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The Science of Religion' philosophy, but not religion itself, which In his former volume Dr. Tiele dealt
“is, above all, a doctrine of salvation, a with the varying religions resulting from guide to a blessed life.” Corresponding
to its three constituents of emotions, conthe continuous evolution of religion. This we reviewed last year. In the present
ceptions, and will-attitudes (“sentiments," volume he deals with the “ ontological ”
as Dr. Tiele calls them), are the three as distinct from the “morphoiogical "
“root-ideas” of religion : part of his subject--the origin and nature
In a thousand varieties . . . we invariably
find these three elements : belief in a divine of religion, the constant essence in its
power upon which we are dependent; belief in changing forms. He discriminates relig the high origin and destiny of man, coupled ion from religious doctrine, with which it with a consciousness of his shortcomings; and is often confounded, and from philosophy, belief in the possibility of salvation, combined
with attempts to secure that blessed consumwhich, on account of this confusion, often
mation. All religions are religions of redempattacks it. Religion, which clothes itself tion, and all religious doctrine is a doctrine in an ever changing garb of doctrines as of salvation. This is one of the most strik. its enlightenment advances, originates in
ing and at the same time most certain results
of our science. isman's original, unconscious, innate sense of infinity." Dr. Tiele adopts and insists
Underlying these three root-ideas Dr.
Tiele finds the essence of religion to be upon Dr. Edward Caird's view, in his lectures on " The Evolution of Religion,”
essentially a frame of mind in which all
its various elements have their source." that in the human mind the idea of the infinite is anterior to that of the finite. It
This is not faith, for faith belongs also " is the specifically human element in
both to science and art, although without man.” It does not come to us by experi- is possible.“ Religion is piety,” says
faith no religion, nor either science or art, ence, for it conflicts with our experience of a finite world. It is not ihe product of
Dr. Tiele, but prefers the word “adorareasoning, though supported by it. " It
tion," as expressing the essence of gen. is born with us, and we cannot choose
uine piety, which desires to possess and but think it. We act unconsciously as if
to be possessed by its adored object-a were infinite. Infinity is the main- sentiment whose germ he discovers even spring of all human development." From
in primitive and barbarous religions, and this groundwork of our being, however
which demands that closest communion, unconscious man be of what it is, spring that perfect union” of the human with those emotions, conceptions, and will-atti the divine," which forms the characteristic tudes in which consists religion, the very of religion as emanating directly from
aim of all religion.” Such is the essence postulate and condition of which is man's
“the distinctive badge ” of our humanity belief in some kinship between himself
--the Infinite within. Its natural and and the invisible superhuman Power he adores. In fact, “ not only that God
necessary manifestation is in worship, is above us, but also that "God is in us, particularly in the form of prayer; and all is a belief common to all religions,” and
true worship involves a sacrificial element reaches its full development in primitive in the constant rededication of self to God. Christianity. Anthropomorphism is there
But religion, like other human expefore indispensable to religion, for, although riences, has its morbid developments. all human predicates be inadequate when
There is religiosity as well as religion, ascribed to Deity, we cannot ascribe less
and it is due to the lack of due proportion
in one or other of the three-constituents to God than the personality and self-consciousness which belong among our high- fanaticism. If the importance of concep
of religion. Emotion in excess breeds est conceptions of life.
But religion differs from philosophy in tions be overrated, orthodoxy is substituted being practical , not speculative. Religious for religion. Those to whom will-attitude,
or “sentiment,” is everything may even doctrine, or theology, is a borrower from
justify inhumanity if done in the name of 1 Elements of the Science uj Rilvion. Part I., Cnto religion. Sentiment, however virtuous, logical, being the Cisiord Lectures divored before the University of Edin Jurgh 17 1895. by C.P.Tiele. Profage
"unless deeply rooted in emotion, cannot sor of the History and Philosonhy of Pieligion in the be called religious.” This may be quesUniversity of Leyrlen. In Two Volumes. Col. ll. Charles Scribner's Sons, New Tork.
tioned. Elsewhere Dr. Tiele makes, as
we think, too wide a gap between morality provokes the censure of philosophy, it is and religion. Morality in his view is lim- because its garb of doctrines is not reited to our earthly existence and relations; newed as fast as it becomes outworn. a limitation which better suits another But since “a religion without forms is word in his vocabulary, moralism.” lost in indefiniteness," Truly describing the object of religion as to create or to recast these forms, and to - peace of soul, the true and eternal life, clothe the constant religious element in images unity with God,” he does not see that adapted to the wants of the most advanced
members of the existing generation, is the just this is ideal morality, as distinct from vocation of those who are not satisfied to be superficial and imperfect conceptions of merely the guardians of a venerable tradition, it. Morality that is perfect cannot be
and the learned interpreters of sacred texts, limited to the relations of finite moral
but who, as prophets themselves, bear witness
in inspired language to what God has imbeings; it must include their relations planted in their hearts; and not merely as with the Infinite to whom they feel them ministers of the cult, but also as free witnesses selves akin. The feeling of kinship be- of the divine spirit, as poets by the grace of tween the finite moral nature and the
God, as religious thinkers, as leaders of relig.
ious life. Infinite, in which religion originates, is as fully entitled to the name ió moral
Books of the Week the name “ religious."
[The books mentioned under this head were received by Dr. Tiele develops his subject on a The Outlook during the week ending September 1. Prices sfrictly psychological line, apart from the will be found under the head of Books Received in the
preceding issue of The Outlook. This weekly report of domain of metaphysics and dogmatics,
current iterature will be supplemented by fuller reviews and in a critical comparison of the diverg- of the more important works.] ing or conflicting views of other writers, Mr. Belfort Bax's series on - The 'Soboth Christian and skeptical. He holds cial Side of the German Reformation” no brief for any creed or church, while is becoming an indispensable one to thepointing out that every form of religion ological or sociological students. The requires a " league of sympathizers,' and second volume has now appeared, and has that all local unions of this kind gravitate to do with The Peasants' War, 1525-6 toward a general union. Thus the con (The Macmillan Company, New York). ception of a universal church, however A comprehensive map helps the reader's falsely bound to some transitory institu- understanding of the author's excellent tion, “ contains the germ of a great truth, and detailed but not too picturesque text. and is the similitude of a well-founded The publishers' work, in paper, printing, expectation.” He looks to see this ulti- color, and texture of binding, leaves nothmately realized in local organizations ing to be desired. linked for fellowship, not for administra Dr. Ruric Roark, Dean of the Departtive government. Should they prefer to ment of Pedagogy in the State College of call their union a Brotherhood or a League, Kentucky, has published a work on yet “it would be a church ” all the same, Method in E luction, the second volume and “ a more excellent realization of the in a series of which the author's • Psygreat ideal.”
chology in Education ” is the first. As may So eminent a physicist as the late Pro- be gathered from the title, Dr. Roark's fessor Tyndall declared it “the problem latest book attempts to develop in detail of problems” to yield reasonable satisfac- the application of psychology in the work tion to the religious 'feelings, which he of teaching.. The book is clearly thought recognized as having rights quite as strong out and clearly expressed. It will serve as those of the understanding. Strikingly in answering the daily more persistent in accord is this with Dr. Tiele's declara questions as to method in education-question, from the opposite quarter of the sci- tions so universal that most colleges and entific field, that “the right of religion is universities have now added departments a right of the emotions,” that the emotions of pedagogy to those already existing. no less than the reasoning powers have Dr. Roark well points out that a teacher the'r inalienable rights, and that to pro- needs more than sound and broad scholarnounce religion an illusion because emo- .ship, more than sympathetic knowledge tional -- would make human existence an of mind-processes; a teacher must also insoluble riddle.” If religion constantly have skill in making the mind hungry for
DREXEL BIDDLE, PHILADELPHIA
the best nutriment. (American Book Com- conveys to the reader through true wordpany, New York.)
pictures his enjoyment and constant comThe latest volume in Dr. W. T. Harris's panionship with nature. Mr. Dewar writes very long but invaluable - International neither as a naturalist nor as a sportsman, Educational Series " comprises a selection but as a nature-lover endowed with the from Montaigne's Essays on Child Educa- special knowledge of both. The volume tion. Strange as it may seem, Montaigne is delicately illustrated and handsomely was in some respects in advance of the printed. (The Macmillan Company, New pedagogical thinkers of our own day. York.) His was the influence which a hundred The Rev. Dr. Alexander Whyte has years later most affected John Locke, and, published, through the F. H. Revell Comtwo hundred years later, Jean Jacques pany (New York), the first volume of a Rousseau. (D. Appleton & Co., New work on Bible Characters. The book is York.)
one which cannot be other than helpful to In two neat volumes Mr. H. L. Stephen every student of Old Testament history. has condensed and edited, chiefly from Dr. Whyte's vigorous style brings JeroHowell's voluminous pages, accounts of boam, Rehoboam, Elijah, Elisha, and the ten famous English State Trials, Politicai rest before us with startling and effective and Social. The trials are those of Sir distinctness. Walter Raleigh, Charles I., the Regicides, Colonel Turner and others, the Suffolk
Books Received Witches, Alice Lisle, Lord Russell, the
For the week ending September 8 Earl of Warwick, Spencer Cowper and
DAVID W. AMRAM, PHILADELPI.IA others, and Samuel Goodere and others. Amram, David W. The Jewish Law of Divorce. The editor's work has been admirably
Brooks. Sarah P. In the Bivouac of Life. performed. It would be hard to imagine DOUBLEDAY & N'CLURE CO., NEW YORK
Prichard. E. and Hesketh (E. and H. Heron). A Modern more of human tragedy than is compressed
Mercenary. $1.25. within these little volumes. (The Mac
Little Masterpieces. Edited by Bliss Perry. Thackeray,
Lamb, and De Quincey. Octs, each. millan Company, New York.)
Warner Classics, The. In Four Volumes. Philosophers
and Scientists: Novelists: Poets; Historians and A pretty edition of a new translation of
Essayists. $2.50. Bida's charming love story of Provence,
Tarbell, Horace S, and Martha. Lessons in Language Aucassin and Nicolette, is put forth by and Grammar. 70 cts.
D. C. HEATH & CO., BOSTON Fords, Howard & Hulbert (New York). Dole, Charles F. The Young Citizen. 45 cts. The translator is Mr. A. Rodney Mac
THE YOUNG CHURCHMAN CO., MILWAUKEE, WIS.
Smith, Colonel Nicholas. Great National Songs. $1. donough, and he may be congratulated on
Ketcham, W. E. Funeral Sermons and Outline Adthe grace and facility with which his work
dresses. $1.50. has been accomplished.
Faust, Albert B. Heine's Prose. 60 cts. Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is an Rawnsley, H. D. Life and Nature at the English
Lakes. $2. abridgment from the International which
Jones, Jenkin Lloyd. Jess: Bits of Wayside Gospel. aims to be full, accurate, and authoritative,
Herrick, Robert Hesperides. Edited by Israel Goland yet in moderate compass and of a lancz. Vols. I. and Il. (The Temple Classics.) 50 cts.
Wordsworth, William, The Sonneis of. Edited by moderate price. It has over eleven hun Israel Gollancz. 50 cts. (The Temple Classics.) dred large octavo pages and an equal
Sterne, Laurence. Sentimental Journey Through France
and Italy. Edited by Israel Gollancz. 50 cts. The number of illustrations, with ample appen Temple Classics.) dices, tables, etc. It will undoubtedly prove
Thoughts of Divines and Philosophers. Selected by
Basıl Montague. 50 cts. Edited by Israel Gollanci. useful and convenient to students and
(The Temple Classics.)
Cavendish, George. The Life and Death of Thomas others who desire a happy medium be Wolsey. Edited by Israel Gollancz. 50 cts. (The tween the unabridged and the too-abridged.
Toledo (G. & C. Merriam Company, Springfield,
The Soteriology of the New TesMass.)
Bridgman, Raymond L. The Master Idea.
Hornung, E. W. Dead Men Tell No Tales. $1.25. topics to the charm of Richard Jefferies.
Warman. Cy. The White Mail. $1.25. He knows the woods and hills at every
Trent, William P. The Authority of Criticism. $1.50.
Spears, John R. The Fugitive. $1.25. season ; he watches birds, trees, plants,
Grinnell, Morton. An Eclipse of Memory. 50 cts. and insects with a loving patience; he
Walkey. S. For the sake of the Duchess.
GINN & CO., BOSTON
W. B. KETCHAM, NEW YORK
THE MACMILLAN CO., NEW YORK
Du Bose. William P
THE PILGRIM PRESS, CHICAGO
FLEMING H. REVELL (O. NEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SOXS, NEW YORK
THE F. A. STOKES CO., NEW YORK
The Northfield Conference of Christian the Secretary of the Baptist Foreign MisWorkers
sionary Union. During the Conference The seventeenth annual Conference of he called for a meeting of the Baptists at Christian Workers, which has just closed Northfield to consider the advisability of its sessions at Northfield, was the most erecting a house in which missionaries largely attended of any ever held. The and others could be entertained. Dr. increase in the number of clergymen was Mabie thinks that there are at least-twentyespecially noticeable. Of
five Baptist foreign missionaries in this Moody was the soul of this as of every country on furlough who could attend the Northfield Conference. The Rev. Dr. conferences if there were such buildings, John Balcom Shaw, pastor of the West but, under present conditions, are unable End Presbyterian Church, New York City,
to come to Northfield. It is believed that made the opening address. The next such a house might be used for seminary day the Rev. Dr. Wilton Merle Smith, of girls during the school year and for misthe Central Presbyterian Church, New sionaries and others during the ConferYork City, followed in an address empha- ences. On this suggestion Mr. Moody sizing the need of a more spiritual minis followed with one looking to the erection try. During the first four days of the of a Presbyterian House, Mr. John Willis Conference the Rev. George Campbell Baer, Secretary of the Christian Endeavor Morgan, of London, spoke no less than Society, and also a Presbyterian elder, seven times, taking for his general sub- assuring him that the Presbyterians would ject “ The Will of God." Mr. Morgan not be behind the Baptists in this matter. spoke very frequently during the Confer- As to the Presbyterians at Northfield, the ence, and also remained for some days recent conferences have been emphasized thereafter, giving the daily post-Confer- by their particular attendance and enthuence addresses which for several years siasm. From New York City alone behave been a feature of the work. Another tween fifty and sixty Presbyterian pastors well-known speaker at the Conference was
were present--practically the whole local another London pastor, the Rev. F. B. Presbytery. The results should be a Meyer, the successor of Dr. Newman Hall great revival of evangelistic preaching in at the great church across the Thames the churches of the metropolis. from Westminster. Two years ago, at Mr. Moody's invitation, Mr. Meyer came American Presbyterian Decline to America and gave a series of addresses
Recently published statistics in the “ The Development of the Spiritual daily press have seemed to show that Life.” The succeeding year Mr. Meyer Presbyterianism is hardly holding its own devoted six weeks to visiting American in this country as regards membership, or cities where he had been unable to hold even in the number of churches. Even urgently demanded conferences the year the Philadelphia “ Presbyterian,” speakbefore. This year Mr. Meyer has been ing of the decline from year to year, for obliged to return to England, but Mr.
the last five years, of the number added Morgin still remains, and is to devote on examination and certificate, exclaims : the autumn months to giving addresses “ We are not receiving on profession as in some of the leading cities on similar many as we are dropping from the roll. lines to those given this summer. This How long can this continue without disextension of the Northfield Conferences is
astrous result? The decline is not in one sure to be appreciated by those who have Presbytery or one city, but a general fallnot been able to attend these gatherings.
ing off in the whole Church.” Writing
to us on this matter, however, the Rev. Denominational Houses at Northfield Dr. William Henry Roberts, Stated Clerk Other prominent speakers at the Con of the General Assembly of the Presbyference were the Rev. Drs. Torrey, Pierson, terian Church, explains some of the deSelwyn, and Mabie. The last named is cline by the fact that there has been a
general removal from the rolls of many books for the Sunday-school, a graded of the congregations of the names of series of Lesson Helps bound to mark an "absentee members over three years epoch in Sunday-school teaching, a rich Luabsent,” etc., while for members dismissed theran commentary, and a long-wished-for and dropped there are no statistics for encyclopædia, shortly to appear. . . . In 1894, 1895, and 1896. Last year fifty-six short, forty years ago American Lutheranthousand members were dismissed and ism was as unstable, unformed, and condropped ; this year, fifty-three thousand. tradictory as the American character itself In 1894 seventy-four thousand members in its infancy. To-day it is growing into were added on examination ; this year, a more robust, uniform, and well-rounded only forty-eight thousand. On certificate Lutheran force, which, as it becomes more in 1894 forty-one thousand members were unified, will exert an influence in our added; this year, thirty-five thousand. chaotic American religious life hitherto The decline has been a steady one in unknown." both lists. The list of net increases to the Presbyterian Church is also a series
A French Protestant Paper of downward steps. In 1894, forty thou Speaking of the work done in France sand persons were added; in 1895, twenty by the Protestant newspaper Le Signal" six thousand ; in 1896, twenty thousand; in the interest not only of Protestant inin 1897, seventeen thousand ; in 1898, fluence, but of every effort to raise moral fourteen thousand; and so far in 1899, and social standards, the Lond: n“ Chriseight thousand five hundred.
tian World” says that in the evil days when
it was next to impossible for any but the The American Lutheran Church voices of passion and prejudice to get a The approaching Lutheran Council at hearing in France in the Dreyfus affair Chicago calls renewed attention to the the “Signal” risked everything in its progress made by the Lutheran Church bold stand for the right. The risk was in the United States. From a member- great, indeed, for a new paper, struggling ship numbering not a quarter of a million with the difficulties which beset every forty years ago, it has grown to one num fresh journalistic enterprise. It must bering more than a million and a half. needs face, first, the opposition of Roman In 1859 the various Lutheran bodies had Catholicism, next the envenomed hatred only ten small theological seminaries, of its atheistic opponents, but, lastly and eight colleges, and one academy; now the hardest to bear, the defection of numbers figures are twenty-five, forty-six, and thirty- of timid or indifferent Protestants. “Le six respectively. Startling as this prog- Signal” has a distinctive literary as well ress is, the figures are vouched for by as political character, and contains conthat official organ,
Lutheran.” tributions from the leading French ProtFrom it we learn that no less decided estant writers. Its moral tone is, of progress has been made in other direc- course, excellent. The Protestants of tions. Forty years ago the Lutheran France, comparatively few in number, are Church had“ become a stranger to itself ;" giving a good account of themselves. now it has come to recognize itself anew, They deserve the sympathy of Christian and the basis of one faith and one prac- people everywhere. tice is being cleared of the rubbish which had almost buried it. Again, from the
The Metlakahtla Settlement few translations which constituted all A dozen years ago, for the sake of there was of native Lutheran literature greater civil and religious liberty, the forty years ago, there is now a list of people of a place called Metlakahtla, in books in English-devotional, historical, British Columbia, under the leadership of doctrinal, and other books-that do honor Mr. William Duncan, emigrated to Annette to Lutheran scholarship. The journal Island, off our Alaskan coast. The work above quoted admits that the services of of the intervening years is seen in the Lutheran churches, too, were almost as fact that to-day Annette Island has be bald as those of any Calvinistic church ; come the center both of commercial and now, however, “we have a matchless Com- of Christian activity in all that region. mon Service, several unequaled hymn- The government consists of a council,