding list, were among the cities destroyed by Joshua. xii.
11, 12. Lachish was rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam. Sennacherib besieged it, but did not take it. Jos. x. 23; 2 Chron. xi. 9; 2 K. xix. 8.
Gederoth was not far from Shocoh on the former list; and near it were Timnah, Ajalon and Beth-shemesh. 2 Chron. xxviii. 18.
Beth-dagon may be named from Dagon the god, or from dagon, grain. Makkedah was destroyed by Joshua. Near by was the cave where the kings of Canaan hid, and where they were thrown after being slain. Jos. x. 16, 22, 27, 28.
Mizpeh in Judah was where Samuel called the people together, preparatory to fighting the Philistines. It is one of the places where he held his courts. 1 Sam. vii. 5, 6, 16. There were several other places of this name.
4. The next list is given thus:-Libnah, Ether, Ashan, Jiphtah, Ashnah, Ñezib, Keilah, Achzib, Mareshah. xv. 42 - 44.
Libnah was destroyed in the first campaign of Joshua. Keilah was delivered from the Philistines by David; but he was obliged to flee away, to keep from being delivered up to Saul, by, those whom he had befriended. It was between Eleutheropolis and Hebron, nearer the latter place. 1 Sam. xxiii. 1-13. A great battle was fought at Mareshah, and Asa king of Judah defeated. It was only two miles from Eleutheropolis. Later, with several other towns of southern Judah, it belonged to Idumea. 2 Chron. xi. 8; xiv. 9, 10. Zephathah was the name of the valley where the battle took place.
5. Ekron, Ashdod and Gaza xv. 45-47. These were Philistine cities, and were never entirely subdued, till the time of David or Solomon. They are reckoned to Judah, because they were situated in the territory allotted to that tribe; and it was the right of the men of the tribe to subdue them, if they could.
Ekron was the northern city of the Philistines. Baalzebub was the god of Ekron. It was on the line between Judah and Dan, when the latter tribe had its portion
1 Sam. v.
from the former. It was near the Mediterranean sea, between Ashdod and Jamnia. It was the first to propose sending back the ark of the Lord, to avoid the calamities it occasioned. 1 Sam v. 10, 11; 2 K. i. 2.
Ashdod, in Greek Azotos, was the place where the ark was first conveyed by the Philistines, when it was captured. Here was a temple of Dagon. It experienced many vicissitudes. In one instance it is said to have endured a siege of twenty-seven years! It is now a wretched village called Esdud.
vi. 17. Gaza or Azzah. It was the limit of Joshua's conquests, but afterwards appears to have been brought under the power of the Israelites, for a time, though of this there is doubt. It was at Gaza that Samson carried off the door of the gate. Gaza was near the southern border of Canaan towards Egypt. Its location made it a city of importance. It was subject, at different times, to the Hebrews, Chaldeans, Egyptians and Phoenicians. It was destroyed in the year 98, but a new town was afterwards built, not far from the site of the old. The new town still exists. The place is pointed out where the temple was pulled down by Samson! Jos. X. 41; xi. 22; Jud. i. 18; vi. 4; xvi. 1. It is now called Ghuzzeh.
Ashkelon was in the tribe of Judah, and is representted as being conquered by that tribe; but it is not on the foregoing list. It was situated on the sea, but had no harbor.
It was surrounded at one time by a high, strong wall, both ends of which terminated in the sea In the Samaritan copy, Ashkelon stands for Gerar, in Gen. xx. 1, 2. Ashkelon was the birth place of Herod the Great Jud. i. 18.
Gerar is another Philistine city, mentioned once or twice in these books. It was an ancient city, mentioned as far back as the time of Abraham. It was in the territory assigned to Judah. 2 Chron. xiv. 13.
Gath is another Philistine city that may be reckoned to Judah, though it was not conquered till the time of
David. It was near the northern border, and appears to have been claimed by Benjamin. 1 Chron. vii. 13._It is often alluded to in the ancient sacred history. The inhabitants were called Gittites. Goliath the giant was a Gittite. There were many giants in Gath. Goliath had a brother that is mentioned. After the Philistines were conquered, and made subject to David, the latter had a company of six hundred men as a part of his body-guard. The captain was Ittai, who insisted upon accompanying the king into exile, when he left the city on the approach of Absalom. The following references will exhibit many other circumstances that relate to Gath. Jos. xi. 22; 1 Sam. vii. 14; xxi. 10; xxvii. 2, 4; xvii. 23; 2 Sam. xv. 18; 1 K. ii. 39, 40,
Metheg-ammah, the same as Gath. 2 Sam. viii. 1.
6. Places in the mountains. Shamir, Jattir, Socoh, Dannah, Kirjath-sannah or Debir, Anab, Eshtemoh, Anim, Goshen, Holon and Giloh. xv. 48-51.
Socob was fortified by Rehoboam. 2 Chron. xi. 7. Debir was one of the cities given to Caleb. To any one who should get possession of it for him, he promised his daughter in marriage. The daughter fell to Othniel, his nephew. Jos. xv. 15, 16. The place had three names. Besides the two above given, it 'had Kirjath-sepher. Jos. xv. 15, 49. Eshtemoh was a city of the priests. Eusebius says it was near Eleutheropolis, but a little north of it. David sent presents to Eshtemoh or Eshte
Jos. xxi. 14; 1 Sam. xxx. 28. Goshen may have been named from the residence of the Hebrews in Egypt. It was destroyed by Joshua. Jos. x. 41; xi. 16. Holon was a city of the priests. It is probably the same as Hilen in the parallel passage. Jos. xxi. 15; 1 Chron. vi. 58. · Giloh is distinguished as the residence of Ahithophel, counselor of David. 2 Sam. xv. 12.
7. Additional places in the mountains. Arab, Dumah, Eshean, Janum, Beth-tappuah, Aphekah, Humtab, Kirjath-arba or Hebron, Zior. xv. 52-54.
Of these the only city of importance is Hebron. It
was an ancient city, once the residence of Abraham. Here the burial place, Machpelah, is shown to travelers at the present day. It was called Kirjath-arba, or city of Arbā, because it was built by one Arba, the father of Anak. Before the time of Abram, it was called Mamre. Arba was the father of Anak; and from Anak comes the plural form Anakim, the name of a race of giants. Hebron took an active part in opposing Joshua, and was one of the first places that fell by his
hands. It became the inheritance of Caleb, according to the promise of Moses. It was nearly central between the north and south boundary of Judah, and was, for over seven years, the royal seat of David Joab slew Abner at Hebron, to the great grief of David. It was here that David was first anointed king. It was still a large town in 1823, with a mosque over the tomb of Abraham. Jos. x. 3, 5; xx. 7; xxi. 11, 13; 2 Sam. ii. 1; ii. 22-27; v. 1, 3, 5.
8. Additional towns in the mountains. Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Juttah, Jezreel, Jokdeam, Zanoah, Cain, Gibeah, and Timnah. xv. 55-57. There was a town of Maon, and a wilderness of the
Probably they were near together. The wilderness where David was concealed, was south of Jeshimon. It was there that Nabal resided, who had flocks in Carmel, whose wife became the wife of David. 1 Sam. xxiii. 24, 25; xxv. 2, 3. It is seven miles from Hebron, and now called Main. A place in the wilderness of Maon, received from Saul the name of Selahammah-lekoth, to indicate the necessity he was under of giving up the pursuit of David. 1 Sam. xxiii. 28.
Carmel was the name of the district where Nabal kept his flocks. The town or city Carmel was probably in the district. Uzziah king of Judah, who gave much attention to the cultivation of the soil, had vineyards in Carmel. Here Saul erected a monument, after his return from destroying the Amalekites. 2 Chron. xxvi. 10; 1 Sam. xv. 12. It was ten miles east of Hebron.