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to the mountains when the Americans a great difference between the expansion advance. The offer made lately by Agui- now proposed and that involved in the naldo to release some prisoners if a com development of the United States from the mission of his officers might accompany Atlantic to the Pacific in territory practithem to Manila to talk about peace cally uninhabited. The most fundamental negotiations was at first refused, because and obvious lesson drawn from all coloof a projected immediate advance by the nial history was, he thought, the warning, American forces against Porac. On Thurs- "Let no ruling race ever treat its colonies day this announced American advance or its dependencies as its possessions.” was made against Porac—twelve miles We cannot, he continued in substance, do northwest from Bacolor, eight miles south- what we like with the Philippines ; this west of Angeles (our northern advance would be barbarous and muddle-headed ; post), and a few miles west of the railway. we must not use the government of coloPorac was thus in a position which threat nies or dependencies as a money-making ened our Aank, and from it expeditions enterprise ; let a nation seek to enrich have annoyed our outposts. The attack itself at the expense of its colonists and was the old story over again. General Mac- it impoverishes all; a colonizing power Arthur's force met with little resistance; should aim at nothing but the welfare of none of our men were killed ; only four its colonies, but colonies and dependencies wounded; the insurgents abandoned the should be made self-supporting. Presitown. The capture of Porac was part of dent Schurman, in reply to the question, a general movement to clear our flanks. Why should we extend our sovereignty After this advance was thus 'successfully over remote countries and alien people ? carried out, the Filipino Commissioners affirmed over and over again that the only were allowed to enter our lines escorting justifiable object would be the establishfourteen American prisoners (not Lieuten ment of good government in the territory, ant Gilmore's band), who were surrendered the evolution of its people in civilization, with no other return than the admission and“ the training of them in progressive of the Commission. The prisoners unani- self-government with a view to ultimate mously praised their treatment. One man independence, whether by partnership in said: “We have been given the best the or separation from the sovereign State." country afforded, fine houses for quarters, He believed in our mission to educate servants, good food, plenty of wine, and a and elevate the Filipinos in honest and money allowance. The idea of independ. fraternal co-operation with them to estabence has taken firm hold of the Filipinos.” lisii a just and stable government, "in The Filipino Commissioners, General which the natives shall have ever-increasOtis cables, tried to secure some recogni- ing participation in proportion to the tion of their Government; they were told development of their political capacities.” that unconditional surrender only would be considered.

The verdict of the court Captain Carter's

martial against Captain The address delivered at

Oberlin M. Carter was Dr. Schurman

Cornell last week by approved by the President at the close of on the Philippines

President Schurman is last week. On the Wednesday preceding, of more than local and university interestex-Attorney-General Wayne MacVeagh, because of its very full statement of the one of Captain Carter's counsel, was views of one of the Philippine Commission heard in his defense by Attorney-General on the great question nowoccupying public Griggs, but only a few minor specificathought. President Schurman frankly ad- tions in the findings of the court martial mitted that a year ago he answered nega were disapproved. Mr. MacVeagh extively the question, Shall we take the pressed his own belief in the innocence of Philippine Islands from Spain ? To-day his client, but his argument was almost he thought the only question was, " The exclusively a pleading of legal technicaliUnited States having taken the Philippine ties against the decision of the court Islands from Spain, what shall be done martial. He urged that the court martial with them?” He admitted that there was had violated the rules of evidence in vari

Sentence

ous ways-notably by admitting illegally be. At the meeting of the stockholders seized private papers of Captain Carter - on Wednesday the friends of the old and pleaded that the court martial was management were able to secure postincapable of conducting a thorough trial of ponement of final action upon the lease the case, because it could not compel men until November, and before the vote upon in civil life to testify before it. This plea the new directors could be counted a was undoubtedly true, but the inability of compromise was effected by which the the court martial to subpæna civil wit- protestants against the lease accepted a nesses was rather an advantage than a mere increase in their representation upon disadvantage to the accused, whose per the board. Meanwhile the question of sonal popularity, supplementing the finan Ştate purchase of the Boston and Albany cial resources of the contractors involved, has gained unexpected prominence. The enabled him to secure volunteer witnesses charter of the road, it will be recalled, at command. Laymen who have followed provided that the State might at any time the case have generally been convinced purchase the road upon terms that would of the accused officer's guilt ever since he return to the stockholders their original pleaded the statute of limitations to secure investment and ten per cent. interest himself from prosecution for offenses com thereon. As the State has chartered no mitted during eight years of the ten he parallel road, the stockholders have always was in charge of the Government works received about ten per cent. interest, so in Savannah Harbor; and the present at that the State has the contract right to tempt of one of his counsel, Mr. Blair, to purchase the stock at par-or for about raise the cry of “militarism” will utterly half what the New York Central offers. fail. That the verdict of the court martial If a private corporation had this right, imposed in April, 1898, should remain so it would exercise it, and a great many long unapproved shows that civil distrust citizens of Massachusetts believe with of military tribunals has been carried ex-Senator Dawes that the State should the last possible point. The Nation will look after the rights of the public as zealindorse the execution of the sentence, ously as a private corporation after the which imposed a fine and imprisonment rights of its shareholders. No prominent for five years at hard labor.

paper, so far as we have seen, advocates the public operation of the road, but both

the Springfield - Republican" and the The “ Protective Commit- Hartford “Courant” are in substantial Albany Lease

tee” of stockholders of the agreement with the Boston “ Post” when

Boston and Albany Rail it says: “ The strong tendency of things road, who opposed the acceptance of the to-day is towards the public ownership of eight and a half per cent. lease of this road public utilities' by the people. Why to the New York Central, had remarkable would it not be a good thing for the State success in obtaining the support of their to buy in the road, and then lease it to fellow-stockholders. At the beginning Mr. Vanderbilt for the profit of the public of last week they held the power to vote treasury?” 136,000 shares out of the total of 250,000, and were thus clearly able to veto the proposed action of the directors. To

There is nothing bemake their victory complete, however, they

fore unknown in the

Assessment of Judges decided to put in nomination a new list of

testimony of many directors, and though they renominated Judges of New York courts (including President Bliss and four of his associates eleven of the Supreme Court Justices) on the present board who favored the before the Mazet Committee. It has been lease, their object was clearly to rebuke perfectly well understood for years by all if not to remove the old management. well-informed people that candidates for This new attitude called forth consider- the bench or for re-election, with few able protest from their previous supporters, exceptions, make contributions on a reguand when President Bliss refused to accept larly fixed scale for“ campaign expenses." their nomination they found themselves But the completeness with which this unable to dictate what the outcome should practice was exhibited has brought the

The Boston and

The Political

New South

subject before the public mind in a strik

An interesting contribu

The Negro of the ing way. Some of the Judges upheld the

tion to what may be called practice, making a distinction between

the psychology of the “contributions" and "assessments," and negro problem is that of Mr. David F. St. arguing that judges, like all other political Clair in the “ Criterion,” the result of a candidates, were properly called upon to visit to the South after an absence of ten contribute to necessary political expenses. years. In place of the old-time darkey' This argument merely suggests the gen he had known, Mr. St. Clair found “a eral principle that all collection and ex self-conscious colored man, less optimispenditure of campaign funds should be tic, less mirthful, less improvident, perunder such strict supervision here as in haps more morose, more melancholy, and England, with full publicity as to items; with a more acute sense of pain and sufthe present New York law is really farci fering ;" in short, a changed type, one cal, as it does not call for any accounting that had developed a nervous system like by campaign committees. Apart from that of the white. A conspicuous sign of the general question, however, the mem the change was the abandonment of the bers of the bench exercise a peculiarly banjo, so long associated with care-free important public function, and should be plantation jollity-due, probably, to the more carefully guarded from the least ambition to imitate the whites—and the suspicion than ordinary political candi substitution for it on excursions of the dates. When it is noted that the Judges guitar, zither, or music-box. With the testified last week to paying from $2,500 passing of the banjo has also passed the to $12,500 each ; when it is remembered spontaneous love of song—“ the sort of that in many cases the nomination was all song one was wont to hear at the cornbut equivalent to an election ; and when it huskings, log-rollings, house-raisings, and is known that the payments were made to railroad-buildings in the '70's and '80's.” or through such political machinists and In a small town in North Carolina Mr. corruptionists as the present Tammany St. Clair saw fifty young negroes laying leaders, there is certainly reason to regard water-pipes, “ working in absolute silence the practice as reprehensible. New York and their faces as glum as so many Italian judges, as a body, have a high reputation pipe-layers in New York.” He asked one for honor and ability, but it is a disgrace of them to start a song, but " the response that before election or nomination they was so feeble that the tune soon collapsed.” should have to chaffer with political bosses The foreman explained to him : “ Dese as to the amount of contribution to be niggers can't sing. Dey's in no mood.” made to the campaign fund. If it cannot Mr. St. Clair thinks this an explanation truly be averred that they buy their judge which gets “ near the heart of the secret." ships, it is at least true that they wear Mr. St. Clair saw a like change of mood the collar of the “organization," and are reflected in the more decorous services of driven into undesirable relations with men the colored churches. Not once was the who exert a powerful influence in making word · hell ” nentioned in a half-dozen the laws which the judges interpret. sermons he heard from educated colored Judge Barrett, of the Supreme Court, while preachers. One of them explained to him believing that judges should be elected that while this was due in part to a theorather than appointed, declared earnestly logical change, the principal reason was that, as far as possible, the judiciary should that we cannot restrain our people if we be absolutely removed from politics. He go on talking to them about hell. We are added :

now trying to teach our people to reason I think that a man who goes into the judi

and think." In illustration, Mr. St. Clair ciary should be consecrated-set apart from noted a case where a scholarly preacher other men. His position is second only to

dropped into a strain of old-time fervor, that of the ministry, and he should not be regarded in the same light as other candidates

stirring every man and woman in the conto political life. His whole life should be gregation to the highest pitch of excitegiven up to the cause of administering justice, ment. Attempt ng in vain to calm the and he should not be required to pay any storm he had raised, the preacher sat down attention to political considerations. I am absolutely opposed to the whole system of judges

in utter disgust. Among the causes to paying contributions to campaign funds.

which Mr. St. Clair attributes the loss of

mirthfulness, there comes first the deep to meet the demands of the critics with chagrin felt by the colored man over the counter-criticism. On the other hand, he deprivation of the right to vote. Every held the great duty in the sphere of feeltime he hears the word “ 'lection " he has ing to be charity, remembering that “none • some such sinking feeling as a disin- of us is thoroughly consistent intellectuherited son has at the mention of his lost ally.” Dr. J. Marshall Lang, of Glasgow, inheritance.” Despite this bitterness, how- in his opening address as President of the ever, there is no development of race Alliance, seemed to look out on a wider malice. The negro's crimes, says Mr. St. horizon. The churches, he said, will Clair, are principally the result of igno- command the attention of the age only so rance and irritation. Not more than five far as, without lowering their testimony per cent. of the negroes are guilty of the or their ideals, they make room for its outrages which have caused the lynchings. trends and habits of thought, its expanHe adds that in private the severest sions and complexities of life. “We are critic of these brutes is the regro himself.” not worshipers of the past. While a false One result of a keener consciousness of liberalism ruthlessly tears the present his hard lot is an exodus from the coun from the past, it is an equally false con try into the towns and cities. There the servatism which insists that the molds colored population is crowded into the into which the conclusions of a past age foulest quarters, entailing effects the most were cast shall remain fixed and rigid for appalling, especially the development of all future periods.” consumption and insanity, whose ravages the race had in the past largely escaped. Mr. St. Clair's conclusion, somewhat in

The meetings of the Alliance

Presbyterian congruous, but in its way interesting, is

are for purposes of fellowship

Fellowship that, despite changes, “the negro still

only, and take on no legislaremains the best judge of a gentleman in tive functions. In this respect it is like the South. When he tells you this white the recent International Council of the man is a gentleman and the other is not, Congregational Churches at Boston, and you have got an opinion from an instinct aims to realize the spiritual unity and that is never fooled on this delicate point." co-operation of the mutually independent

Presbyterian denominations. The statis

tical report by the General Secretary, Dr. The Pan-Presbyterian Mathews, of London, showed that, whatThe Presbyterian Council, popularly so

ever drawbacks had occurred, the aggreAlliance

called, but more prop- gates of ministers, congregations, elders, erly the Alliance of the Reformed Churches communicants, children in Sunday-school, throughout the world holding the Presby- and contributions to missionary work terian system, assembled at Washington indicated an increase all along the line. September 27. Its last meeting in this The congregations included in the Alliance country was in 1880, at Philadelphia. number nearly 25,000,000 souls. “CoThe present meeting is the seventh Gen- operation is the watchword.” On the eral Council of the Alliance, which was occasion of an exchange of salutations organized in 1877. The delegates are with the Congregational Council at Boston mainly from English-speaking countries; a proposal was made to extend this covery few are from Continental Europe. operation and to see if anything could be Of the 5,000,000 communicants in the done toward unifying Presbyterians and Alliance, only one-fifth speak any other Congregationalists, but it was not favor. than the English language. The meetings ably received. The fellowship of the are held in Dr. Radcliffe's church, where, Alliance itself is not complete in the servif we mistake not, condemnation was pro ice of song, as the United and the Renounced on Dr. Briggs. The opening formed Presbyterians count it unlawful to sermon by Professor De Witt, of Prince sing hymns, or any other lyrics than the ton, on The Bible and the Reformed Psalms, and serious difficulties have thus Churches," naturally recalled that event. arisen heretofore. That Calvinism is not He declared it imperative to take notice moribund in the Presbyterian communion of the present crisis of Biblical belief, and was evinced by a strong and striking

Divorce

Reform

paper on “ Calvinistic Forces in the For the offenders against God and the Christian mation of National Life” by Principal Sal- institutions, while it is a deplorable fact that

their associates and companions in the very mond, of Aberdeen, Scotland, and also by class which might and ought to exert a Dr. W. H. Roberts, of Philadelphia, in salutary influence in frowning on transgression subsequent discussion. The Alliance is and trying to keep, society pure, appear to to continue in session till October 6.

take their part, and even to justify and ap

plaud t. eir conduct. We are reaching a point Perhaps the most noted man present is at which alarm is daily growing greater, and the Rev. J. G. Paton, the apostle of the disgust and indignation are more widely felt; New Hebrides.

a point at which the opinion is gaining ground, to which the Bishop has referred, that legislation is advisable which shall prohibit the

remarriage of divorced persons under any At the Protestant Episco- circumstances whatever. Bishop Potter on

pal Diocesan Convention

held last week in New York City, the principal event was a very President Hyde on

One of the warmest disstrong statement by Bishop Potter on the Theological Seminary cussions at the Internasubject of divorce. At the last General

tional Congregational Convention he was regarded as a leader Council last week was on the question of in the policy of upholding the existing the training of clergymen. The subject law of his Church. Hence his opinion was introduced by President Hyde, of that it might be the best course to refuse Bowdoin, who declared that a man's first remarriage to any divorced person is of qualification to preach was the call of God. peculiar interest. Both in his recent This is no audible voice or visible sign; it is speech and in an article in the cur not even some pathological disturbance of rent number of the North American the nerves. It is the clear conviction that Review” Bishop Potter emphasizes the life, as most men live it, is a wicked waste exaggeration of individualism. By indi- and an insult to God. It is the equally vidualism he means the modern tendency clear conviction that life, as man ought to to throw off the earlier forms of authority live it and as Christ has shown us how, is and let each person act as his own judg- pleasing to God and restful to the soul. ment dictates, so long as the rights of The second qualification is mental drill. others are not curtailed thereby. While Exacting should be the training of the he admits that in the spirit of individual man who is to apply to the soul the active, ism the historian of the future may per- living word of God. Thirdly, Dr. Hyde haps discern the mightiest force of this puts first-hand secular knowledge. It is, age, the Bishop holds that it has had a indeed, of little use to preach to a world disastrous effect upon family life, and, whose ways of thinking the preacher does through the family, upon the institutions not understand. The minister, Dr. Hyde and obligations of marriage. The Rev. declares, must wrest the scientific conDr. Dix, after reading the report of the cepts of the age direct from the laboratory; committee appointed to consider this nor will any text book or lecturer, giving subject, was even more outspoken. He them in finished form, serve his purpose. declared that

The speaker affirmed thatFamilies are broken up, homes ruined under The most ominous sign in American Confrivolous pretenses, or at the dictate of lawless gregationalism to-day is the disposition of passion; yet it is assumed that these things thoughtless churches to welcome to their pulshould be left to the individual as his or her pits, of weak-kneed associations to recognize, personal concern. and not the concern of the

of complaisant councils to install, untrained or social circle in which he moves, and feeble, if half-trained men from foreign lands, from deany, opposition is made to the exoneration

nominations having lower intellectual standani full rehabilitation of otfenders whose acts

ards, from lay colleges, from Christian Assomerit the reproof of just and honorable men.

ciation and Endeavor work, simply because These sins against human and divine law are they can glibly proclaim with unctuous fervor not committed only by the low, the degraded,

the plagiarized platitudes they have borrowed, and the ignorant; they are conspicuously

in substance or in form, if not in both, from manifest in the case of what are known as the pernicious homiletical helps. higher classes; persons arrogating to them. Lastly, President Hyde urged the indiselves the character of social leaders have been among the most reckless in contempt for

vidual grasp of spiritual truth. This inobligation and duty, and most flagrant among

volves a radical reform in methods of

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