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period embraced in these books; and hence we read of it under several different designations :

1. Syria of the two rivers, for that is the meaning of Mesopotamia,

2. Syria of Damascus from its chief city,
3. Syria of Zobah,
4. Syria of Maachah,
5. Syria of Rehob or Beth-rehob,
6. Syria of Tob or Ishtob,
7. Syria of Hamath, one of its chief towns.
At a later period,
8. Syria of Antioch, another chief town,

9. Cole Syria. Gen. xxviii. 2, etc; Deut. xxiii. 4; Jud. iii, 8; 2 Sam. viii, 3, 12; x. 6, 8; Jos. xix. 28, 30; Jud. xi. 3, 5; 1 Chron. xviii. 3.

Zobah was a district of Syria. 1 Sam. xiv. 47; 2 Sam. viii. 5, 12; x. 6, 8; 1 K. xi. 23, 24. Tob was probably another name for Ishtob; and if it was, it belonged to Syria. Jud. xi. 3, 5; 1 Mac. v. 13; 2 Mac. xii

. 17. Tadmor in the desert appears to have been in Syria; but it was not built till Syria came under the power

of the Israelites. 1 K. ix. 18; 2 Chron. viii. 4. Harosheth of the Gentiles was in Syria, but near the boundary of Canaan. See concerning Syria, 2 Sam. viii. 6; 1 K. X. 29; xi. 25; xix. 15; xx. 1; 2 K. xiii. 3, 4; xv. 37; xvi. 5, 6; 1 Chron. xviii. 3; xix. 6; 2 Chron. xvi. 7; xx. 2.

Hamath and Hamath-zobah are the same place. It took the latter name, because it belonged to the district of Zobah. Beta and Berothai were cities of Hadadezer, from which David obtained valuable spoils. 2 Sam. viii. 8.

Helam was a place where a great battle was fought between David and Hadadezer. 2. Sąm. X. 16, 17, 18. Chun and Tibhath belonged to Syria. Riblah was in the district of Hamath, and was the place where Jehoahaz was kept in confinement, by. Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt. It is situated on the Orontes, thirty-five miles north-east of Baal-bec. 2 K. xxiii. 33 ; xxv. 20, 21.

The mountains of Lebanon are north of Palestine. They consist of two ranges that run nearly parallel, and nearly north and south. The western one nearest the sea, is called Libanus, the other Anti-Libanus. Jos. ix. 1; 1 K. v. 6, 9; ix. 19; 2 Chron. xxv. 18. They are often referred to in the poetical parts of the Bible, and afford many striking illustrations.

We read of Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus in Syria. 2 K. v. 12. Cuth was a town or district of Assyria. Gozan is named as a river of the Medes, on which were situated Halah and Habor. 2 K. xvii. 6. Achmetha was once the capital of the Medes. Ezra. vi. 2. Jetur, Nephish and Nodab belonged to the Hagarites, in some locality in the direction of Assyria. 1 Chr. v. 19. Havilah is thought to be in the same general direction. 1 Sam. xv. 7. Horeb is mentioned once or twice — another name for Sinai. 1 K. viii. 9; xix. 8. And in the country of the Amalekites, south of the land of the Philistines, the brook Bezor is mentioned. 1 Sam. XXX. 9, 21.

Assur is probably another name for Assyria. Ezra. iv. 2. Shushan was the capital of Persia ; or it may have been only the name of the palace. Neh. i. 1. Tiphsah was not far from the Euphrates. 1 K. iv. 24. În another direction was Sheba, whose queen came to see the wisdom of Solomon. It is now generally conceded that this country was in Asia, and not, as was once thought, in Africa. 1 K. x. 1-13. Ophir and Tarsish were far away but in what direction, no one can tell us; and speculations are too numerous and diverse to admit of repetition. 1 K. ix, 28; x. 11; xxii. 48. Mention is made of Armenia, India, Arabia, Ethiopia; but no information is given concerning them, and we can do no inore than repeat their names.

We have aimed to give the name of every locality mentioned in the historical books ending with Esther. If we have omitted any name, it is not that the place was "not important,” for every place is important, when we wish to find it, and get what information we can about it. To a thorough student, it is a grievous vexation, to look over a Geographical Concordance or Dic. tionary, to find a name, and not find it, at the same time knowing that there is such a name in the Bible. We have been thus particular and thorough, in this department of Biblical investigation, from a deep conviction of its paramount importance to the right understanding of the history here given us.

This is our apology, if apology is needed, for preparing this long chapter.

CHAPTER VI.

CONQUEST OF CANAAN. CONTENTS: — Passage of the Jordan; Circumcision and the Passover; The Fall of Jericho; The Culprit ; Conquest of Ai; Blessings and Cursings; The League with the Gibeonites; The Five Confederate Kings; Cities. Taken and Destroyed; A General Uprising and the Result; Recapitulation.

SECTION 1.-PASSAGE OF THE JORDAN.

JOS, I. 1. Now, after the death of Mo. Lebanon, even unto the great riv. ses, the servant of the Lord, it er, the river Euphrates, all the came to pass, that the Lord spake land of the Hittites, and unto the unto Joshua the son of Nun, Mo- great sea, toward the going down ses' minister, saying,

of the sun, shall be your coast. 2. Moses my servant is dead; 5. There shall not any man be now therefore arise, go over this able to stand before thee all the Jordan, thou, and all this people, days of thy life. As I was with unto the land which I do give to Moses, 80 I will be with thee: I them, even to the children of Israel. will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.

3. Every place that the sole of 6. Be strong, and of a good your foot shall tread upon, that courage; for unto this people shalt have I given unto you, as I said thou divide for an inheritance the unto Moses.

land, which I sware unto their 4. From the wilderness and this fathers to give them.

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er thou goest.

7 Only be thou strong, and and night, that thou mayest obvery courageous, that thou mayest serve to do according to all that is observe to do according to all the written therein: for then thou law which Moses my servant com shalt make thy way prosperous, manded thee: turn not from it to and then thou shalt have good the right hand or to the left, that success. thou mayest prosper whithersoev 9. Have not I commanded thee?

Be strong, and of a good courage; 8. This book of the law shall be not afraid, neither be thou disnot depart out of thy mouth; but mayed: for the Lord thy God is thou shalt meditate therein day with thee withersoever thou goest.

Moses is denominated the servant of God, but Joshua is called the minister of Moses. These terms are essentially the same, but the usage is slightly varied. Joshua was a young man, and the servant or minister of Moses, when the Israelites were at Sinai. Ex. xxxiii. 11. With the exception of Caleb, Joshua alone remained of those that left Egypt under the conduct of Moses. These two had made a favorable report, when sent from Kadesh to spy the land; and for that they were excepted from the sentence pronounced on the rest of the people. Num. xiv. 6; xxvi. 65.

Joshua had been designated as the successor of Moses ; and the latter had given him his charge, in view of his duties and responsibilities. Deut. xxxi. 23 ; xxxiv. 9.

Go over this Jordan. This language implies that the Jordan was near. This Jordan,” as if the speaker pointed to it when he spake, there being no allusion to it that could have called for this expression.

This book of the law. It is certain that the law which was to be the guide of Joshua, was a book written down and put into his hands. It is enjoined on him “ to do according to all that is written therein.”

JOS. I. 10. Then Joshua commanded which the Lord your God giveth the officers of the people, saying, you to possess it.

11. Pass through the host, and 12. And to the Reubenites, and command the people, saying, Pre to the Gadites, and to half the pare you victuals; for within tribe of Manasseh, spake Joshua, three days ye shall pass over this

saying, Jordan, to go in to possess the land, 13. Remember the word which

Moses, the servant of the Lord you on this side Jordan, towards commanded you, saying, The Lord the sun-rising. your God hath given you rest, and 16. And they answered Joshua, · hath given you this land.

saying, All that thou commandest 14. Your wives, your little ones, us we will do, and whithersoever and your cattle, shall remain in thou sendest us we will go. the land which Moses gave you on 17. According as we hearkened this side Jordan; but ye shall pass unto Moses in all things, so will before your brethren armed, all we hearken unto thee: only the the mighty men of valor, and Lord thy God be with thee, as he help them;

was with Moses. 15. Until the Lord hath given 18. Whosoever he be that doth your brethren rest, as he hath giv- rebel against thy commandment, en you, and they also have pos- and will not hearken unto thy sessed the land which the Lord words, in all that thou command. your God giveth them; then ye est him, he shall be put to death ; shall return unto the land of your only be strong, and of a good possession, and enjoy it, which courage. Moses, the Lord's servant, gave

The Hebrews as a body were well organized. Besides the commander-in-chief and his lieutenants, every tribe had a chief; and the men of each tribe, fit to bear arms, were divided into tens, fifties, hundreds, and thousands, with a suitable officer over each division. Every tribe, too, had an appropriate standard. Ex. xvii. 25; Num. ii. 2, etc.,

Pass through the host. The term host is used to denote an organized army. It is not necessary that the army should be large. We often read of the God of hosts

. In some instances the original is retained, and then we read of "the God of Sabaoth," meaning the God of hosts. The term has no connection with the Sabbath, as some excellent writers have assumed.

Reuben, Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh had desired to settle east of the Jordan; and Moses had complied with their wishes. But it was expressly stipulated, that the fighting men of these tribes, or a sufficient portion of them, should go with their brethren across the river, and help them conquer that part of the country, after which they should return to their possessions Num. xxxii. 11-42; Deut. iii. 12-20. All the tribes had been engaged in subduing the country east of the

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