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meaning; and this description is thought to conflict with the previous representations concerning the extent of the conquests that had been made.

Place the passages side by side, as follows; and their agreement or disagreement may be seen by any one who understands the localities referred to.

Ch. X.

Ch. XIII. 41. And Joshua omote them

2. This is the land that remainfrom Kadesh-barnea even anto Ga- eth: all the borders of the Philisza, and all the country of Goshen, tines, and all Geshuri, even unto Gibeon.

3. From Sihor, which is before Ch. XI.

Egypt, even unto the borders of 16. So Joshua took all that land, Ekron northward, which is counted the hills, and all the south country, to the Canaanite: five lords of the and all the land of Goshen, and the Philistines; the Gazathites, and valley, and the plain, and the the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, mountain of Israel, and the valley the Gittites, and the Ekronites: . of the same.

also the Avites. 17. Even from the mount Halak,

4. From the south, all the land that goeth up to Seir, even unto of the Canaanites, and Mearah that Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon, is beside the Sidonians, unto Aphek under mount Hermon ;

to the borders of the Amorites:

5. And the land of the Giblites, Ch. XII.

and all Lebanon, toward the sun7. And these are the kings of the rising, from Baal-gad under mount country which Joshua and the Hermon, unto the entering into children of Israel smote on this Hamath. side Jordan on the west, from Baal- 6. All the inhabitants of the gad in the valley of Lebanon, even hill-country, from Lebanon unto uuto the mount Halak, that goeth Misrephoth-maim, and all the Siup to Seir; which Joshua gave undonians, them will I drive out from to the tribes of Israel for a pos- before the children of Israel ; only session, according to their divis divide thou it by lot unto the Isra jons:

elites for an inheritance, as I have

commanded thee. The first passage on the left hand refers to one campaign in the south part of the country: sage repeats the same; and then there is added a general statement, embracing the campaigns both south and north. The last passage on the left is also a brief general statement of both campaigns. All the conquests that had been made are comprehended within these limits; and all general or unlimited expressions, made use

The next pas

of in the history, must be interpreted according to the limitations here furnished.

These limitations are first " from Kadesh to Gaza." These places occupied the two extreme points on the south border of Canaan. From Kadesh to Gaza implies that Gaza was not taken. It was a Philistine city, and with other Philistine cities was not conquered. There is then no contradiction, so far as the cities of the Philistines are concerned.

The next limitation is expressed thus, "all the country of Goshen, even unto Gibeon." This takes in a region


country from Gaza, near the south-west corner of Palestine, to Gibeon near Jerusalem. It leaves out Gaza and all the other Philistine cities.

The next passage on the left makes “mount Halak that goeth up to Seir" the southern limit, instead of Kadesh; but it is certain that these two points were not far apart. Then the author mentions the northern limit, namely, “Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon.” What is there in the right hand passage that conflicts with this? The land of the Canaanites is excepted from the conquests of Joshua. Of course the reference is to the Canaanites as a tribe. We have seen that they had two localities in Canaan one on the Jordan, and another on the Mediterranean sea. Neither is included in the above description. “Mearah that is beside the the Sidonians” is another exception. Joshua did not conquer the Sidonians; and it is reasonable to conclude that this place, near them, was not conquered. Joshua pursued the army of Jabin to great Sidon; but nothing is said about conquering the country, much less taking possession of it. "The Giblites” were not conquered. It is not claimed that they were. The same may be said of "all Lebanon," for conquering to Lebanon does not necessarily include Lebanon. "From Baal-gad unto mount Hermon.” Joshua conquered to Baal-gad, but not from it to mount Hermon. " From Lebanon to Misrephoth-maim-" Here the same remark may be made.

Joshua conquered to Lebanon, but not from Lebanon in the other direction. - The Sidonians.” The same remark again.

The Geshuri, mentioned in connection with the Philistines, appear to have been a tribe we read of in the time of David. He fought them, and took much spoil from them. Their country was south of the Philistines and near to Egypt. It is not claimed that they were conquered.

The Avites are mentioned. This probably is the same exception which is made in the history under the name of Hivites, meaning the Gibeonites, who obtained a league by fraud.' This is a reasonable inference from the fact, that among the cities of Benjamin, and in the same neighborhood with the Gibeonites, there was a city Avim, which is another name for Avites. But if this explanation is not the true one, we have the obvious fact that no claim is made that can possibly conflict with the exception of the Avites from the conquests of the Hebrew leader.

We have devoted so much attention to this subject, because it is made quite prominent in the work of Mr. De Wette, that treats of this and kindred subjects—one of the best books extant, to any man who knows how to use it.



JOS. XIII. 8. With whom the Reubenites and all mount Hermon, and all Baand the Gadites have received their shan unto Salcah; inheritance, which Moses gave 12. All the kingdom of Og in Bathem, beyond Jordan eastward, shan, which reigned in Ashtaroth even as Moses, the servant of the and in Edrei, who remained of the Lord, gave them;

remnant of the giants: for these 9. From Aroer, that is upon the did Moses smite, and cast them out. bank of the river Arnon, and the 13. Nevertheless the children of city that is in the midst of the riv. Israel expelled not the Geshurites, er, and all the plain of Medeba un. nor the Maachathites; bụt the Geto Dibon ;

shurites and the Maachathites dwell 10. And all the cities of Sihon among the Israelites until this day. king of the Amorites, which reign 14. Only unto the tribe of Levi ed in Heshbon, unto the border of he gave none inheritance: the the children of Ammon;

sacrifices of the Lord God of Israel 11. And Gilead, and the border made by fire are their inheritance, of the Geshurites and Maachathites, as he said unto them.

The account here is very much the same as that in Numbers and Deuteronomy, and requires but little reremark. See Num. xxi. 21 - 35; xxxii. 33 - 42; Deut. ii. 24-37; iii. 6- 20.

“On the bank of the river--in the midst of the river." It is doubtful whether there is a reference here to one city or two. The word for river has also the meaning of valley. It is not common for a city to be in the midst of a river, but one is often found in the midst of a valley. Valley is the rendering in the Septuagint; and the same rendering is found in the Vulgate.

The Geshurites. _The city of Geshur is sometimes put down as Gesher. The Septuagint gives the name of the people Geseri, though in Deut. iii. 14, it calls the same people Gargazi. This is like many absurdities found in the English version. It should be roticed that the Geshuri mentioned in verse 2d are a different people from those alluded to in verse 11th. The former had their residence south of Philistia, and were enemies of the Israelites; while the latter occupied the country east of the Jordan, in the direction of Assyria, and were friends and allies, so that David married the daughter of Talmai, the king of that nation.

Unto the tribe of Levi he gave none inheritance. The tribe was devoted wholly to the services of religion, and were therefore supported by a tythe or tenth part of the produce of the land, as cultivated by the other tribes. They had forty-eight cities to reside in, and a tract of land around each for gardens and pasturage. No Priesthood was ever better supported than the Jewish. See Vol. III. on this subject.

JOS. XIII. 16, And Moses gave unto the 17. Heshbon, and all her cities tribe of the children of Reuben in- that are in the plain; Dibon, and heritance according to their families. Bamoth baal, and Beth-baal-meon,

16. And their coast was from 18. And Jahaza, and Kedemoth, Aroer, that is on the bank of the and Mephaath, river Arnon, and the city that is 19. And Kirjathaim, and Sibin the midst of the river, and all mah, and Zareth-shahar in the the plain by Medeba;

mount of the valley,

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20. And Beth-peor, and Ash- 22. Balaam also the son of Beor, doth-pisgah, and Beth-jeshimoth, the sooth-sayer, did the children

21. And all the cities of the of Israel slay with the sword among plain,

and all the kingdom of Si. them that were slain by them. hon king of the Amorites, which 23. And the border of the chilreigned in Heshbon, whom Moses dren of Reuben was Jordan, and smote with the princes of Midian, the border thereof. This was the Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, inheritance of the children of Reuand Reba, which were dukes of Si. ben after the familie", the cities hon dwelling in the country. and the villages thereof.

The cities and towns of Reuben are noticed in another part of this volume, which may be consulted by the reader.

Moses smote the princes of Midian. These passages inform us that these princes were the dukes of Sihon. It would seem that the Midianites were at that time sub ject to Sihon the Amorite king.

The towns of Reuben, as given in Numbers, are Heshbon, Elealeh, Kirjathaim, Nebo, Baal-meon and Shibmah. The passage before us has all these but Elealeh and Nebo; and it is probable that Ashdoth-pizgah is the same as Nebo; for Nebo and Pisgah were certainly the same. That Baal-meon and Beth-baal-meon are the same, we presume no one will doubt. The others mentioned in Joshua, and not in Numbers, may be new towns, or old towns omitted on the earlier list. But as the towns mentioned in Numbers are said to have been built by Reuben, it may be that the other towns existed then, but were not named, because Reuben did not build them. Again, as it is expressly stated that the Israelites changed the names of some of the cities, it may be that the same place is given under different names.

JOS. XIII. 24. And Moses gave inheritance 27. And in the valley, Beth-aram, unto the tribe of Gad, even unto the and Beth-nimrah, and Succoth, and children of Gad, according to their Zaphon, the rest of the kingdom families:

of Sihon king of Heshbon, Jordan 25. And their coast was Jazer, and his border, even unto the edge and all the cities of Gilead, and half of the sea of Chipnereth, on the the land of the children of Ammon, other side Jordan eastward. unto Aroer, that is before Rabbah; 28. This is the inheritance of

26. And from Heshbon unto Ra- the children of Gad after their math-mizpehandBetonim: and from families, the cities, and their vil. Mahanaim unto the border of Debir; | lages.

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