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be said, but our limits will not permit. 1 K. xviii. 19, 42; 2 K. ii. 25; iv. 25; 2 Chron. xxvi. 10.
The passage before us does not say whether Carmel was a city or a mountain. We know there was such a mountain; and Pliny tells us that there was once a city of the same name, on this mountain, and formerly called Ecbatana.
Beth-dagon may be named from the god Dagon, or from the Xebrew word for wheat or grain. Of the place we know nothing:
Hebron reminds one of a celebrated place of that name in Judah; but the two names are quite different in Hebrew, and should be so in the version. It is called, in another place, Abdon, which should be Abron, to to correspond with the original of Hebron in this passage.
The exchange of r for d, and vice versa, is very common in the Hebrew Bible; as in that language the two characters are nearly of the same form. Jos. xxi. 30; 1 Chron. vi. 74. Rehob was a city of the Levites. Jos. xxi. 31 ; 1 Chron. vi. 75. See Num. xiii. 21; 2 Sam. x. 6, 8; Jud. xviii. 28.
Zidon or Sidon is one of the most noted cities of antiquity. It is called "the great Sidon" in this history. It is often associated with Tyre; and it has at some time been subject to the Tyrians. It is believed to take its name from Sidon, one of the sons of Canaan, the son of Ham. It is at least a very ancient city, being alluded to in Genesis. In the time of Homer, the Sidonians were eminent for their trade and commerce. They were never entirely subdued by the Israelites; but at a later period they were brought under the Babylonians, Egyptians, Seleucidæ, and Romans. The modern name is Saide. Gen. x. 15, 19; Jos. xi. 8; Jud. xviii. 28.
The word for Tyre signifies a rock, or strong place; and the place is here called “the strong city Tyre. The Tyre of which we read in the Bible, and profane history, was situated on a rock, or small island, in the sea, some six or seven hundred paces from the main
land. To reduce this city, Alexander the Great was obliged to fill up this intervening space, requiring great labor. It is supposed that still further back, there was a city on the main land, having the same name. The ruins of this were employed by Alexander to fill up the sea to the new city. In certain periods of its history, Tyre was a place of considerable commerce. once considered the mistress of the seas. With a fleet of twelve ships, it beat the Assyrians with a fleet of sixty. Jos. xix. 29; 2 Sam. xxiv. 7; 1 K. vii. 13, 14; 2 Chron. ü. 14. Accho was a city of Asher, situated on the shore of the Mediterranean sea, on a bay to which it gave its name,
not far from mount Carmel. It was afterwards called Ptolemais, and has been a town of importance. The Turks now call it Akka, and the western nations Acre. Jud. i. 31. Achzib was eight miles from Ptolemais or Accho. It is situated on a hill near the sea, with a good prospect of sea and land. Jud. i. 31.
The following are found in other parts of this history. Ahlab is associated with other cities of Asher. Jud. i. 31. Beth-rehob is no doubt the same as Rehob already noticed. 2. Sam. X. 6, 8. Cabul has been mentioned as a town of Asher. It was also a general name of several cities, given by Solomon to Hiram, king of Tyre; the location of which was not far from the territory of Asher, if not included in it. 1 K. ix. 13. Misrephoth-maim was not far from Sidon, and therefore probably in the tribe of Asher. The adjunct maim shows that it was a fountain, or at least a body of water. Jos. xi. 8; xiii. 6. Aloth was in or near the tribe of Asher. 1 K. iv. 16. Mearah was near Sidon. Jos. xiii. 4. Zerephath was a "daughter of Zidon," or one of its dependent towns, where the poor woman resided, who was miraculously supplied during a famine. 1 K. xvii. 9, 10.
CITIES AND TOWNS OF NAPHTALI.
These are Heleph, Allon, Zaanannim, Adami, Nekeb, Jabneel, Lakum, "Aznoth-tabor, Hukkok, Ziddim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Chinnereth, Adamah, Ramah, Hazor, Kedesh, Edrei, En-hazor, Iron, Migdal-el, Horem, Beth-anath, and Beth-shemesh. Jos. xix. 32-39.
The first nine names are mentioned in giving the boundary. The balance, consisting of sixteen more, are called fenced cities. Of the larger portion we know nothing, except what is here stated, namely, that they were fenced cities, and belonged to the tribe of Naphtali.
Allon might be joined to the next name and rendered the "oak of the loading of tents.” It took its name probably, from some nomad tribe, like the Kenites who are mentioned in another passage, in connection with it. In Jud. iv. 11, the same original is rendered the "plain of Zaanaim;" and it is there said to be the place where Heber the Kenite pitched his tents. The original for plain is properly oak. This oak was near Kedesh.
Jabneel or Jabneh was the same as the Greek Jamnia. It was so called in the time of the Maccabees. At the fall of Jerusalem, it was a populous place and had a celebrated school. There the tomb of Gamaliel was shown in the 14th century. The modern village is Ibna. It is two miles from the sea, and eleven miles north of Jaffa. The ruins show that the site is the same as that of the old city. In 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, it is called Jabneh.
Hukkok is the same as Hukok, and both probably stand for Helkath. It was reckoned to the tribe of Asher. 1 Chron. vi. 75. It is mentioned in Joshua as being on the border.
Hammath is called Hammath-dor, and also Hammon. Jos. xxi. 32; 1 Chron. vi. 76. Hammon in Jos. xix. 28, may be the same; as the two districts joined; and it is not uncommon to consider a border town as belonging to the tribes, on either side of the line. The name is understood by some as denoting the hot baths, near Tiberias; and about a mile south of the modern town.
Chinnereth, no doubt, was on or near the lake of this name, through the center of which, from north to south, the Jordan passed; and the passage assures us that the
tribe extended to the Jordan. It is the opinion of some that Chinnereth is the same as the place afterwards called Tiberias; in other words, that the name of the town changed with the name of the lake.
Hazor was the residence of Jabin, who, taking up arms against Joshua, was defeated and his city destroyed. Jos. xi. 1, 10, 11; 1 K. ix. 15; 2 K. xv. 29. Kedesh was a city of the Levites. It has been located ten miles north of Safed, and four miles north-west of lake Me- . rom.
It is still called Kades. 1 Chron. vi. 76. It was the residence of Barak, who, with Deborah the prophetess, overcame Jabin of Hazor, and delivered the Israel. ites from his oppressions. Jud. iv, 6. 10. En-hazor may be only a fountain near Hazor, and taking its name from this circumstance.
Some few other towns are found in this history, that belonged to Naphtali. Dan was in the same territory; ; but having been conquered by Danites, and settled by them, it is considered as belonging to Dan. Galilee was in the tribe of Naphtali. It was at first a limited tract, but it became quite extensive, embracing the whole of the valley of Esdrælon, which was called Lower Galilee, while the higher, northern portion was called upper Galilee. 2 K. xv. 29; 1 K. ix. 11.
Lake Merom was probably in Naphtali, as the localities near it were in that territory. It was near this lake that Joshua gained a great victory. Jos. xi. 5, 7. Janoah is associated with other towns of Naphtali. 2 K. xv. 29. Kirjathaim was a city of the priests in Naphtali. 1 Chron. vi. 76. Kartan was another or a shorter form of Kirjathaim. Jos xxi. 32.
SECTION XIII. - TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE TRIBE OF DAN. These are Zorah, Eshtaol, Ir-shemesh, Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Jethlah, Elon, Thimnathah, Ekron, Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, Jehud, Bene-berak, Gath-rimmon, Mejarkon, Rakkon, Japho and Leshem or Dan. Jos xix. 40-47. The last of these was a conquest of six
hundred Danites, at a distance from the other towns here named. It was the northern extremity of Canaan, in the territory of Naphtali. The other places were in the tribe of Judah, and several of them are on the Judah list. Zorah and Eshtaol, and Ekron, and Baalah, are certainly of this class. Thimnathah is probably the same as Timnah. Ir-shemesh is thought to be the same as Beth-shemesh, having a similar meaning. Others may be identical, though not quite alike. Some change in the names may have been made, on account of the transfer from one tribe to the other.
Zorah or Zoreah was the residence of Manoah, the father of Samson. The Danites had a camp between Zoreah and Eshtaol, where Samson began his exploits. He was buried near that spot. Jud. xiii. 2, 25; xvi. 31. Shaalabbin is Shaalbim in Jud. i. 35. It was near to Aijalon. Aijalon is the place where Joshua commanded the sun and moon to stand still. Of course it was near to Gibeon. Instead of there being several places of this name, as some suppose, near the same point, it is quite certain there was but one. It is on the list of Benjamin and Ephraim, as well as Dan. Heres is the name of a mountain in Ajalon. Jud. i. 35. Eltekeh may be the same as Eltekon on the Judah list. Dan was taken from Judah.
Gibbethon was a city of the Levites. Here Baasha killed Nadab, son of Jeroboam. 1 K. xv. 27. Gathrimmon was another city of the Levites. Jos. xxi. 23, 24. Japho was the same as Jaffa or Joppa. It was the nearest sea port to Jerusalem. The timber for the temple, from mount Lebanon, was landed at Joppa. It has a poor harbor, but some substantial structures, for example, three convents, the Greek, Latin and Armenian. 2 Chron. ii. 16; Ezra iii. 7.
The city of Dan was situated in another tribe, but was reckoned to Dan. It was called Laish or Leshem before the six hundred Danites took possession. It was the most northern city of Canaan, as Beersheba was the