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JOS. V. 13. And it came to pass, when I now come. And Joshua fell on his Joshua was by Jericho, that he face to the earth, and did worship, lifted up his eyes and looked, and and said unto him, What saith my behold, there stood a man over Lord unto his servant ? against him, with his sword drawn 16. And the captain of the Lord's in his hand; and Joshua went un- host said unto Joshua, Loose thy to him, and said unto him, Art thou shoe from off thy foot; for the place for us, or for our adversar es ? whereon thou standest is holy.

14. And he said, Nay; but as And Joshua did so. captain of the host of the Lord am

JOS. VI. 1. Now Jericho was straitly shut, before the ark seven trumpets of up because of the children of Isra- rams' horns; and the seventh day el: none went out, and none came ye shall compass the city seven in.

times, and the priests shall blow 2. And the Lord said unto with the trumpets. Joshua, See, I have given into 6. And it shall come to pass, that thine hand Jericho, and the king when they shall make a long blast thereof, and the mighty men of with the ram's horn, and when ye valor.

hear the sound of the trumpet, all 3. And ye shall compass the the people shall shout with a great city, all ye men of war, and go shout; and the wall of the city round about the city once. Thus shall fall down flat, and the people shalt thou do six days.

shall ascend up, every man straight 4. And seven priests shall bear before him..

This is simply an apparition, (13 - 15,) like others often brought before us in the Scriptures, and some well attested instances may be found in profane history. The purpose of the apparition was to give specific orders about the mode of attack upon the city of Jericho. These are found in the next chapter, beginning atverse 2d.

It is unfortunate that the division of chapters occurs here; for it gives an appearance of an abrupt termination of the vision, when in fact there is no termination at this point. Besides, the first verse of chapter 6th is out of place; and if not spurious, should at least be put in brackets. The true connection requires that it be omitted or overlooked in reading.

Joshua is commanded to take off his shoes; for the place was holy. The custom of the ancients was, to take

off the shoes, when they went into any holy place. The requirement to Joshua, to take off his shoes, was based on this custom. The angel that appeared to Moses, Ex. iii. 1-6, made the same requirement; after which he proceeded to give his commands. So does the angel that appeared to Joshua ; and hence we read :-"And the Lord said unto Joshua, See, I have given into thy hand Jericho, and the king thereof, and the mighty men of valor," &c. This “captain " ranked Joshua ; and it was very becoming in him to give specific commands about the mode of attack. He gives the commands accordingly; and these show that the fall of Jericho was to be in part a miraculous transaction.

Having received the order from his superior in command, Joshua proceeds at once to execute it; and the result was precisely as had been announced, proving that the angel was really “captain of the host of the Lord,” as he had claimed.

Seven trumpets. These were made of silver, and are particularly described, also the use to be made of them. Ît was the business of the priests to use these trumpets. See Num. x. 1-10, Seven was a sacred number among the Hebrews. And when no other number was positively required, it was customary to make the number seyen to answer the purpose. In the taking of Jericho, it would seem that the number seven must have had a magical

power. There were seven priests, whose business it was to blow on seven trumpets. They compassed the city seven days; and on the seventh day, they compassed it seven times.

That the fall of Jericho is a miracle, all must admit, that admit its fall in the manner here described. But that the laws of nature were violated, need not be presumed. If an earthquake overthrow a city, we do not say the laws of nature are violated. The case is no way different, if an earthquake proceed no farther than to overthrow, or prostrate, the walls of a city. All the difference between the fall of Jericho, and the overthrow

of any other city, by an earthquake, is, that in one case, the purpose is immediately obvious, and in the other, it is not.

We suppose that the walls of Jericho were thrown down by a partial earthquake, such as the surrounding country shows to have been frequent in former times. It was the divine plan formed from eternity. It was also the divine plan, to bring this about, at a particular juncture, so as to favor the peculiar people of God, and show to all the world, that he interests himself in the affairs of men. It was, however, no more his purpose, to do this, than it was to overthrow Herculaneum or Pompeii; and he had a purpose to accomplish in the latter instances, as much as in the former, though it is not so manifest. So far as Deity is concerned, the one is no more a miracle than the other. It is to us only, that one is a miracle, and the other is not.

JOS. VI. 6. And Joshua the son of Nun proceed out of your mouth, until called the priests, and said unto the day I bid you shout; then them, Take up the ark of the cov- shall ye shout. enant, and let seven priests bear 11. So the ark of the Lord comseven trumpets of rams' hords be passed the city, going about it once; fore the ark of the Lord.

and they came into the camp, and 7 And he said unto the people, lodged in the camp. Pass on, and compass the city, and 12. And Joshua rose early in let him that is armed pass on before the morning, and the priests took the ark of the Lord.

up the ark of the Lord. 8. And it came to pass, when 13. And seven priests, bearing Joshua had spoken unto the people, seven trumpets of rams' borns bethat the seven priests, bearing the fore the ark of the Lord went on seven trumpets of rams' horns, continually, and blew with the passed on before the Lord, and trumpets ; and the armed men went blew with the trumpets; and the before them; but the rere-ward ark of the covenant of the Lord came after the ark of the Lord, the followed them.

priests going on, and blowing with 9. And the armed men went be- | the trumpets. fore the priests that blew with the 14. And the second day they trumpets, and the rear-ward came compassed the city once, and re. after the ark, the priests going on, turned into the camp: so they did and blowing with the trumpets.

six days. 10. And Joshua had commanded 16. And it came to pass, on the the people, saying, Ye shall not seventh day, that they rose early, shoul, nor make any noise with about the dawning of the day, and your voice, neither shall any word compassed the city after the same

manner seven times: only on that 19. But all the silver and gold, day they compassed the city seven and vessels of brass and iron, are times.

consecrated unto the Lord; they 16. And it came to pass, at the shall come into the treasuryof the seventh time, when the priests Lord. blew with the trumpets, Joshua 20. So the people shouted when said unto the people, Shout; for the priests blew with the trumpets, the Lord hath given you the city. and it came to pass, when the peo

17. And the city shall be accurs. ple heard the sound of the trumpet, ed, even it, and all that are therein, and the people shouted with a to the Lord; only Rahab the har- great shout, that the wall fell down lot shall live, she and all that are flat, so that the people went up inwith her in the house, because she to the city, every man straight behid the messengers that we sent. fore him, and they took the city.

18. And ye in any wise keep 21. And they utterly destroyed yourselves from the accursed thing, all that was in the city, both man lost ye make yourselves accursed, and woman, young and old, and ox, when ye take of the accursed thing, and sheep, and ass, with the edge and make the camp of Israel a of the sword. curse, and trouble it.

We are not to suppose that the ark had any efficacy in itself — neither had the rod of Moses. The rod, in the hand of Moses, showed that the miracles he performed had reference to him, and were designed to establish his authority. It was God that did the works. The ark was a symbol of the divine Being; and the performance of a miracle when the ark was present, showed that it was God that did it. In this way, the minds of the people were turned toward their Creator and Preserver.

There were soldiers before the ark, and others in the rear; the latter were called the rear-ward. It does not appear,

that one position was any more desirable, or honorable than the other.

The city was accursed, an or devoted to the Lord. Read devoted instead of accursed, and it will be brought within the specific arrangements of the law. Lev. xxvii. 28, 29. The last of these verses reads as follows: "None devoted (herem) which shall be devoted of men, shall be redeemed, but shall surely be put to death.' This covers a broader field than is apparent at first view. Men guilty of capital offences are considered devoted to the Lord - doomed, we might say, not doomed to death,


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though that was a necessary condition; but doomed to the Lord. And the same was true of cities. Hence, some instances occurred, with the Israelites, while on their way to Canaan. See Ex. xvii. 14, -16; Num. xxi. 1-3.

"But the silver and the gold,” etc. Some of the treasure could be wrought into suitable vessels for the tabernacle service, should it be needed for this purpose, or it could all be used in defraying the expenses of the national religion, which amounted to a considerable sum. The expense at the great annual festivals, as well as the annual fast, was defrayed by the nation.

Besides, it is reasonable to conclude that a temple for worship was foreseen, as sometime becoming a necessity, when the people should be fully established in the land; and it was wise to provide, as they were able, for such a contingency.

To be devoted was one thing — to be consecrated was another. The latter term is here used (verse 19,) like sanctify in the passage where the subject is treated of in the law of Moses. See Lev. xxvii.

Both the persons and the animals were destroyed. But the animals could not have been numerous, within walls that could be encompssed seven times in one day.

Ancient city walls usually held but a small portion of the people, unless they crowded in for safety. It is more than probable that many of the people fled, when the city was approached by the Israelites; since, as we learn, they were greatly alarmed, and had no hope of a successful resistance. This will explain what is deemed a difficulty, in the case of Jericho and some other cities, that, after being “utterly destroyed,” they are found to be inhabited, and in some instances are destroyed the second time. In respect to Jericho, see Jud. i. 16 ; iii. 13; 2 Sam. x. 5.

Ram's horns. This expression occurs several times in this narration. In neither instance is there anything answering to the first of these words; and in neither, with

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