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all the souls in certain cities :- Jos. x. 28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 39.

xi. 11. In a few instances the expressions my soul, thy soul, his soul, etc., are to be taken in the sense of myself, thy. self, himself, etc. 1 Sam. ii. 16; xx. 4. But there is a larger number where the reference seems to be to the moral and spiritual part of our nature. The following are of this kind :-Jos. xxiii. 14; Jud. v. 21; x. 16; 1 Sam. i. 10, 15; xxiii. 20; 2 Sam. v. 8; 1 K. i. 29; ii. 4; viii. 48; 2 K. iv. 27; xxiii. 3, 25; 1 Chron. xxii. 19 ; 2 Chron. vi. 38; xv. 12; xxxiv. 31.

We will quote a few, and leave the reader to turn to the others, if he please. “Ye know in all your hearts, and in all your souls, that not one thing hath failed," etc. " His soul was grieved for the misery of Israel. was in bitterness of soul." “All the desire of thy soul. “To walk before me in truth, with all their heart and with all their soul. This word nephesh, like the corresponding Greek word psuche Yuzò combines the two senses of life and soul. The meaning of soul, is as obvious as the meaning of life. These two meanings with us are separate and distinct. They refer to two entities, that are quite dissimilar. But it may not have been so with the Hebrews. The use of one term, to express these two things, would suggest to us the probability that they understood them as, in some way, identical. We have thought that they regarded the life of the body as itself the soul. It is certain that these things have many attributes in common. This circumstance led the Hebrews to look upon the life and soul as one and the same thing. There are a few passages where nephesh is used in ways that are somewhat peculiar. These may be noticed by themselves. In 1 Sam. xxii. 2, the word “discontented” stands for one who had “bitlerness of soul." In verse 22d the term nephesh is the original in the phrase "all the persons of thy father's house." It is rendered person in Jos. xx. 9; 2 Sam. xiv. 14. It is contained in the expression, “Let me live,

1 K. xx. 32. In a few instances, the term is rendered mind ; 1 Sam. ii. 35; 2 Sam. xvii, 8; 2 K. ix. 15. The reference to the spiritual nature, seems as evident as language could make it.

Finally, it may be added, that nephesh is also used as a verb, and signifies to renew, refresh, etc.

Ruah (1770) has reference to the spirit of God, and to the spirit of man. The term is used nearly as we use the term spirit. It has often an impersonal reference, and denotes an influence, like our word spirit.

It refers to Deity, and denotes the spirit of God in the following places: Jud. vi. 34; xi. 29; xiii. 25; xiv. 6, 19; xv. 14; 1 Sam. x. 6, 10; xi, 6; xvi. 13, 14, 15; xix. 20, 23; 2 Sam. xxiii. 2; 1 K. xxii. 24; xviii. 12; 2 K. ii. 16; 2 Chron. xv. 1; xviii. 23; xx. 14; xxiv. 20; Neh. ix. 20, 30. In some of these passages the reference to the spirit of God is impersonal, as the term denotes an influence, rather than the divine essence. It refers to the human spirit in the following: 1 Sam. i. 15; xxx. 12; 1 K. xxi. 5; 1 Chron. v. 26, 26; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 22. Ezra i 1, 5.

It denotes an evil spirit, or influence: 1 Sam. xvi. 14, 16, 23 ; xviii. 10; xix. 9; 1 K. xxii. 21, 22, 23; 2 Chron. xviii. 20, 21, 22. It denotes courage, energy, etc., and is sometimes rendered courage, and sometimes spirit where the meaning is the same. Jos. ii. 11 ; v. 1; 1 K. x. 5; 2 K. ii. 9, 15; 1 Chron. xii. 18; 2 Chron. ix. 4. It is once rendered anger, and denotes' a spirit of hostility or revenge. Jud. viii. 3.

It has the meaning of wind; and this appears to have been its original sense; and from the analogy of this element to the spiritual nature, the application to the latter was easy and natural. It occurs in the sense of wind in the following passages. 2 Sam. xxii. 11; 1 K. xviii. 45; xix. 11; 2 K. iii. 17. It is used in a form analogous to this, and rendered breath, in 2 Sam. xxii. 16; and blast in 2 K. xix. 7; and quarters in 1 Chron. ix.

24. In the last of these passages, the reference is to the four quarters of the globe, or four points of the compass; the four winds would have been more like the original.

Considering that ruah is claimed by many theologians, as the word exclusively denoting the immortal part of our nature, while this application is denied to nephesh, it is a little remarkable that the former term is so seldom employed in this sense. Indeed, the number of applications of this kind, given above, though small, in proportion to the whole number, might be reduced considerably. Hannah, the mother of Samuel, was "a woman of sorrowful spirit," 1 Sam. i. 15; but it does not follow that this term means her immortal soul. Rather, she had a spirit of sorrow. The man who had been greatly ex: hausted by fatigue and want, is restored, by having a little food and drink given him; 1 Sam. xxx. 12; and it is said that "his spirit came again to him.” The meaning is, that his energy was revived. There is no evidence that his soul had left him, and of course it could not come back again.

SECTION III.—Malak. Tas In this part of the Bible, as well as in the preceding, this term has the sense of angel and messenger.

The rule followed by the translators of the English version, is to render the term by the former of these words, when it denotes a superhuman or angelic being ; and by the latter, when it denotes a human being. There is no objection to this rendering. The only question is, whether the translators have always judged truly in regard to the application. When we have given all the passages, the reader can consult them, if he please, and form his own judgment as to their meaning. The word occurs, and is rendered angel in the following passages : Jud. ii

. 1, 4; v. 23; vi. 11, 12, 20, 21, 22; xiii 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 16, 20, 21; 1 Sam. xxix. 9; 2 Sam. xiv. 17, 20; xix. 27; xxiv. 16, 17; 1 K. xiii. 18; xix. 5, 7; 2 K. i. 3, 15; xix. 35; 1 Chron. xxi. 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 27, 30; 2 Chron. xxxii. 21.


It is rendered messenger :-Jos. vi. 17, 25; vii. 22: Jud. vi. 35; vii. 24; ix. 31; xi. 12, 13, 14, 17, 19; 1 Sam. vi 21; xi. 3, 4, 9; xvi. 19, xix 11, 14, 15, 16. 20, 21; xxiii. 27; xxv. 14, 42; 2 Sam. ii. 5; iii. 12; v. 11; xi. 4, 19, 22, 23, 25; xii. 27; 1 K. xix. 2 ; xx. 2, 5, 9; xxii, 13; 2 K.'i. 3, 5; v. 10; vi. 32, 33; vii. 15; ix. 18; x. 8, xiv. 8; xvi. 7; xvii. 4; xix. 9, 14, 23; 1 Chron. xiv. 1; xix. 2, 16; 2 Chron. xviii. 12; xxxvi. 15, 16. In 2 Chron. xxxv. 21, it is used in the same way, and translated ambassador. The instances of doubtful application will be noticed, as we meet with them in giving our comments on the passages.

SECTION IV. – Nasa, Salau. 17'20These are the terms usually rendered forgive or par don. The first may be found in these books as follows Jos. xxiv 19; 1 Sam. xv. 25; xxv. 28. The last: 1 K. viii. 30, 34, 36, 39, 50; and the parallel passage, 2 Chron. vi. 21, 25, 27, 30, and vii. 14, Also 2 K. xxiv. 4; v. 18; Neh. 'ix. '17. The rendering is pardon and forgive, about the same number of times each.

SECTION V.- SHEOL. Sheol is found a few times, in this part of the Bible, with a usage that does not vary in any perceptible manner, from that of the Pentateuch.

1 Sam. ii. 6, “The Lord killeth and he maketh alive; he bringeth down to the grave and bringeth up.” The parallelism of this passage makes the meaning very evident. To kill and bring down to sheol, mean the same thing. So, to make alive and bring up from sheol, mean the same.

Of course, the term sheol here has the sense of grave; and the translation is correct.

2 Sam. xxii. 6. "The sorrows of hell compassed me about; the snares of death prevented me." "Here the same parallelism occurs. It shows that sheol means the grave.

"Sorrows of the grave" mean mortal sorrows, those that bring the subject of them down to the grave.


1 K. ii. 6. “Let not his hoar head go down to the grave in peace.” 1K. ii. 9. “His hoar head bring thou down to the grave with blood.” The meaning here is too plain to require remark.

These are all the passages where this word is found, till we get to the book of Job. It is surprising that any one should interpret this word, in any other way than as denoting the grave. Its usage is opposed alike to the idea that it means a place of departed spirits, and a place of future punishment. SECTION VI. - Olam. D3 13


The usage of olam, will be best understood, if we divide the passages, where it occurs, into classes according to the rendering.

1. It occurs in the expression, “ His mercy endureth forever. 1 Chron. xvi. 34, 41; 2 Chron. v. 13; vii. 3, 6; xx. 21; Ezra iii. 11.

Here the word is rendered forever, and expresses the duration of God's mercy. Of course it is to be taken in its most extended sense. But this avails nothing, toward proving that the word is to be so understood when applied to other things. Like many other words, the extent of meaning is modified, within certain limits, by the subject to which it is applied.

It is a remarkable fact, that, though Deity is, without doubt, infinite, there are, in the Bible, but few words applied to him, that express the full extent of his attributes. The reason may be, that the terms applied to him are all we can comprehend; and it would be useless to employ stronger ones.

It is common to admit that olam, rendered everlasting and forever, expresses endless perpetuity when applied to God. We do not admit this. It no more expresses endless perpetuity than the word great expresses infinite magnitude. Both terms express more when applied to God, than when applied to other objects; but they fall

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