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ern border of Palestine Jos. xi. 3; xiii. 3. It will be observed, too, that the Gibeonites, whose residence was in the tribe of Benjamin, a little north of Jerusalem, are called Hivites. Jos. xi. 19.

2. Canaanites. 6. The Canaanite on the east and on the west." This language is indefinite; but defined by other

passages, it is found to mean, on the east by the Jordan; and on the west by the Mediterranean sea. See Num. xiii. 29. Here the name denotes a tribe, and not the whole body of Canaanites.

3. Girgashites. The references to these do not enableus to locate them with any degree of certainty. In mentioning the tribes of Canaan, these are often omitted; and we infer that the tribe was not large. They probably had their dwelling place between the Canaanites in the valley of the Jordan, and the Jebusites in Jerusalem.

4. Jebrisites. These had their residence in Jerusalem; and from them the place was called Jebus or Jebusi. We read of the Jebusite in Jerusalem, and of the Jebusite in the mountains. Jerusalem was in that part of Canaan called “the mountains.” When David got possession of Jerusalem, he did not wholly drive them out. Jos. xv. 8, 63; xviii. 28; Jud. i. 21; 2 Sam. xxiv. 16.

5. Amorites. Sometimes this name applies to all the people of Palestine ; but when used to denote a separate tribe, the indications are that they were very numerous.

In the time of Abraham, the Amorites are mentioned in connection with Hazezon-tamar, on the west coast of the Dead sea The kings that Moses encountered east of the Jordan, Sihon and Og, were Amorites; from which it would appear that they had crossed the Jordan, and established two great kingdoms in that country. At the same time they had enlarged their borders on the west side; for the spies sent from Kadesh, report that the Amorites dwelt in the mountains with the Jebusites. They are alluded to, as being in that location, when the Israelites crossed the Jordan. Gen. xiv. 7; Num, xiii. 29; xxxii. 33; Jos, v. 1

6. Hittites. The spies from Kadesh associated the Hittites with the Amorites and Jebusites in the moun. tains. It agrees with this view, that Abraham at Hebron negociated for a burial place with the sons of Heth or Hittites. It

It may be thought to conflict with this statement, that Mamre, after whom the place was named, is called an Amorite; but here the sense of Amorite is not restricted to the tribe, but extended to the people of the land. The Hittites are called Amorites, as the Jebusites

are, etc.

Calmet commits the strange mistake of using Jud. i. 26, to prove that Bethel or Luz was inhabited by the Hittites! The passage merely says, that the betrayer of Bethel went into the land of the Hittites, and built a new city and called it Luz.

The Hittites are recognized to a late period. Uriah, one of David's faithful officers, was a Hittite. Some of the wives of David were Hittites; and we even read of the kings of the IIittites. 2 Sam. xi. 3; 1 K. ix. 20; 2 K. vii. 6; Ezra ix. 1.

7. Perizzites. These were found in various parts of Canaan. They may have descended from one of the sons of Canaan; but the name was changed because of their preference for the valleys. They are mentioned with the Canaanites, as being near to Bethel and Ai. They were in the vicinity of Shechem. They were in the north of Canaan, and in the south. Gen. xiii. 7; xxxiv. 30; Jos. xvii. 15; Jud. i. 4.

SECTION XI. - RECAPITULATION.

JOS XII.

1. Now these are the kings of who dwelt in Heshbon, and ruled the land, which the children of Is- from Aroer, which is upon the bank rael smote, and possessed their of the river Arnon, and from the land on the other side Jordan, to- middle of the river, and from half ward the rising of the sun; from Gilead, even unto the river Jabbok, the river Arnon unto mount Her. which is the border of the children mon, and all the plain on the east: of Ammon:

2. Sihon king of the Amorites, 3 And from the plain to the sea

of Chinneroth on the east, and unto , the Gadites, and the half-tribe of the sea of the plain, even the salt Manasseh. sea on the east, the way to Beth 7. And these are the kings of jeshimoth; and from the south, the country wbich Joshua and the under Ashdoth-pisgah:

children of Israel smote on this 4. And the coast of Og king of side Jordan on the west, from Bashan, which was the remnant Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon, of the giants, that dwelt at Ashta- even unto the mount Halak, that roth and at Edrei,

goeth up to Seir ; which Joshua 5. And reigned in mount Her- gave unto the children of Israel mon, and in Salcah, and in all Ba- for a possession, according to their shan, unto the border of the Gesh-divisions : urites, and the Maachathites, and 8. In the mountains, and in the half Gilead, the border of Sihon valleys, and in the plains, and in king of Heshbon.

the springs, and in the wilderness, 6. Them did Moses, the servant and in the south country; the of the Lord, and the children of Hittites, the Amorites, and the Israel, smite: and Moses, the ser- Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivant of the Lord, gave it for a pos- vites, and the Jebusites : session unto the Reubenites, and I

The recapitulation is divided into two parts. First, it rehearses the conquests that had been gained, east of the Jordan, while Moses was yet living. It then gives the conquests on the west side. Some of them had not been named before, and some of them had been. The conquests east of the river are reported in almost the identical words, that are used in the earlier history. And it can hardly be doubted that the writer had that history before him. See Num. xxi. 21 - 26, 33-35; Deut. ii. 24-36; iii. 4-11.

As the other side of Jordan was understood to be indefinite expression, that might denote one side or the other, the writer adds the qualifying expression, “ toward the rising of the sun.

The extent of the conquests on the west side is here given from mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir, to Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon. The same had been reported before, in the same form, and in another form meaning the same thing.

The references to the mountains, valleys, springs, wil. derness, etc., while they show the difficulties that lay in the way of the Hebrew commander, give us some idea of the character of the country.

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JOS. XII.

one ;

9. The king of Jericho, one; the 17. The king of Tappuah, one ; king of Ai, which is beside Beth-el, the king of Hepher one;

18. The king of Aphek, one; 10. The king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Lasharon, one ; the king of Hebron, one;

19. The king of Madon, one; 11. The king of Jarmuth, one; the king of Hazir, one; the king of Lachish, one;

20. The king of Shimron-meron, 12. The king of Eglon, one; the one; the king of Achsaph, one; the king of Gezer one;

21. The king of Taanach, one; 13. The king of Debir, one; the the king of Meggido, one ; king of Geder, one;

22. The king of Kedesh, one; 14. The king of Hormah, one; the king of Jokneam of Carmel, one; the king of Arad, one ;

23. The king of Dor, in the 15. The king of Libnah, one ; coast of Dor, one; the king of the the king of Adullam, one;

nations of Gilgal, one; 16. The king of Makkedah, one ; 24. The king of Tirzah, one; all the king of Beth-el, one;

the kings thirty and one. We have had an account of the taking of Jericho and Ai. Bethel is mentioned in connection with the last of these two; but nothing is said of its being taken and destroyed. What is here wanting is supplied by the author of Judges, who tells us that it was betrayed by one of the citizens. Jud. i. 22 – 26.

The conquest of Jerusalem had not been described, and the author of Judges supplies the record, and adds that the Israelites set the city on fire. The taking of Hebron is given, and the author of Judges repeats it. The latter adds an item, not given before, namely, that they slew Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai, the giants of Hebron.

The taking of Debir, by Othniel for Caleb, is repeated in so nearly the same words, that we must conclude the last account is copied from the first.

We have among the names, on this list, Gezer in Ephraim, Taanach, Megiddo and Dor in Manasseh, and Aphek in Asher, among the conquered cities. But the author of Judges adds a qualification, namely that the Israelites gained a settlement in the cities, and subjected the inhabitants to tribute, but did not drive them out. See Judges, first chapter.

CHAPTER VII.

CANAAN DIVIDED TO THE TRIBES. CONTENTS: The Portion of the Land not yet Subdued ; The Portion of the Two Tribes and a Half, East of the Jordan; Hebron assigned to Caleb; Judah's Portion; Ephraim and Manasseh's; The Land Surveyed and the Division Continued, Benjamin's Lot, Simeon's, Zebulun's, Issachar's, Asher's, Naphtali's, Dan's; Cities of Refuge appointed; Cities given to the Priests and Levites; Conclusion, SECTION I. - The PORTION OF THE COUNTRY NOT YET SUBDUED.

JOS. XIII. 1. Now Joshua was old and is beside the Sidonians, unto Aphek, stricken in years, and the Lord to the borders of the Amorites : said unto him, Thou art old and 5. And the land of the Giblites, stricken in years, and there re- and all Lebanon, toward the sun. maineth yet very much land to be rising, from Baal-gad under mount possessed.

Hermon, unto the entering into 2. This is the land that yet re- Hamath. maineth; all the borders of the. 6. All the inhabitants of the Philistines, and all Geshuri, hill-country, from Lebanon anto

3. From Sihor, which is before Misrephoth-maim, and all the SiEgypt, even unto the borders of donians, them will I drive out from Ekron northward, which is counted before the children of Israel ; only to the Canaanite : five lords of the divide thou it by lot unto the IsraPhilistines; the Gazathites, and elites for an inheritance, as I have the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, commanded thee. the Gittites, and the Ekronites : 7. Now therefore divide this also the Avites.

land for an inheritance unto the 4. From the south, all the land nine tribes, and the half-tribe of of the Canaanites, and Mearah that Manasseh.

Joshua was old. He was near the close of his life, being over an hundred years, though not quite as old as Moses. Like Moses, his natural strength seems to have been but little abated. His life had been a very active, one; and that is one of the conditions of a vigorous old. age.

There remained much land to be possessed. The land that yet remained in the hands of the Canaanites, is the

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