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protection they are admitted.

It seems not ratified by Spain until March 18, to us that while the country is in a state of after Congress had adjourned ; and that war it is entirely legitimate for the military until this joint ratification had taken place, authorities to take such action respecting Congress had no power to pass laws rethe admission of strangers to the territory specting the Philippines. Meanwhile the as appears to them necessary for the more President had only the option to maintain effective prosecution of their campaign. the silence respecting the future condition When the war is over and peace is estab- of the Philippines, for maintaining which lished, the question of the policy to be pending the negotiations at Paris he has pursued should be decided irrespective been so severely criticised, or else to deof any law prohibiting the immigration of clare to the Filipinos what would be the Chinese into the United States. At pres- policy of the Government when the treaty ent neither Porto Rico, Hawaii, nor the was ratified, and take the risk that this Philippines is, properly speaking, a part policy would be supported by the legislaof the United States. They belong to the tive branch of the Government.

In our United States, and it is for the United judgment, the second alternative was the States to determine, through its properly wiser one of the two. His so-called procconstituted authorities, what is the nature lamation to the Filipinos, which was not of the government to be exercised therein, in terms a proclamation to them at all, and what are to be the relations between but instructions to the commanding genthese several communities and the sover eral in the field, was a notification to them eign power to which they belong, but of that the United States would maintain its which they are not, properly speaking, an sovereignty over the whole archipelago, integral part.

but that it would administer this sovereignty in the interest of the people, and under it would provide the largest practica

ble local self-government. It remains, of Mr. Frederick E. The President's Course White, the Demo

course, to be seen whether Congress, when cratic candidate for Covernor in Iowa, in

it assembles, will sustain the President in

this his declaration of what the course of a speech at Davenport, September 14,

the Nation would be. But we cannot but which we find reported in the New York

think that, if he had made no intimation " Evening Post,” makes the clearest and

to the Filipinos what that course would strongest statement of criticism against the official course of President McKinley

be, he would have subjected himself to a in dealing with the Philippines which we

more serious and a more practical criticism

than that to which he is subjected now by recall. This is, in brief, that, after the

the Democratic Governor of Iowa. treaty with Spain was agreed to by the Spanish and American Commissioners, but before it had been ratified either by the United States Senate or by Spain,

The Secretary of State,

No Secret Alliance the President proclaimed his purpose to

John Hay, in a published extend military government of the United

letter, gives to the report of a secret

alliance with England a most emphatic, States over the entire archipelago.

positive, and unequivocal denial : This he did without being empowered so to do; and, remember, Congress was then in regu

There is no alliance with England, or with lar session. The treaty of peace, article 9, pro

any other power under heaven, except those vides that “the civil rights and political status

known and published to the world—the treaof the native inhabitants of the territory here

ties of ordinary international friendship for by ceded to the United States shall be deter

purposes of business and commerce. No mined by the Congress.” After the ratifica

treaty other than these exists: none has been tion of the treaty, President McKinley failed suggested on either side ; none is in contemto communicate with Congress upon the sub

plation. It has never entered into the mind ject, which the Constitution and treaty both

of the President or of any member of the Govenjoined him to do.

ernment to forsake, under any inducement,

the wise precept and example of the fathers This criticism is not without force. It which forbade entangling alliances with Euromust, however, be remembered that the treaty with Spain was not ratified by the Such a denial as this will be accepted Senate until February 6, 1899; that it was by all unprejudiced Americans as entirely

pean Powers.

The Political

conclusive. Apparently the only basis with which he recorded the fact that the for the fabricated report of a secret alli- Cubans he met were intensely eager for ance with England is the fact that “our school privileges; General Ludlow says relations with England are more friendly the same thing, and urges that facilities be and satisfactory than they have ever been immediately given for the many thousands before.” This, as Secretary Hay notes, of children who cannot now be accommois not peculiar, since our relations with dated. Already General Ludlow, on his Russia, Germany, France, Italy, Austria, own initiative, has opened many schools, in short every Power, are growing more and taken thousands of neglected children intimate and more cordial as we enter from the streets. Throughout his report more and more into international relation- General Ludlow gives full credit to the ships.

Cubans themselves for joining in the effort to rehabilitate and renovate the city of

Havana. Many of the American ideas The most encouraging of cleanliness and order are new to the American Reform

facts leading toward the people of Havana, but this report shows in Havana

hope that Cuba will be that they are learning rapidly, and that as come a self-respecting and self-governing a body of citizens they are neither rebelcommunity are such as those contained in lious nor difficult to deal with. the report of Brigadier-General Ludlow, the Military Governor of the city of Havana, which has just been published.

The Republican Convention What the condition of Havana was at the

in Nebraska not only in

Conventions close of the war Mr. Kennan's letters

dorsed the President's policy have told our readers fully and plainly ; in the Philippines, but put the Philippine now Havana is another city, and a vastly issue to the front for the approaching better one.

From being a pest-hole it has campaign. The despatches state that a become healthful ; instead of being an large number of Silver Republicans were offense to the eye, its streets are present in the Convention, and that the orderly and clean ; police discipline is in scene of greatest enthusiasm was when force, sanitary conditions are watched, the Populist Chaplain of the First Necivil government is being perfected. The braska declared that he had returned one comprehensively significant fact in home “to vote as he shot.' On the curGeneral Ludlow's report is that the gen rency question the resolutions indorsed eral death-rate has been lowered, not only the gold standard without qualification, from the record of the two former years, declaring that present prosperity dembut in comparison with such normal years onstrated the wisdom of the Nation's deas those from 1890 to 1895. For instance, cision in 1896. With regard to trusts, the up to September 1 of this year there were Convention declared its hostility to comonly twenty deaths from yellow fever, binations which aim to stifle competition, while the average of such deaths from and recommended the establishment of 1890 to 1895 was nearly four hundred. a Federal bureau with power to prevent Add to this the significant fact that only over-capitalization, require complete pubthree deaths from yellow fever have oc licity, and otherwise check threatened evils. curred among several thousand American Upon this question, therefore, its prosoldiers, while the Spanish troops during gramme differed little from that proposed their occupation of the islands lost many by Mr. Bryan at Chicago.

The only thousand yearly from the fever, and the officials to be nominated were a Judge of contrast is complete. A complete modern the Supreme Court and two University sewer system is the next imperative neces Regents, but a vigorous campaign is in sity. General Ludlow says, without self prospect, since all parties realize that the praise or rhetorical language, - In Havana result in Nebraska will profoundly affect the rule of law is practically complete, the prestige of Mr. Bryan and the ascendwhile the rural districts are as quiet and ency of the principles he advocates in the as orderly as the interior of New Eng Democratic National Convention next land." Readers of Mr. Kennan's letters year. In Massachusetis the Democratic will particularly remember the interest State Convention held last week took the

now

unprecedented step of electing the dele- not, however, make a fetich of collective gates to this National Convention a year action, but took the common-sense view in advance. The action was bitterly op that we must “ let the individual do what posed by the anti-Bryan delegates, who the individual can do best, and let the urged that the Democrats of the State government do what the government can ought next year to have the right to decide do best.” H. J. Gonden, of New York, gave what their course next year should be. the Convention the results of his invesSome of Mr. Bryan's supporters recog. tigation of the garbage problem in thirtynized the justice of this view, and the plan seven cities. Only about half of these to nominate at once was adopted by only cities make public provision for the cola narrow majority, on the plea that it had lection of garbage. Mr. Gonden compared been announced before the primaries were the cost where this work was done directly held, and that nothing but inconvenience by the public and where it was turned would result from ordering new primaries over to contractors, reaching the conclunext spring. The result of this conflict- sion that the public did the work itself at which nearly led to a riot before it was less cost and with considerably less corfinished—is the complete control of the ruption. The question of municipal ownMassachusetts organization by George ership of municipal monopolies, as usual, Fred Williams and the radical silver occupied a great deal of attention, and wing of the party. The platform, which able papers were read on both sides. was adopted with singular unanimity, re Mayor Johnson, of Denver, who made one affirmed the Chicago platform, pledged of the speeches in favor of the municipal allegiance to Mr. Bryan, denounced the ownership of water, light, transportation, war in the Philippines, favored direct and telephone services, was elected Presilegislation and the municipal ownership dent of the League for the ensuing year. of natural monopolies, and opposed the Though advocating municipal monopoly, legislative sanction of the lease of the largely because of the exceptional econoBoston and Albany Railroad to the New mies which monopoly made possible in this York Central. Mr. Robert Treat Paine, field, Mayor Johnson's paper was espeJr., was nominated for Governor.

cially instructive where he pointed out the benefits of private competition as

against private monopoly. Denver, for The third annual Convention example, is now paying $120 a year City Officials

of the League of American for the unlimited service of a telephone, in Convention

Municipalities, held in Syra- while in Indianapolis-a city of the cuse, N. Y., last week, was notable for the same size—the competition of two comnumber of good papers read and the civic panies has reduced the rate to $40 a year spirit shown by the officials assembled. for business houses and $24 for private The address of President Black, of Co- residences. The only monopoly by which lumbus, O., with which the Convention the public service could be secured, Mayor opened, illustrated the worth of comparing Johnson said, was one which the public notes among public servants in different controlled. localities. In Ohio, he said, the cost of making gas is practically the same throughout the State, and the city coun

The conference of Governors cils everywhere have the right to fix the

and Attorneys-General held

Conference price of gas every ten years.

Yet in sev

at St. Louis last week upon eral cities the price is from 40 to 100 per the call issued by Governor Sayers, of cent. higher than in several others where Texas, was attended by officials representthe public has looked into the cost of ing the Republican States of Indiana, making gas and insisted on reasonable Michigan, and Iowa, the fusion States of reductions. Mayor Jones, of Toledo, gave Colorado, Washington, and Montana, and an exhilarating talk upon “Golden Rule the Democratic States of Missouri, TenGovernment,” urging the advantage of nessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Texas. citizens co-operating through their city There was a little partisan sparring among governments to make city life more health the delegates, but in the main they recogful, attractive, and elevating. He did nized that they were present to confer for

The Anti-Trust

a

co-operative action, and not to discuss for

There seems to be no

More Rioting partisan advantage. In view of the dif

end to the Illinois riots

Against Negro Miners ferences among the delegates the recom

against the employmendations on which they were able to ment of non-union negro miners. Last agree were rather remarkable for their week at Carterville, in the southern part number and importance. The resolutions of the State, a group of negroes, tired unanimously adopted proposed action of confinement at the neighboring mines, along the following lines :

ventured to the railway station as 1. That contracts in restraint of trade be train was coming in. The crowd about defined, and that penalties be enacted for in the station, according to the despatches, dividuals and corporations entering into such immediately set upon them with taunts contracts—"punishment to the corporation to the extent of dissolution.”

and threats. The negroes at first re2. That full public reports be required, not treated toward the mines, but afterwards only from domestic corporations, but also from decided to go back and assert their equal corporations chartered in other States; and rights. The crowd thereupon became that every State shall adopt a license system by which outside corporations shall be sub

more threatening; one of its number jected to the same restraints as domestic cor struck the leader of the negroes, and porations if they would do business within its at once there was a general fusillade of borders. 3. " That no corporation should hold or own

pistol-shots—every miner, white and black, stock in another corporation engaged in a

seeming to be armed. Four negroes were similar or competitive business ... the ob- killed before their party took to flight, and ject or result of which is to create a trust or three more were killed before they reached monopoly." 4. That wherever stock is issued for more

the mines. For a few hours there was than the amount of capital actually paid in, danger of a race conflict on a still larger the shareholders shall be liable to the extent scale, but Governor Tanner, realizing the of twice the face value of their stock.

disgrace which these outbreaks are bringThe third of these remedies is the one ing on the State, promptly despatched that deserves the greatest attention, since a force of militia to the scene, and it proposes for manufacturing corporations promised that the whole National Guard restrictions similar to those by which should be called upon if necessary to bring banking corporations in different places to justice those guilty of the wholesale are now kept from consolidating. The murder.” On this occasion the Govfear of banking monopolies led the people ernor's attitude was that which the situaof the last generation to stipulate that no tion demanded, and the present prospects National bank should even own a branch are that law and order will be upheld. in another community; and while the re- Nevertheless, the hatred remaining bestriction has doubtless prevented the estab- tween the white and the colored miners is lishment of banks in some towns, it has such that murder may again result. The enabled business men nearly everywhere troubles began, it will be recalled, when to deal with principals instead of agents

some of the Illinois miners refused to when they wished bankers' accommoda- accept the decision of the board of arbitrations, and has kept banks in competition tion for the settlement of the miners' with each other for the business of cus- strike, and imported negroes from the tomers. If the fear of manufacturing South to take the strikers' places. Bemonopolies comes to equal the cld fear of ginning with the outbreak at Pana just a banking monopolies, we may expect new year ago, thirteen whites and fifteen legislation along these historic lines. It negroes have been killed, and about twice was somewhat notable that the Conference these numbers wounded. Had white nonfailed to call for the use of the tax power unionists taken union miners' places under of the State to prevent over-capitalization. Such circumstances, the bitterness would In our opinion, the provision that every have been intense, and the addition of corporation shall be taxed upon at least race feeling to union feeling has made the par value of its securities would each restoration of order simply an armed accomplish far more to reduce the issues truce. The situation demands martial of watered stock than the requirement law until the unions recognize that their that its holders shall incur a double lia only hope lies in unionizing instead of bility to creditors.

terrorizing the negroes.

The results last week time classes to accommodate the pupils New York's

of the Republican and who have prepared for them. It is estiReformed Primaries

Democratic primaries mated that six thousand children may be in this city proved the value of the new excluded from the schools of the city for law in enabling the voters to curb the lack of room. That, in view of the large despotism of the machine. The primaries increase, the Boards of Education have so were held on the same day, in the polling- nearly met the city's need is proof that the places used in regular elections, the two near future will see New York's greatest parties meeting separately in alternate disgrace, lack of schools, removed. That election districts. Every voter who had the pressure for room is felt in the high signified his party preference at the time schools, the Normal and the city colleges, of registration was entitled to vote, and proves the advance in the educational the fear of prosecution for illegal voting standards of the citizens; it removes the and false counting made these weapons reproach from the system that amplest proof the machine of less avail than usual. vision was made where there was the least The supreme interest centered in the demand. The solution of the immediate Democratic district where Mr. John C. problem as to room in the primary grades, Sheehan fought for the leadership, as the made last year by Dr. Maxwell, the Suavowed opponent of Mr. Croker, and Mr. perintendent of Schools, is again offered, Croker's lieutenants used every means to that rooms be hired on every block in the defeat him-down to the issue of false crowded sections of the city and equipped ballots to divide the Sheehan vote. In as kindergartens. This would provide for spite of these tactics, Mr. Sheehan won thousands of children now crowded into by a considerable majority, and the un- grade work, and would give opportunity for popularity of Mr. Croker's rule within his kindergarten training to hundreds of chilown party was signally demonstrated. At dren who cannot go two or three blocks the present time the choice of the voters to a crowded school alone. Kindergartens at the primaries is limited to the choice of away from a crowded building where the delegates to represent them in the party“ lock-step” begins at the door would percouncils, but in Brooklyn the Young Men's mit a more natural atmosphere for little Republican Club has demanded that the children, who rarely are fitted for grade next step be taken and the voters be work under six years of age. Should the allowed to choose directly their candidates Boards of Education act at once on this for all public offices. This enthronement suggestion, it is possible that there would of the voters above the machine is per be room for every child of school age in missible under the new law whenever the the city of New York. local machine is forced to grant it; and the demand of the Young Republicans of Brooklyn, if persisted in, may soon make

Charles P. Daly

Judge Daly, who died on New York primaries what they should be

Monday of last week, was -the place where the citizens of each not only one of the ablest lawyers and party choose their candidates by direct judges the State of New York has known, vote, instead of merely choosing which but a man of varied and brilliant attainpoliticians shall choose for them.

ments in other than legal matters, and one of notably forceful character—a fine type

of the American citizen, self-made in a At the opening of the pub- high sense. Although he began life as the The New York lic schools of New York, son of an immigrant Irish carpenter and

on September 11, about was for three years a sailor before the 35,000 new pupils made application for mast, he seized advantages of education admission. This number, somewhat in so rapidly that he was admitted to the advance of last year's, shows what un bar when twenty-three years old, was sent ceasing effort New York must make every to the Legislature when twenty-seven, and year to meet the educational requirements became a Judge of the Court of Common of the city. While, as usual, the pressure Pleas when twenty-eight. All this he did is greatest in the lower primary grades, the almost or quite without assistance, carnhigh schools will be forced to organize half- ing his living as a clerk or by a trade

Public Schools

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