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iots they could not use, in their mountainous country; and at that early day they had no use for them to extend their limits.

Great victories have often been gained by sudden attacks, even with comparatively small armies. With a large army the advantage would be in proportion. Alexander and Napoleon gained many victories they would not have gained, if they had moved slower, and made their attacks with greater deliberation. Joshua had set them the example. And it was as true then as now, that God favored the brave army and the skilful leader. No more then than now, did he help those that did not help themselves.

The limit of the pursuit west and north-west was the great Sidon, situated on the Mediterranean sean The limit east was Mizpeh, under mount Hermon. The king of Hazor had been principally instrumental in raising the army to fight Joshua And therefore, the city is taken, the king and his people destroyed, and the city burned in the fire.

“All the cities of those kings, and all the kings of them.” In the southern campaign many of the cities are named; but here they are referred to in a general way.

Hazor is mentioned for an obvious reason. The cities that stood still in their strength, Joshua did not burn - cities that did not send out an army to oppose him. This is good evidence that he did not understand his orders from Moses, to be, to destroy indiscriminately every thing in the land. The plain inference, from the statement that he did not burn the cities, is, that he did not molest the people.

Joshua's mission was to drive out the inhabitants of Canaan; but those who resisted his efforts, he was to destroy. But those who stood still in their strength, he did not molest. It would be time to drive out or destroy them, when they gave him occasion to do so.

Every man was smitten with the edge of the sword. Of course this language included the women and chil.

ses.

dren. The Hebrew soldier, unlike the soldiers of other nations, was not permitted to violate his female captives, though he might put them to death. Let it not be said then that it was cruel to slay the women with the men. And when both men and women were destroyed, it was not a mercy to leave the children to perish. See this subject discussed at length in Vol. III.

JOS. XI. 16. As the Lord commanded | harden their hearts, that they Moses his servant, so did Moses should come against Israel in bat. command Joshua, and so did Jo- tle, that he might destroy them shua: he left nothing undone of utterly, and that they might have all that the Lord commanded Mo. no favor, but that he might destroy

them, as the Lord commanded Mö 16. So Joshua took all that land, ses. the hills, and all the south country, 21. And at that time came Joand all the land of Goshen, and the shua, and cut off the Anakims from valley, and the plain, and the the mountains; from Hebron, from mountain of Israel, and the valley Debir, from Anab, and from all the of the same;

mountains of Judah, and from all 17. Even from the mount Halak, the mountains of Israel: Joshua dethat goeth up to Seir, even unto stroyed them utterly with their Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon, cities. under mount Hermon; and all their 22. There was none of the Anakings he took, and smote them, kims left in the land of the children and slew them.

of Israel: only in Gaza, in Gath, 18. Joshua made war a long and in Ashdod, there remained. time with all those kings.

23. So Joshua took the whole 19. There was not a city that land, according to all that the Lord made peace with the children of said unto Moses; and Joshua gave Israel, save the Hivites, the inhab- it for an inheritance unto Israel, itants of Gibeon: all other they according to their divisions by their took in battle;

tribes. And the land rested from 20. For it was of the Lord to war.

"As God commanded Moses, so Moses commanded Joshua, and so did Joshua.” As Joshua let alone certain cities that did not arise against him, and yet did all that Moses commanded, and all that God commanded Moses, therefore, Moses did not command Joshua, (and God did not command Moses) to slay indiscriminately all the people of Canaan.

Joshua made war a long time with all those kings

years of

How long the time, may be determined by a few data given in these books. At the close of the war, when the land was about to be divided to the tribes, Caleb solicits Hebron as his portion. He says he is eighty-five

age that he was forty when sent as a spy from Kadesh. The spies were sent into Canaan, after giving the law from Sinai, and sundry other events, that occupied about two years. Thirty-eight years later they enter Canaan, that is, just forty years from the time they left Egypt. Add this thirty-eight to forty, and you will have the age of Caleb when he entered Canaan, in other words, when the war began. Thirty-eight added to forty makes seventy-eight. Seventy-eight when the war began, and eighty-five when it closed, make its contin. uance to be seven years.

There was no city that made peace with Joshua, but the Hivites, or inhabitants of Gibeon, and the other cities represented by them. The Gibeonites were so called from their chief city; but they were Hivites, as be. ing members of that tribe. Hivite was one of the sons of Canaan. Gen. x. 17.

“It was the Lord to harden their hearts." Joshua did not attack the kings of Canaan without provocation. They rose against him, and provoked his attacks. Those that stood still in their strength, he did not disturb. These must therefore be excepted from those that came against Israel

. We must also except such parts of the land, as did not come within the limits of the campaigns here described. These limits did not embrace all the country, as we learn from another part of this history.

The giants had been destroyed, or driven out of the country. They were still in Gaza, Ashdod and Gath: These had not been destroyed. Neither had Ashkelon nor. Ekron, two other Philistine cities, making in all five. See xiii. 3.

CONCLUDING REMARKS TO SECTION X. The Tribes of Canaan. In verse 3d of the foregoing chapter, mention is made of most of the tribes of Canaan; and some intimation is given as to the part of the country each inhabited. As this is a subject that frequently comes before us, in this part of the Bible; and as we can not get a clear and consistent view of the history, without some knowledge of their respective localities, we propose to lay before the reader the main facts bear ing on this subject, as we gather them from sundry passages of Scripture.

The names of the principal tribes of Canaan are found on the monuments of Egypt, that have been buried in the earth for thousands of years, and something may be gathered from the same source respecting their history. But the Bible is our chief source of information on this subject; though it requires much patient and careful study, to bring it out and put it in proper shape and form.

Canaan is named after the man Canaan ,the son of Ham. The land was settled by his sons; and their descendants are named from them. Some of the sons settled outside of Canaan. All the sons are named in Gen. x. 15-18; “And Canaan begat Sidon, his first born, and Heth, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

The Sidonians settled on the northern borders of the land; but they are not reckoned as Canaanites. Heth is the head of the Hittites, at first probably called Hethites and shortened to Hittites. It is probable that some of the names were dropped, and others taken or given. There was a tribe of Perizzites, having been named from the valleys which they chiefly occupied. They may at first have been the Arkites. Then there was a tribe Canaanites, being named from the father and not the

They may be the children of Sinite or Avadite.

naan.

We find some other names besides these, that may and may not admit of the same explanation; or they may be interlopers from other nations. It may be added that in some instances the name of a tribe is extended to all the inhabitants of the land. Canaanites is a name given to all the people of Canaan, and to a single tribe of Ca

Amorites has the same peculiarity. In a few instances, other names appear to be used in the same way.

Once, Canaanites and Perizzites are mentioned together, as including all the inhabitants. Gen. xiii. 7. Once, three tribes are named in the same way; they are Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites. Then we have five, as in Ex. xiii. 5; then six, Ex. iii. 8, 17; then and often seven, Deut. vii. 1; Acts xiii. 19, etc., etc.

Finally, we have ten names. They are the Kenites, Kenizites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites; Girgashites, and Jebusites. Gen. xv. 19-21. Rephaim signifies giunts, and probably denotes a branch of the original inhabitants, before the Canaanites settled in the land. Kenites is a name that denotes a branch of the Midianites to which Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, belonged. Kenizites denotes a branch of the Hebrews. Caleb is called a Kenizite. But there must be a reference here to a more ancient tribe, and one belonging to Palestine at the time referred to in the passage. Kadmonites, Calmet thinks, is another name for Hivites.

With these modifications, we have left the seven tribes of Canaan, often brought to our notice in these books. The location of these tribes, is as follows:

1. Hivites. Two or three passages define, with some degree of exactness, the part of the country occupied by this tribe. They dwelt under mount Hermon in the land of Mizpeh. The residence of Jephthah, the Gileadite judge, was in Mizpeh, near mount Hermon. The Hivites were his neighbors. They also dwelt in mount Lebanon, from Baal-gad under mount Hermon to the entering in of Hamath. This places them along the north:

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