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to their cotton gowns. When I asked period in the history of their people, and their mother if this style of dress had young and old were eager to acquire all been adopted as a masquerade, she said, possible knowledge that might assist them “Oh, no. I expect both my little girls to think clearly at this crisis. Their to be married very soon.” After all, realization of the gravity of their position some of the customs of the Filipinos are did not, however, rob their character of rather picturesque.

its natural gayety, nor make them forget After a short rest these girls and two their duty as hosts. On the evening folothers of about the same age danced the lowing our arrival a ball was given in our “contrabandista,” using castanets. We honor, which was attended by all the élite enjoyed this dance very much.

of the town. There were present about dancers arranged themselves at starting fifty young women and twice that number in the form of a square, and frequently of men. All were dressed in European returned to that figure. Passing and re fashion. The girls were pleasant and inpassing each other, twirling unexpectedly telligent; the men comported themselves about, and posing for an instant, only to in all respects like gentlemen. It was resume the rapid step, their tiny, erect hard to realize that we were in the very figures moved with charming grace and heart of a country generally supposed to quickness in time with the music, and be given up to semi-savages. At intervals their castanets kept up a lively accom between dances many songs were sung ; paniment. When directions were needed usually by one or two of the guests, while they were received from an old man, who all frequently joined in the chorus. The occupied the position of dancing master national hymn was repeated several times in the village. A guitar and a flute sup with great enthusiasm. The ball lasted plied the only music for the dance. At until nearly three o'clock in the morning, times even this was dispensed with, and, and broke up with good feeling at its in its stead, the dancing-master sang a height. plaintive air in his native dialect. The On the second evening we were invited music and dancing continued until we to attend the theater, where two one-act requested an opportunity to rest. On other Spanish plays were presented by the young occasions we have been shown many society people of the town. The theater dances peculiar to the country, and have itself had been constructed by the villagers found that, while they are all graceful and only a few weeks before. It was a large interesting, none are in the least grotesque bamboo structure, one end of which was or barbaric.

used as the village market, while the The towns of Ilagan and Aparri, with stage occupied the other end. The stage their wealthy and pleasure-loving popula- arrangements were good; curtain, sidetion, provided the most elaborate enter scenes, and footlights all in règle. In the tainment. Ilagan is the capital city of performance of the play we the tobacco-raising province of Isabella, friends--these typical young Filipinosand is situated near the head of naviga- in a light in which very few of our Nation tion of the Rio Grande; Aparri is situated have had an opportunity to view them. at its mouth in the province of Cagayan, They comported themselves with credit and is the only seaport of the valley. in a position where humor, intelligence, These towns are laid out in regular streets, and artistic ability were the requisites of and have many squares of substantial frame buildings. They have each a popu During our stay at Ilagan we lived at lation of between ten and fifteen thousand. the house of the mayor.

This building We spent three days at Ilagan, and I was of great size, and was built of magthink that it was here that we nificent hard wood from the neighboring brought into closest touch with the Fili- forest. One wing, containing a receptionpino character. The cultured class, which room and two bedrooms, was turned over I have spoken of before, was strongly in to us. The reception-room was very large, evidence; and I think that, before leav with a finely polished floor, and with wining, we had discussed views with nearly dows along two sides. It contained a every member of it. They all realized piano and a set of excellent bamboo furthat they were passing through a crucial niture, including the most comfortable

saw

our

success.

were

Ilagan employed three cooks, each of whom in turn officiated at the preparation of one of the three dinners which we ate in that town. It is impossible to say which one deserved the palm. The shortest of the three dinners numbered fifteen courses, and seemed interminable. In addition to fish, rice, chickens, and other domestic products of the country, there was served game of many sorts, including doves, snipes, deer, mountain buffalo, and boar. It was astonishing how many of the dishes were “coniida del pais," and must be sampled by the visitors to secure a just conception of the Filipino talent in matters of the palate. We felt on leaving the table as if the horn of plenty had been thrust against our lips and its contents to the last crumb

forced down our unwillFONDO

ing throats. I notice in Showing Native Canoe and Water Buffalo in one of the City Canals.

my diary an entry made chairs and divans imaginable. There after returning from a dinner in one of the were two tall mirrors on the wall, and a western provinces, where more moderanumber of old-fashioned pictures and tion was displayed, which reads: “We framed paper flowers. In this room our had been in dread of encountering another friends gathered in the afternoon, and such feast as those at Ilagan and Aparri, took measures to make the time pass but found, to our great relief, that this pleasantly for us. Whenever the conversa meal lasted through only eight courses." tion threatened to lose its animation, there A Filipino dinner is usually served was always some one at hand ready to shortly after noon, and is followed by the accede to our host's request to play on siesta. The next meal comes about nine the piano or to sing.

o'clock, but is ordinarily preceded about There was one form of hospitality three hours earlier by light refreshments which we met both at Ilagan and at of chocolate and sweetmeats. The native Caparri that we would gladly have avoided. is very fond of the latter, which he preI still shudder when I recall the stupen pares from cocoanut meat and sugar. His dous dinners that were spread before us table is always set—at least when guests night after night. The Filipinos pride are present—with a tablecloth and napthemselves on their cookery, and it is in- kins, and the customary supply of knives deed excellent. There could be no cause and forks. He is very temperate in his for complaint on that score. There is use of liquor. An alcoholic beverage is never any suspicion of the greasy and made from the sap of the “ nipa ” plant, garlicky flavor to the food that charac- and imported wines are served in the terizes a Spanish meal. Our host at houses of the rich in the large towns.

[graphic]

cere

None of these are used to excess, how the island in their own class; these are ever; and I have never seen an intoxi- Spanish and Tegalog. The ignorant na. cated Filipino.

tives, on the other hand, have oniy their own Throughout the valley of the Rio provincial dialect. These dialects are so Grande, as well as the province of Nueva different one from another that they must Vizcaya, the wilder regions are inhabited be separately studied to be understood. by Igorrotes. These savages are not pow- Dictionaries of many of them have been erful enough to attack a town of any size, made by the Jesuit priests. Through the but they are a formidable menace to the servants of our party, we had at command smaller villages, and particularly to trav five dialects in addition to the Spanish elers. Unarmed individuals cannot go and Tegalog. Yet, in passing through one with impunity from one town to another, province, we failed utterly to make ourbut must travel in parties and with an selves understood by a native whom we armed escort. For this reason, communi accosted, although we plied him patiently cation between the towns of these provinces with these seven languages. is comparatively rare. Many provinces There is but one individual who seems such as Nueva Vizcaya—are shut off from never to be daunted by the obstacles and their neighbors by ranges of mountains dangers that separate him from the provwhose passes lie in the Igorrote territory ince toward which he sees fit to direct and are eminently exposed to attack. At his footsteps. I refer to the Chinaman. certain seasons of the year these attacks In almost every village we visited we become especially numerous, on account, found at least one of that race; and in it is said, of the religious ceremonies ob the larger towns there were many. They served by the Igorrotes. These are the merchants of the island ; presiding monies require the presence of human over every shop, and drawing money from heads; and, accordingly, the whole tribe, every village. They are deeply hated by moved by a deep feeling of piety, proceeds, the Filipinos, and were the object of a with its armament of arrows and lances, strict emigration law under the adminto waylay whatever unhappy Filipinos istration of Aguinaldo's provisional govmay come within reach. One of these ernment. The steamer Oslo, which took seasons of religious manifestation lasts our party from Aparri, brought to that nine days. It had become so notorious port a number of Chinese immigrants, and had cost so many lives that a few destined in the greater part for Manila. years ago a law was passed prohibiting The supercargo, however, desired to leave travel on certain roads between prescribed fifty of them at Aparri, and offered the dates.

governor of that place fifty dollars per Many tribes of Igorrotes have been head for that number if he would permit brought partly within the pale of civiliza them to land. His offer was promptly tion; principally in the western provinces. refused. These tribes, in their semi-civilized state, Our party proceeded on the Oslo from are called Trugmanes. They live in Aparri around the northwestern corner primitive villages, and are presided over of the island and landed on the coast by leaders chosen from their own tribe. near the northern end of the province of I have seen many of these people. The South Ilocos. From here we proceeded chiefs dress in Filipino garb, with cotton by land southward through the western trousers, and a shirt falling outside of all. provinces. During this part of our jourThe chief is always seen carrying his staff ney we were thrown into closer associaof office—a gold headed cane. The tribes tion than previously with the military men wear only loin-cloths. They are finely element of the population ; of which I built and very powerful men.

hope to have an opportunity to speak furThe dangers incident to travel have had ther in a subsequent article. much to do with the confusion of dialects The towns on the western coast are that prevails on the island, and this con. even larger than those on the Rio Grande. fusion is consequently more marked in Vigan, the capital of South Ilocos, has a the eastern than in the western provinces. population of about 28,000, and Candon, The educated class of Filipinos can speak further to the southward, is not far behind two languages that are universal throughout this figure. The Mayor of Candon was

а

of the hustler type, and was evidently on the matter of a graceful carriage. Many the outlook for an opportunity to “ boom” of them are pleasing in feature as well. his town. On our departure he presented Their education, however, seems to be us with a written description of its excep- responsible for a lack of vivacity, at least tionally desirable location from a business in their conversation with young men. standpoint. Every town gave evidence They have evidently been taught to appear cf the bitter fighting that had taken place as cold and distant as possible in such between the natives and the Spaniards ; society. On one point only they are always many of the larger buildings, which had ready to meet you on terms of friendly been used for defense, being riddled with equality; and that is when you make bold bullet-holes.

to suggest a smoke. They are always We no longer passed from town to town glad to accept a cigarette or small cigar, through unsettled stretches of country. and, if you are not prompt in offering one, The fields on both sides of the road were in all probability will produce one from under cultivation and were dotted with their own supply, and ask your permission laborers, while

to light it. This on the road it

habit quickly self there were

ceases to attract always many

your notice, extravelers. The

cept under un laborers in the

usual circumfields worked

stances. At a in the shade

town in Isabella of large screens

my attention of nipa leaves,

was drawn to which they car

number of ried with them

young girls refrom place to

turning from place. Many

their first comof the travelers

munion. They we passed were

clothed women. To

in dresses of give freedom to

pure white, and their limbs in

long veils hung walking, the

chastely down skirts of their

below their dresses were so

shoulders. I arranged that

drank in the the rear end Drawn from life by H. F. Hedden.

details of the could be drawn Philippine Monthly Magazine," published in Manila.

picture with deup between the knees and tucked into the light, until I came to the thick haze that belt in front, leaving the legs bare from overhung it. Through the meshes of each the knees down. Their graceful carriage, veil a tube of tobacco was thrust, and which never failed to elicit our admiration, every pair of dainty lips gave its continual is due, to a great extent, I think, to their contribution to the cloud of smoke that custom of carrying burdens upon their dwelt around the little group like a halo heads. This method of transportation has of universal sanction. become a second nature to them, and is The men whom we met in the western applied to articles of all descriptions. I provinces—our hosts at the different towns have seen a native woman, with her hands --possessed in general the same characswinging freely at her sides, walk briskly teristics that we had observed in their along with a pint bottle of gin balanced countrymen further to the eastward. We carelessly upon her head. On the other noticed, however, a marked difference behand, their loads are often of great weight tween the inhabitants of the two districts and towering height.

in the matter of the prevailing religious The Filipino maidens of high degree sentiment. Throughout the valley of the do not differ from their laboring sisters in Rio Grande the ordinary ceremonies of

were

A FILIPINO TYPE

From the

worship were almost entirely suspended travagant respect for those who possess for want of persons ordained to conduct it. I have seen a private native citizen them. In Ilocos and Union, however, in a town in the interior exercise a more natives had been promptly placed in the powerful influence than all the native sacred offices left vacant by the imprison- officials over the minds of the inhabment of the Spanish priests; and at the itants, simply because he was known to time of our visit they were conducting have been educated in the best schools at all the services of the Church. Freedom Manila, and was regarded for that reason of thought marked the views of every as a superior man. The heroes of these Filipino that I have heard express him- people are not heroes of war, but of self on the subject of religion, and, although science and invention. Without rival, I certainly have met devout Catholics the American who is best known by among them, I judge that that Church, on reputation in Luzon is Mr. Edison, and account of the abuses with which it has any native with the slightest pretension to been associated on the island, has failed education whom you may question on the on the whole to secure an exclusive hold subject will take delight in reciting a list on the minds of the natives.

of his achievements. The ruling FiliIn speaking of the Filipino people, I pinos, during the existence of their prohave had reference throughout principally visional government, appreciated the neto one class of their society, which I have cessity of providing public schools to be called the cultured class. If my obser accessible to the poorest inhabitants. vations of that class are just, however, I Had events so shaped themselves as to think that inferences can safely be drawn have provided an opportunity for carrying from them that extend their application into effect the plans formed on this point, over the entire Tegalog population. The it seems possible that the mental plane of great mass of this population has been the entire population might have been kept in an unenlightened state by delib- raised gradually to a surprising height. erate legislation which has effectually deprived them of every possible opportunity Out of respect to the statements of for advancement. Those who have ac other people which the narrative of my quired education have acquired it at an experience may seem to contradict, I wish extravagant cost that has placed it hope to say that I have found the native of the lessly beyond the reach of all but the interior of Luzon an astonishingly differwealthy. There are few, if any, among ent character from the one ordinarily met that number, however, who, while possess in Manila. Previous to my journey, I ing the price of a schooling, have neglected regarded those whom I had encountered to apply it to that end. I cannot see in that city with great dislike, and after what better gauge we can obtain at pres my return I was unable to overcome that ent of the intelligence and ambition of feeling. They are not a fair sample of the whole Filipino race than the progress the race; and I cannot expect any one that has been made by its favored mem who has formed his judgment on the subbers with the limited opportunities at their ject merely from observations of that type command. Throughout the island a thirst to express an opinion similar to mine, as for knowledge is manifested, and an ex recorded above.

A Poppy

By Edwin H. Keen
Flaunting her cloak of flaming red,

She stands beside the way,
The scarlet woman of the fields,

For whom the daisies pray.
Ye bees and butterflies, beware

Her silk so gay and thin!
For in her fickle heart she hides

The deadly sleep of sin.

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