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The Political

the hatred thus formed has been in a great for our commerce, and to this end we measure transferred to the Americans. support the policy of industrial, commer The final conclusion drawn by Herr Blu- cial, and national expansion.” The Fumentritte may not be justified by his pre- sion Conventions in Nebraska were comliminary argument, but it is worth quoting pletely dominated by Mr. Bryan, and the as the opinion of a man who appears to predicted disagreements between Demobe governed purely by scientific reasons crats, Populists, and Silver Republicans in forming his conclusion. He says: did not show themselves. Ex-Governor “ The European and American whites have Holcomb, the Populist candidate for not made a good impression on the colored Judge of the Supreme Court, was nomiFilipinos, and the Philippine creoles feel nated by acclamation, and each of the as one with their colored brethren ; there minor parties was allowed to select a is no spirit of caste in the matter like that candidate for Regent of the State Uniwhich existed in the old colonial times, versity. The platform adopted by the but they all call themselves simply Fili- three Conventions indorsed the Chicago pinos, and the rule of the American Anglo- platform, and declared that events since Saxons, who regard even the creoles as a 1896 had shown not only the impossibility kind of niggers,' would be looked upon of securing bimetallism through internaby educated Filipinos of all castes as tional agreement, but also the benefits of supreme loss of civic rights."

an expansion of the currency. Not less prominent, however, were the planks con

demning the “war for conquest” in the The Pennsylvania Republi- Philippines, and demanding that the Fili

cans and the Nebraska Fu- pinos should, like the Cubans, be promConventions

sionists met last week to ised “independence as soon as a stable nominate the State judges and minor offi- government shall be established, and procials to be voted for this fall. In Penn tection from outside interference." The sylvania the greatest interest centered Philippine question is expected to be in the adoption of a plank expressing uppermost in the approaching campaign. the gratitude of the Republican party to ex-Senator Quay and indorsing Governor Stone's action in appointing him to the

The plan of “concur

Concurrent Primaries vacant seat in the Senate. Senator Flinn,

rent" primaries has the political leader of the “insurgents," already passed from the field of speculaopposed this plank, declaring that forty tion to that of experiment. The recent per cent. of the Republicans in Pennsyl- primaries in San Francisco to elect Revania favored a change in their State's publican and Democratic candidates for representative. The Convention, however, Mayor were held on the same day and in to which Mr. Quay was himself a dele- the same booths. The results were most gate, was emphatically a Quay body, and satisfactory. The Democrats renomiadopted the platform by a vote of 192 to nated Mayor Phelan, who has with excep49. In regard to National policies the tional courage fought the machine repreConvention congratulated the country senting the worst element in his party; upon the prosperity attending the estab and the Republicans selected a candidate lishment of a sound currency” and “the possessing in a high degree the public securing of proper protection to business confidence. These results were especially industries," strongly favored the renomi- important because of the large powers nation of President McKinley, eulogized lodged in the Mayor under the new charthe conduct of the war with Spain, pledged ter. In Ohio also, where a reform prithe President “ faithful support in the mary law has been demanded for several prosecution of the war in the Philip years, the plan of concurrent primaries pines,” and cordially indorsed the ac has been put to the test. In the spring quiring of "new markets abroad.” “We of last year, Mr. J. S. Glenn, of Columhave ceased,” said the platform, "to be bus, writes us, the local Republican and content with supplying products for home Democratic committees were persuaded consumption alone. We must keep pace to hold an unimportant primary jointly, with other nations in seeking new fields and the legislative committees on primary

un

elections were invited to examine the 680,000,000 gallons flowing over Croton workings of the plan. In describing the dam daily, while the maximum consumpexperiment Mr. Glenn says:

tion of the city was 285,000,000 gallons. There were to be elected a police judge,

As to Brooklyn, the "Engineering News three magistrates, and four constables, besides brings out a fact of hardly less imporward officers. The set of Democratic judges tance. When Commissioner Alfred T. worked by the side of their Republican col

White four years ago estimated the cost of leagues with the best of feeling. As the voter stepped into the booth he gave his name, and securing additional water from the Ramthe party poll-book which contained it showed apo district, the engineer's estimate was with what party organization he regularly sixteen dollars per million gallons to bring affiliated. On the ticket given him appeared it clear to the Brooklyn reservoirs, yet the the names of all the candidates of both parties. The voter stepped into an inclosure and nearly ratified contract with the Ramapo marked his choice in secret—the judge of his Company specified the rate of seventy dolparty casting the ballot in the party box. . lars per million gallons for water delivered The plan was found to work like a charm.

on the northern boundary of New York, The results showed a saving of $500 by holding the primaries conjointly instead of the leaving the city to bear the expense of usual way. This curtailment the expenses carrying it under the East River to Brookconsisted of reduced printing bills, single hire lyn. In speaking of the political side of of police guardians, the renting for a single the proposed contract, this engineering time of 88 polling-places, etc. Members of one party could not vote for candidates on the journal notes that only nine of the fifty other party's ticket, and there was public con largest cities in the country still permit fidence in the fairness of the vote and of the the private ownership of their water syscount.

tems, and that of these nine, New Orleans, The new plan was received in an San Francisco, Denver, and Omaha are friendly spirit by ward politicians, and was either considering or have already decided somewhat criticised because of its exclu upon the change to public ownership. In sion of independents from the privilege of a great city a pure and abundant water voting ; but the verdict of the public, and supply is among the first of public necesalso of the legislative committees, was sities, and there is a perpetual and corin its favor. The continuance of the rupting conflict between public and private agitation in Ohio, the adoption of concur interests until public ownership has been rent primaries in Minneapolis, and their established. recent success in San Francisco, all seem to promise that in the near future nomination day may rank with election day.

Governor Pingree's Certainly the choice of party candidates

long struggle for is often more important than the choice ( free water ” in the city of Detroit seems between them.

to have ended in a substantial victory, unless the courts interfere against him.

He began the agitation, it will be recalled, The bold attempt of a pri- almost the first year of his mayoralty, and New York's Water Supply

vate company to get control before the close of his often extended

of the future water supply term had his proposition indorsed by of New York was thwarted when its pro- about sixty per cent. of those voting jectors were compelled to stand the ordeal when the matter was submitted at a of two weeks' public criticism of their city election. The vote was in nowise plan. The public indignation was next mandatory, and no important action seems to universal, and one of the courts has to have been taken until the last Legislaenjoined the Water Department officials ture passed a bill to go into effect on July from making the proposed contract on 1, 1900. This billas outlined in the the ground that the new charter plainly“ Engineering News

* Engineering News "--accepts the princontemplates public control of undertak- ciple of “free water” for all household ings of this sort. Meanwhile the last re uses and also for the washrooms and port of the Water Department itself has closets in business houses. When, howbeen published, showing that the present ever, water is used for distinctly business water supply of New York City is more purposes—as it is in large quantities in than double the maximum consumption saloons and in factories—a local “ board

Water Rates in Detroit

for fixing rates” may make such charges lature permit the Railway Commission to as they think will pay the operating ex license the running of such Sunday trains penses involved. The remainder of the as the public convenience demanded, inexpenses of the water department will cluding excursion trains at lower than the fall on the general tax levy, except that regular rates. Since that time there has extensions of water mains must be paid been a gradual extension of the Sunday for by the owners of abutting land—just service. On the steam railroads the averas street and sewer extensions are paid age number of persons employed on Sunfor in most cities. Heretofore, owners of days is now 6,718, as against 27,480 on vacant land have had their property week-days; and on the street railways it is improved at the expense of the water 8,282 on Sundays, as against only 10,326 consumers. Apparently the new law aims during the week. On the street railways to levy a just tax upon the owners of nine hours generally constitute a day's buildings protected against fire and of work on Sundays, as against ten on weekvacant land enhanced in value by the days, but there is no regular rest-day for water system almost as much as it aims the men who do Sunday work, and one to increase public comfort and cleanliness. can be obtained only, with loss of pay, on

application to the management. This is

certainly a wrong. The Legislature that In response to an act of permits Sunday work should stipulate Sunday Work in Massachusetts

the Legislature a year ago, that employees shall have one free day in the Massachusetts Bureau

every seven. It is unfortunate that the of Labor Statistics has made a careful present report intimates that employees inquiry into the amount of Sunday labor prefer a week-day for rest. If this be true, now performed in the Commonwealth. It it is impossible to account for the tradesfinds that of 1,075,000 persons engaged union agitation against Sunday work. in gainful occupations, probably 150,000 are expected to labor on Sunday. Of these about two-thirds are engaged in

Chino-American Comdomestic service, in which the conscience of mistresses often secures servants a free

merce half-day on Sunday, accompanied by a free half-day during the week. The immense Whether we will or no, our commerce amount of Sunday work performed by has entered upon a new phase of its existwomen for their own households is, of ence. It is no longer enough that it be course, unrecorded. The manufactories sufficient for its own needs; it must now of the State, which employ one-half of the be sufficient for the needs which have working population, perform practically come to it. no Sunday work whatever. Mercantile In their recent books on China, Mr. business makes almost as good a showing. Colquhoun and Lord Charles Beresford It is only in news and transportation serv show how seriously both British and ice that the proportion of men employed American commerce are menaced by the on Sundays is large or increasing. The closing up of part of China through now newspaper offices canvassed report that acknowledged foreign spheres of influence, of the 1,429 persons employed by them such as Russia's in Manchuria and Shin811 work on Sundays—though generally king. Since their books were written, for shorter hours. The telephone and however, the welcome announcement has telegraph companies report that their come that, though Port Arthur must be an working force is 443 on Sundays, as exclusively Russian port, Talienwan will against 2,185 on week-days. The express be opened on equal terms to the commerce companies employ 305 persons on Sunday, of all nations. While this is a gratifying as against 1,778 during the week. The exception to Russia's general policy, it railroad and street railroad companies, cannot be taken as indicating anything however, perform the great body of the but her interest in keeping one port open Sunday work that has recently grown up. to our railway machinery and material, Not until 1881, says the Springfield - Re which she is using exclusively in building publican,” did the Massachusetts Legis- her great Trans-Siberian railway through

Manchuria and, along the Amur to the a sectional issue, there might be a quescompleted portion from the west, which tion as to the advisability of our making now reaches Lake Baikal. The entire rail a strong stand, says Mr. Barrett (formerly way completed and railway supply fac our Minister to Siam) in the latest “North tories erected, Russia is quite likely again American Review "). The fact is, howto close Talienwan to foreign trade. The ever, that China affords a market to arouse recent history of the only other important the interest of every section of our counManchurian port, Niuchang (where within try. All the flour and timber, and a large five years American imports have risen portion of other kinds of food and raw from fifteen to fifty per cent. of the total), products, which the Pacific States can shows that Russia is beginning to defy supply are wanted by China, which needs treaty rights there.

also the manufactured cotton, iron, steel, We cannot help being more and more and miscellaneous products of the North alive to those rights in China when we and East, together with vast quantities of regard the continually increasing impor- petroleum ; " and there is no reason why tance of our trade with that country. It a demand should not be developed for the is not only a rapidly growing trade; it is Central West's great staple, maize, such a unique trade. In the column of gains as there has been created for flour.” Mr. made by non-Asiatic countries in their Barrett calls special attention to the last year's commerce with China over that declaration by some of our consuls and of previous years, we stand alone. Nor trade experts a few years ago that wheat is ours merely a gain where all others flour would never be accepted in large lose; it is a gain even greater than the quantities by the Chinese.

The exporters loss sustained by Great Britain, the largest of California and Oregon were advised trader in the Orient. In one department, not to try to build up a market. Yet the however, this transfer is specially impress- development of our flour trade with China ive: no longer does Manchester compete is even more remarkable than that already with us in the export of cottons to China ; reported for cotton. During the past we now have the lion's share. While in decade the shipments, for instance, from recent years our rival's interest has de- Portland, Oregon, to Hong-Kong have clined fourteen per cent., ours has in- increased sixteen hundred per cent. Mr. creased over a hundred and twenty per Barrett acutely says that the most remarkcent., and cotton forms two-fifths of China's able result of the Spanish war has been entire import trade. As to our entire export in our becoming the paramount Power of trade to China, it has increased, accord the Pacific. We have assumed an unavoiding to Mr. Colquhoun, one hundred and able responsibility, not only in occupying twenty-six per cent. in ten years. It is the Philippine Islands, but also in our already twice as large as the German ex attitude toward China. Commercially port trade to that country. Mr. Fowler, our opportunities in China are greater our Consul at Chifu, reports that at least than they ever will be in the Philippines, three-fifths of the greatly increased im- he declares; therefore, while we are setting ports into China during the past two years matters right in our new possessions, we are due to the purchases from the United must not allow them to retrograde where States. Last year's Chinese foreign trade our old-established treaties are being was valued at between two hundred and stretched by China's neighbors. We canfifty and three hundred million dollars.

war to prevent Chinese disinIt has doubled during the past decade. tegration, but if we see that an ultimate and

The specific demands from China for definite break-up there is inevitable, we American products include four and must leave no stone unturned to preserve breadstuffs ; raw and manufactured cot old treaty rights in a new form with the ton; oil, timber, leather, paper, iron and new Powers in control. steel products; machinery and hardware ; To the importance of taking as enerlocomotives, cars, and rails; sewing-ma- getic a stand as possible in preserving chines, clocks, and watches ; telephone our rapidly increasing interests in China, and telegraph supplies; electric railways Dr. Schurman, President of our Philippine and lights ; chemicals and medicines. If Commission, is the latest witness. He the maintenance of this trade were merely has just arrived in this country after spend

not go

ing six months in the Orient. The great zation of the fact that we are demanding question there, so newspaper interviews ultra protection here, but free trade report him as saying, is that of China : abroad.

Both Englishmen and Japanese see the necessity of maintaining China intact, but it is feared, now that Russia has taken Manchuria,

Metaphysical Healing that it will try to encroach gradually on some of the other eighteen provinces of China, and

A correspondent in another column when it gets them it will do as that country makes as strong a case as, in our judghas done hitherto-put a duty on all foreign ment, can be made for the doctrine that goods. Englishmen and Japanese feel that Christian Scientists should be allowed by America should stand with them in preventing the State to practice their healing art on the dismemberment of China. should maintain its independent position, but the hypothesis that disease is only a its doors should be kept open. It means much mortal thought and can be cured by to England and Japan and not less to America. thinking. The question thus raised is a There is a hope in the Orient among reading large one, and involves the whole problem men that China itself may become aroused so that it may itself hold its domain intact. But of the relation of law to liberty. it is not yet sufficiently awakened. That is the In most modern communities the prinsad phase of it. The Chinese are a patient, ciple is recognized that the State has a climate, away in the arctic or far south in the right to regulate all employments which, tropics. They can make money anywhere. for any reason, involve a hazard to the Such a race, it is felt, ought to arouse itself community.

community. On this principle the State, in this dilemma.

at least in many cases, regulates the sale The policy of preserving China intact of dynamite, gunpowder, poisons, and alcoseems now a belated one, in view of the holic liquors ; on this principle it forbids fact that Russia is absorbing the northern men to practice law or medicine, to put provinces, Germany an eastern province, up drugs for the sick, or to act as pilots or France the extreme south, and even the engineers, without previous special educaBritish Government's representative in the tion and training, attested by an official House of Commons is silent on the" inde examination. In our judgment, these propendence of the Government at Peking." hibiting provisions might well be extended These facts, however, only demand closer to plumbers and motormen, perhaps to attention to our commercial outlook. We other employments. We see no reason believe, in the words of the writer of an why Christian Scientists should claim article in the August “ Atlantic Monthly," exemption from this general principle of that, secure in a splendid isolation, and law. confident in the permanent sufficiency of In New York State, to practice the our domestic market, we have too often healing art a coarse of special instruction regarded the Oriental problem as aca is required by law, which necessitates demic, and its solution as immaterial to our ordinarily three years at the least. The welfare. Admiral Dewey's guns, however, curriculum in the Christian Science Colstirred us to a keen sense both of our lege, when there was one, lasted three needs and of our responsibilities. Our weeks, and involved twelve lessons of one advent to “a seat in the court martial of half-day each. Mrs. Eddy informed the Powers which is trying the case of China public that “persons contemplating a may or may not change the verdict of the course at the Massachusetts Metaphysimajority in favor of summary decapitation cal College can prepare for it through 10 and dissection. At all events, that ad- books except the Bible and Science vent means a protest against spheres of and Health with Key to the Scriptures.'” influence which endanger our treaty Ought the State to allow any one to set rights-it has had success already in in up as a healer on the basis of twelve ducing the tardy opening to foreign trade lessons, occupying three months, and of Kiaochau by Germany, and of Talien- embracing only two books? We reply wan by Russia ; but it must not lead us unhesitatingly in the negative. into further complications than those Suppose a Mormon were to set up as a which may attend that insistence.

pilot, claim divine guidance, and insist Another result is one which may and on his right to take steamships in and out should affect us nearer home—the reali- of New York Harbor on the strength of

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