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seminary instruction. The speaker some ries might lack, the reforms outlined by what sweepingly claimed that when college Presidents Hyde and Slocum were not graduates go to the seminary they almost needed in British schools. To this we invariably report a falling off in interest. would add that we believe the cry for reMen who have learned in college to in form in some directions to be a just cry. vestigate and think for themselves, when Many of the students in our seminaries given dictated lectures to write out and are suffering from a lack of self-respect. learn as the chief means of intellectual Both as regards education and ás regards growth, feel as if put back into the kinder- compensation, the seminaries should place garten. The best men are disgusted ; the their students on the same basis as that of poorest, stultified. Their manhood is at students in the schools of law and medithe same time threatened by superfluous cine. eleemosynary aid. Again,
aid. Again, seminaries which will emancipate the minds of their students must themselves be free from
It is an encouraging
The Prison Association bondage to the letter of antiquated creeds.
sign of the times “ Creeds have their purposes and uses, when reform movements grow more enwhich are akin to the uses of platforms in thusiastic. Such a sign, one in which political parties. What would you think they may well conquer, was seen at the of a college that should bind its professors meeting of the National Prison Associaforever to teach McKinley doctrines of tion in Hartford, September 23-28. This the tariff or Bryan views of silver coin was marked not only in the tone of the
papers from such experts, practical and theoretical, as Warden Hert, of Indiana,
Warden Wolfer, of Minnesota, Colonel President Slocum, of Colo Carroll D. Wright, Professor Bates, of
rado College, who followed, Elmira, and President Slocum, of Colorado, agreed with Dr. Hyde, and asked if the but in the lively discussions and in the time had not come to consolidate the theo- admirably full and comprehensive newslogical schools of New England. Con- paper reports. When a reform meeting solidation into one strong divinity school gets as much space in a daily paper as a would command great teachers, earnest prize-fight, it is enough to comfort a restudents, and large financial support. In former. Everything went to show that such an institution high standards could the idea of the indeterminate sentence is be set and maintained and the eleemosy- taking deep root. On that stock must be nary element banished. On the other grafted the best systems for governing hand, Professor Moore, of Andover Semi- any prison or reformatory. Wise labor nary, thought that all of the seminaries schemes, technical training, trade teachwere doing their best to administer the ing, thorough protection of society from trust funds committed to their care for the professional criminal—these and kinthe purpose for which they were given. dred methods for improving prison disciWith one or two exceptions, the seminaries pline will fail of their purpose without endeavor to administer their funds in schol- the indeterminate sentence. Dropping arships on the same plan as colleges and out the minimum of a sentence was good universities employ. As to the diligence so far as it went, but every experiment of students, Professor Moore declared the · goes to show that when all reference seminaries to be inspired by the supposi to the maximum term shall be omitted tion that men who came from college to likewise, the prisoner will first awake to the seminary had already acquired the the full responsibilities before him. The motive for study. As to the course of dangers that lurk in things apparently study, theological schools do not pursue good are not sufficiently considered, as a methods which have become obsolete; the rule, but those who heard the paper by lecture, which is one of the best methods Professor Bates, of Elmira, on the prevenof instruction, being always supplemented tion of crime had warnings in that direcby wide reading. Principal Fairbairn, of tion. It is almost discouraging to be told Mansfield College, Oxford, also protested, that of the convicts sent to one reformasaying that, whatever Amerioan semina tory alone, fifty-eight per cent. have
passed through reform schools or houses were elected. The memory of Mrs. Ellen of reformation before coming there. Could C. Johnson was honored at one of the there be better proof that institutions do sessions in a worthy manner. In addition not fit boys and girls to meet the stress of to a brief sketch of her by her friend life outside the sheltering walls? Mr. Mrs. I. C. Barrows, who was with her Bates finds also great dangers to young when she died, there were warm tributes people in Sunday excursions, and even in from F. H. Wines, F. B. Sanborn, Charles the freedom of our beautiful parks. The Dudley Warner, and others, showing how remedy for these evils, of course, is educa wonderful was her work and how remarktion, to teach the use of all that is helpful able her own character. without abuse. Among other helps toward the prevention of crime, Mr. Bates commended the establishment of lodging
Mr. Wilson, Secre
Agricultural Prosperity houses for newsboys, and such hotels as
tary of Agriculture, the Mills in New York, which have had a who has lately returned to Washington distinct influence in improving the be from the West, declares that our farmers havior of their guests. From figures col now enjoying unprecedented proslected by the Governor of South Carolina perity. He says that crops in the Missisit appears that since the establishment of sippi Valley are the heaviest ever grown the dispensaries there the cases of drunken there, that Kansas will produce four hunness reported have diminished 57 per cent., dred million bushels of corn, that Nethe number of cases brought before the braska's yield is estimated at three huncourts has fallen 66 9-16 per cent., and dred and sixty millions, and that Iowa and the consumption of whisky in the State Illinois will have record-breaking crops. has decreased 47 6-7 per cent.
Throughout the Western country feedinganimals are scarce and dear. Heavy exports
of corn will result, our great balance of trade The pitch of enthusiasm of
will be maintained, and ready money will be Special Features
brought back to the producers. Agriculture the Prison Congress reached and horticulture are exceedingly prosperous its highest note at the last session, when in the mountain States and along the Pacific President Slocum, of Colorado, wove the coast. Our total wheat crop will be short of different strands of the meeting into a
last year's figures, but all other crops will be harmonious whole in his admirable ad
superabundant. dress on the prison as a great charity, Mr. Wilson is authority for the statement using charity in its broadest sense—the that the State of Iowa has a hundred and charity which, believing in the higher des thirty million dollars idle in its banks, and tiny of the human race, works toward the that other Northwestern States are similarly transformation of paupers and criminals provided with surplus deposits. All this into men and women who may become money came from the soil. Not a dollar valuable to human society. A prison of it to-day can be !ent in the West, says system based on this optimistic view would the Secretary, even at five per cent. interlift its administration out of politics, would est ; indeed, some farm loans are being introduce industrial labor as a regenera made at four per cent. Mr. Wilson betive force, and would give the worker, lieves that this present prosperity in agrieven in prison, a share in the proceeds of culture has come to stay. He declares the work which he performs, that his self that it is based upon conditions of permarespect might be increased from knowl nent success in the operation of farms and edge that he could render to the State upon economic laws regulating the prices something like a fair compensation for of farm products, and that there is nothing his maintenance. Of course Dr. Slocum
Of course Dr. Slocum ephemeral or spasmodic about it. The laid stress on the indeterminate sentence great Mississippi Valley, he adds, will as the necessary foundation for the best continue its ratio in the production of work. The National Prison Association staple goods, and will increase it as scienmeets next in Cleveland, with Warden tific knowledge of farm management beWright, of Pennsylvania. as President. comes more general. What is true of that Delegates to the International Prison As section ought to be measurably true of sociation to meet in Brussels next summer other agricultural communities.
The recent speech of Mr. They add that, even if it were decided to English
Chaplin, President of the impose such a duty, it would have to be Liberal-Unionists
English Local Government imposed on colonial as well as on foreign Board, and therefore a member of the grain. No matter if the tax on the former present Coalition Cabinet, has elicited were only half as much as on the latter, wide attention and comment. Mr. Chap- it might strain the loyalty of Australia lin is only one of many Conservatives who and Canada. Hence, if the protectionist have become anxious on account of their Conservatives should decide to redeem ante-election pledge to pass an old-age their old-age pension pledge, and get the pension law through Parliament, and on money for it by the imposition of a duty account of their failure so far in fulfilling on grain, the Liberal-Unionists would that promise. His speech is, in substance, probably secede, and this would very an appeal to return to protectionism, and probably bring about a Conservative defeat it is hardly to be supposed that a Cabinet at the next general election. member has spoken as merely reflecting his own mind; probably he has the sympathy of several of his colleagues. He Let Him Crown the asks the English people to count the cost of embarking upon a scheme of old-age
Work pension, and declares that the minimum expense is so great as to demand an en The careful student of public opinion largement of the area of taxation. In this in America cannot fail to observe two he is supported by Mr. Lecky, the his currents which appear to be flowing in torian, who says that the cost would prob- opposite directions but which really proably be more than fifty million dollars a ceed from the same source and interpret year to start with, and that the annual one and the same sentiment. charge would be an increasing one. Mr. There is a distinct decadence of the Lecky also declares that in order to main- so-called anti-imperialistic feeling. When tain these new conditions a wider basis the war with Spain first broke out, it was of taxation would become necessary, and bitterly opposed; now it is not easy to find that the burden would be felt directly as prominent men who condemn it. When well as indirectly by all. In order to meet it was begun, the Senate came dangerthis burden, Mr. Chaplin favors a revival ously near decreeing the independence of of the registration duty on wheat, a duty Cuba by an official recognition of the solevied for some years after the Corn Laws called Cuban Republic. Now we do not were repealed. The small proportion recall any newspaper or public man of of agriculturists among English voters, note who desires to see us immediately however-smaller now than during the withdraw from Cuba and leave it to its Corn Laws agitation-would hardly be fate. Immediately after Dewey's victory able to carry such a measure as against in Manila Bay, there was an audible dethe will of the majority, belonging to other mand that, having destroyed the Spanish departments of industry, let Conservative feet, he sail away and leave the island to landowners do what they would. The itself. To-day it would be hard to find immediate effect of Mr. Chaplin's speech any intelligent American who would serihas been to bring forth a number of ously criticise him for not having done so. protests from Liberal-Unionists, who are When destiny and duty compelled America all free-traders. These seem disposed to take a place among the nations of the even to return to an ultimate allegiance earth and abandon her policy of continental with the Gladstonian Liberals rather than exclusiveness, it is not at all strange that to consent to protectionism. They ask, a great many Americans could not readily directly, What right has Parliament to put adjust themselves to the radical change the whole burden of defraying the cost of of National policy which such a course an old-age pension scheme on the shoulders involved. The Monroe Doctrine and of a single class? Furthermore, they de- Washington's Farewell Address, or, to clare that the proposed duty would not speak more accurately, a single paragrap'ı cover the cost of the pension plan ; that in it, were made to do duty in defense of the cost has been grossly underestimated. that spirit of traditionalism which is no
better in politics than in theology. At first do not believe that it is either wise or only men of prophetic vision, who sought just to form a judgment on such questions guidance from fundamental principles without adequate knowledge. But there rather than from tradition, saw that the can be no question that the public is spirit of Washington demanded an aban- greatly and increasingly dissatisfied with donment of a policy wise in his day but the results obtained in Luzon contrasted not in ours. And their perception of this with the results obtained in Cuba, and is would probably have been unavailing had likely to express its dissatisfaction in the not commercialism somewhat, militarism only possible way in the approaching elecmore, and the spirit of humanity most of tions. That dissatisfaction would be lesall, re-enforced their interpretations of sened were General Otis to be at once current events.
relieved of at least one or the other of the But the American people think quickly, two functions now laid upon him. It and by this time the entire American peo- could be at once converted into enthusiasm ple have adjusted themselves to the new by one bold act which requires only the conditions. All arguments against ex concurrence of two men. pansion are shattered by collision with the The time when Admiral Dewey must fact that we are expanded. The proposal retire from the navy on account of age
is to haul down our flag, sail away from the near at hand. And yet he is at his best, Philippines, confess ourselves at fault, and full of a splendid life and a patriotic amacknowledge the independence of the bition. If the President would appoint Filipinos, that is, leave the inhabitants of him Military Governor of the Philippines, the islands to such a government as one with practically autocratic powers, and tribe is able to exercise over the others, would associate with him such a field offifinds to-day few consistent advocates, and, cer as he might select to conduct the camwere it definitely formulated and proposed, paign, if a further campaign were not renwould be voted down by an overwheln dered unnecessary, and if Admiral Dewey majority. We do not believe it would would accept the office, the effect would, carry a single State in the Union ; we we believe, be electrical. It would afford doubt whether it would carry a single as nothing else could assurance to the considerable city.
Filipinos that they would have absolutely But, on the other hand, it is not to be just and generous treatment under the doubted that there is an increasing dis- American flag. It would convince those satisfaction with the inconsequential cam who have arms in their hands, on the one paigning in the island of Luzon. That hand, that they had nothing worth fightdissatisfaction is intensified by an impres- ing for which they could not get without sion--we are inclined to think that it is fighting, and, on the other hand, that it groundless, but we are certain that it is would be hopeless to continue the fight. widespread—that diplomatic tact might And it would be welcomed by the whole have avoided a war in which neither profit country, North and South, East and West, nor glory can be won ; by the contrast Democrat and Republican, as an evidence between the resultless skirmishes on land that no resource of friendly diplomacy and the brilliant and decisive victory won and just and wise administration would be by Admiral Dewey on the water ; by the wanting to re-establish friendly relations seemingly needless and impolitic press between the Americans and the Tagals, censorship; by the absence of any re and no resource of military vigor to secure ports of such civic reform in Manila as the supremacy of law by force wherever in Havana, Matanzas, and Santiago has obedience to law could not be secured justly excited our pride and enthusiasm. without force. Whether General Otis has been interfered In the kingdom of God the reward of with by orders from Washington, or has a great service is the opportunity to renbeen given a double duty of military cam der a still greater service. The noblest paigning and civil administration which no honor this country could render to Adone man can do, or has not the capacity miral Dewey would be to offer to him the to throw responsibility upon others and office of Governor-General of the archiso allows himself to be crushed by multi- pelago, that he might by his just and farious details, we do not know, and we pacific policy complete that work of libera
tion which his brilliant victory has made were no enthusiasm in America eager to possible. President McKinley could do " honor to whom honor is due," we no act so wise and at the same time so might well despair for the Republic. politic as to offer him that office.
Make full allowance for the irrational desire of men to get together in crowds
for the mere inexplicable pleasure of Dewey’s Home-Coming jostling one another, for the not very ex
alted though entirely healthful pleasure in Crude, not to say childish, seems Ha a great parade, with its glittering uniforms, man's plan, in the story of Queen Esther, its military order, its suirring music, and for showing honor to him whom the king its brilliant fireworks ; nevertheless, undelighted to honor: “Let royal apparel derneath it all and expressed by it all is a be brought which the king useth to wear, genuine and unaffected if not altogether and the horse that the king rideth upon, profound admiration for the qualities in and the crown royal which is set upon man which made the achievement at his head; and let the apparel and the Manila Bay possible. The demonstration horse be delivered to the hand of one of of this lies in the fact that the interest of the king's most noble princes, that they the whole day centered, not in the great may array the man withal whom the king bands of music, nor in the splend dly delighteth to honor, and cause him to ride equipped guards, nor in the evening pyroon horseback through the street of the technic display, but in the modest man city, and proclaim before him, Thus shall who rode at the h ad of the procession. it be done to the man whom the king de- Nor can we doubt that if it had been lighteth to honor." Many centuries have possible that there should have followed passed since then, but we in America. to him a contingent of the Spanish sailors day adopt essentially the same method of who stood by the side of their bursting honoring him whom the people delight to guns till all was over, they, too, would honor. We put Admiral Dewey in a have come in for their share of public carriage instead of on horseback; he is honor, and would have been received, not driven instead of led ; a great procession with jeers, but with cheers. For bravery follows him; and he passes under some is honored whatever uniform it wears, temporary arches which may not long whatever language it speaks, in whatever outlast the bunting which lines the street. cause it serves. But essentially the plan is the same : we Such a welcome as America is giving conduct our hero through the streets of to Admiral Dewey manifests in Americans the great city, and, in place of a single a spirit which constitutes the hope of the courier, all the people by their huzzas Nation. Capacity for admiration is altoproclaim, “ Thus shall it be done to the gether admirable, as incapacity for admiman whom the Republic delighteth to ration is altogether despicable. America honor."
has not lost its capacity for admiration, Nevertheless, the cynic who sneers at though we are tempted at times to think this popular demonstration is only one that it has. Democracy is a leveler. It degree less shallow than he who, with ill- develops neither reverence nor humility; concealed envy, sneers at the achievement for humility is reverence looking down, which has excited all this enthusiasm and and reverence is humility looking up. It admiration. The heroism of that sail develops self-conceit, and that cynicism through the darkness into Manila Bay is which is bred of self-conceit. Our public justly welcomed with the applause which men are not heroes set up for us to honor, the world always awards to bravery—ap- but targets set up for us to shoot at. The plause the more heartfelt because the newspaper imagines that it criticises when event demonstrates that the heroism which it only snarls, and forgets that discriminahas made memorable in human history tion requires praise for merit no less than Marathon and Trafalgar and Bunker Hill condemnation of wrong. The reader of and Gettysburg has not died out from the average daily journal might well human hearts. The spirit of commercial- imagine that either America had no great ism has neither destroyed heroism nor and good men, or had lost the capacity popular admiration for the hero. If there to appreciate them. It is, therefore,