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Benjamin, it is claimed also by these other tribes. That it belonged to Ephraim is proved by the statement that the children of Joseph did not drive out the inhabitants as they ought to have done. It is the Ajalon where Joshua commanded the moon to stand still.

It is associated with Beth-horon, another town mentioned in that history, and also belonging to Ephraim. Jos. x. 12; Jud. i. 35.

Beth-horon was a city of the Levites. There were two Beth-horons, situated about three miles apart, the upper and nether; and the descent from one to the othwas rough and stony. They were built by a woman, the daughter of Ephraim. They were not far from Azekah. Between the upper and the nether Beth-horon, great multitudes of the Canaanites perished, when pursued by Joshua after the rout at Gibeon; the destruction being increased by a terrible hail storm that occurred at the same time. Beth-horon, the nether, was fortified by Solomon. Beth-horon is now called Beitur. The upper town is four miles due west of Gibeon, and the latter is six or seven miles north or north-west of Jerusalem. Jos. X. 10, 11; xvi. 5; xxi. 22; 1 Chron. vi. 68; vii. 24; 1 K. ix. 17; 1 Sam. xiii. 18.

The most important town of Ephraim was Shechem. It was a city of refuge, and very ancient, being mentioned in Genesis, and taking its name from Shechem, son of Hamor; of whom Jacob bought a parcel of ground, which was afterwards given to Joseph. It was a little north of Shiloh; and Shiloh was a little north of Bethel. Jacob's well was near Shechem, on the parcel of ground above referred to; and near by was the tomb of Joseph. Shechem was between Ebal on the north, and Gerizim on the south. Jos. xx. 7; xxi. 21; 1 Chron. vi. 67; Jud. xxi. 19; 1 K. xii. 25.

Ebal and Gerizim were the two mountains, where the Blessings and Cursings were pronounced on the people. Ebal was north of Shechem, and Gerizim was south; and the base of each reached into the city. And as

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Shechem belonged to Ephraim, it is probable the two mountains did also, at least Gerizim. The other might not, as we know that Shechem was near the line between Ephraim and Manasseh. Jos. viii. 30, 33.

Some other localities were named that were near to Shechem, and here seems the most suitable place to notice them. Thebez was near Shechem, where the aspiring Abimelech was killed by his armor-bearer, after being mortally wounded by a woman, who threw upon him a piece of a mill-stone from the wall of the city. Jud. ix. 50-55; 2 Sam. xi. 21. Meonenim was a plain situated near Shechem. Jud. ix. 37. Zalmon was a mountain near Shechem; but we labor under the same uncertainty, as to the territory it was in, whether that of Ephraim or of Manasseh. Jud. ix. 48. Millo was near Shechem, but in what direction we cannot say; and hence it admits the same doubt as some of the other localities just named. Dr. Clarke thinks Millo denotes . a family and not a place. Jud. ix. 6, 20.

Jokmeam was a city of the Levites in Ephraim. 1 Chr. vi. 68. Kibzaim was another. Jos. xxi. 22; and Gathrimmon another. 1 Chron. vi. 69. Naaran is mentioned as being at the eastern extremity of the tribe, while Gezer was at the western. 1 Chron. vii. 28. Pirathon was the birth and burial place of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel. Jud. xii. 13 - 15. Seirath, to which Ehud escaped, after treacherously slaying. Eglon, king of Moab, appears to have been in Ephraim. Jud. iii. 26, 27.

Shiloh was in Ephraim. It was between Shechem, the north border of Ephraim, and Bethel, the north border of Benjamin. The tabernacle was established at Shiloh soon after entering the country, and was there a long time. Shiloh was located on high ground with an extensive prospect. Jos. xviii. 1, 8, 9, 10; xxi. 2; Jud. xxi. 19, 21; 1 Sam. i. 9, 24; iii. 21; iv. 4, 12. It is probable that Taanath-shiloh (Jos. xvi. 6) takes its adjunct from Shiloh above noticed.

Timnath-serah or Timnath-heres, the residence of Joshua, was in mount Ephraim; and he was buried in a hill called Gaash on his own land. Otherwise, neither the place, nor the hill is any way remarkable. Jos. xix. 50; xxiv. 30; Jud. ii. 9. Lebonah was a little east of Shiloh and therefore in Ephraim. Jud. xxi. 19. Zemaraim was in mount Ephraim, where there was a great slaughter of Israelites, by Abijah, king of Judah. 2 Chron. xiii. 4, 17. Uzzen-sherah is incidentally mentioned as being built by a woman, whose name was Sherah, who also built Beth-horon the upper, and the nether. 1 Chron. vii. 24.

Gob is supposed to be another name for Gezer, and therefore in the same tribe, namely Ephraim. Gob and Gezer represent each other in the following parallel passages : 2 Sam. xxi. 18; 1 Chron. xx. 4. Jeshanah was near to Bethel, on the borders of Benjamin, but is considered as belonging to Ephraim, 2 Chron. xiii. 19. Ephraim the town is supposed to be named from its location in the tribe of Ephraim. 2 Chron. xiii. 19. Shamir was the residence of Tola, one of the judges, and was in mount Ephraim; but it is possible that he did not dwell in the territory of Ephraim; as the elevated region, that passed under the name of mount Eph. raim, extended into other territory, both north and south. Tola belonged to the tribe of Issachar. Jud. x. 1. So Ramah, the residence of Samuel, was in mount Ephraim; but there are forcible reasons for believing that his residence was Ramah in Benjamim. 1 Sam. i. 1.

Zeeb, the name of a wine-press, appears to have been in the tribe of Ephraim. It took its name from the Midian king Zeeb, who was slain there. Jud. vii. 25. Oreb was the name of the stone that marked the spot where the Midianite king Oreb was slain. Jud. vii. 25. Tirzah was the royal seat of the kings of Israel, from the time of Jeroboam to Omri, who changed the seat of government to a new city, which he built and called Samaria. Jos. xii. 24; 1 K. xiv. 17; xv. 21; 2 K. xv.

14, 16.


THE JORDAN These towns and other localities are spoken of in the récord, as belonging to Manasseh ; but it must be remembered that half this tribe received an inheritance east of the Jordan; and it is the half that settled on the west side, that is here referred to. As Manasseh was north of Ephraim, those places that are common to both boundaries, must be between them, or on the northern line of Ephraim. They are Michmethah, Tappuah or En-tappuah, and the river Kanah.

Add to these the following that belonged to Manasseh, but were located in the tribes of Issachar and Asher, Jos. xvii. 11, and we will have all the towns that belonged to this half tribe, so far as the present description gives us the information. They are Bethshean, Ibseam, Dor, En-dor, Taanach and Megiddo.

Kanah. This river emptied into the Mediterranean sea. In Bethshean or Bethshan, the Philistines hung up the bodies of Saul and his sons, after the battle in which the latter were slain. Of course the mountain of Gilboa, the place of the battle, was near. Bethshan was west of the Jordan, but not far from that river._It was near the eastern extremity of the great plain of Esdrælon, seventy-five miles east of north, from Jerusalem. It was once taken and occupied by the Scythians, and from them received the name Scythopolis. It is now called Bysan, and has perhaps a hundred families. It is twenty-four miles south of Tiberias. 1 Sam. xxxi. 10, 12; 1 Chron. vii. 29; 1 K. iv. 12; Jud. i. 27; 1 Mac. xii. 29.

Ibleam was a city of the Levites, and the same as Bileam. 1 Chron. vi. 70. Dor was situated on the Mediterranean, not far from mount Carmel, at the extreme west of the valley of Esdrælon. Its situation on a high point of land, running out into the sea, rendered its position a very strong one. It is now called Tortura. Jos. xi. 2; xii. 23; Jud. i. 27; 1 K. iv. 11; 1 Chron vii. 29. It is nine miles from Cæsarea toward Ptolemais. En-dor, or Fountain of Dor was the residence of the woman, who had a "familiar spirit," whom Saul consulted on the eve of his last battle. It was four miles south of mount Tabor, and seven or eight from Gilboa. Jos. xvii. 11; 1 Sam. xxvïïi. 7, 8.

Taanach was one of the first cities that fell by the hand of Joshua. It has been identified as three or four miles from Legio, and is now called Ta'anuk. Jos. xii. 21; xvii. 11; Jud. i. 27 ; v. 19; 1 K. iv. 12. Megiddo is nearly always associated with Taanach; and it is evident the two were not far apart. There is occasional allusion to the waters of Megiddo. There may have been a fountain near it. It was here that Ahaziah, king of Judah, died, having received his mortal wound from the men of Jehu. It was settled by many of the Ephraimites, though it belonged to Manasseh. Josiah was slain at Megiddo. Jud. i. 27 ; v. 19; 1 K. ix. 15; 2 K. ix. 27; 1 Chron. vii. 29; 2 Chron. xxxv. 22.

These towns of Manasseh are said to be located in Issachar, and Asher; but which were in Issachar and which in Asher, is not in all cases certain. Some of them are widely separated, Bethshan being at the extreme east of Esdrælon, and Dor at the extreme west, from fifteen to twenty miles apart.

The localities that are named in giving the general boundary of both tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, should receive a moment's attention. They are the Jordan, Jericho, the waters of Jericho, the wilderness that goeth up from Jericho through mount Bethel, Luz, Archi, Ataroth, Japhleti, Beth horon the nether, Gezer and the sea. Jos. xvi. 1, 3.

Jericho will be noticed in connection with the towns of Benjamin, to which tribe it belonged. That is the proper place for noticing Luz or Bethel. Bethhoron has been noticed already. So has Gezer. The waters of

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