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eminently well that America should some ranging from five to fifteen per cent. when times say to herself and to others, as she inherited by very distant relatives, “stransaid last week by her Dewey celebration, gers in blood," or corporations. Some disthat she has great and good men, and that appointment was felt when the revenue she knows how to do them honor. It from these taxes during the first year would be well if she would do this oftener. aggregated only a few hundred thousand The simple doing of it would more than dollars, whereas Mr. Dingley's estimate compensate for the sometimes infelicitous was in the neighborhood of ten millions. effusiveness of over-rhetorical writers and This disappointment, however, was only orators, or the less pardonable display of due to the fact that administrators of estates a weak vanity endeavoring to shine in the nearly everywhere took advantage of the light of another's glory, which invariably full time allowed them before making the constitutes the blemish of such a celebra- settlements required. The inheritances of tion.
personal property of citizens who died We make no attempt here to repeat last year must, as a rule, be distributed this the dramatic story of Admiral Dewey's year, and the distribution is illegal unless achievement, nor to defend him from the taxes are paid. There is reason to those who have attempted to belittle it. believe that the revenue collected this America has justly passed by such envious year will even exceed Mr. Dingley's estidetractors with contemptuous silence. mates. Admiral Dewey needs neither eulogy nor The amount of personal property in the defense. The Outlook could conceive no country aggregates about $40,000,000,000, better way of showing its own participa and as the death-rate among propertytion in the universal admiration for the owners is one in every thirty-six, about hero of Manila Bay than by employing $1,000,000,000 must become subject to both pen and camera to bring to the cele the duty yearly. As the ordinary rate of bration those of our readers who could not duty is nearly one and a half per cent., come in person, and to furnish a reminder our Government, like the Eng ish, may of an ever-memorable event to those who expect nearly $15,000,000 a year from were so fortunate as to witness and in
If peace is re-established, some sense participate in it. The im next year may find this coun ry nearly pressive celebration ought not to pass as independent of customs revenue as without leaving some permanent memorial. Great Britain. Last year the Nation's The strikingly beautiful triumphal arch receipts from internal revenue should be reproduced in marble, as a $273,000,000, or just about its ordinary memorial not only of Manila but of San expenditure each year from 1872 till 1890. tiago, and of the courage, patriotism, and Our revenues from customs duties were self-sacrifice evoked by the Spanish war. but $206,000,000, and the restoration of
normal peace expenditures would make
half this sum-or exactly the English Inheritance Taxes customs revenue-sufficient. Of course
it is not certain that the Nation will choose The passing of the Vanderbilt estate to to reduce its customs duties rather than the heirs has recalled public attention to an the new internal taxes, but the alternative important feature of the war-revenue law. will be presented. The new inheritance That law introduced into our National tax seems especially likely to remain, as budget a tax which modern democracy has nearly all classes accept its justice-save developed into great importance in most of toward bequests to educational and philthe countries of western Europe, and into anthropic institutions. The prospective still grea'er importance in some of the self share of the public in the Vanderbilt estate governing States of Switzerland and of is something we are unable to figure upon. Australasia. It provides that all personal The Gould estate of $72,000,000, which estates in excess of $10,000 should be was divided five or six years ago, yielded taxed, according to their amount, at rates the State of New York $700,000, and ranging from three-quarters of one per would have yielded the National Governcent. to two and
quarter per cent. when ment $1,500,000 had the new Federal law inherited by children or parents, and rates been in force.
Pastoral Letters automatically and independently, but can
be, at least in thought, traced back to a “I Believe in the Holy Ghost"
Great First Cause, which created them,
keeps them in operation, regulates them, To the Editors of The Outlook :
and sometimes interposes and sets them In a recent sermon by the Rev. Dr. Briggs aside. Such an interposition is called a I find this utterance: “I believe in the Holy Ghost, who spake by the prophets, who, with miracle, or sometimes, if it is less remark His divine energy, entered into men and able, a special providence. This oldwomen, took possession of them, enlightened time conception is, however, giving way their minds so as to give them insight into
in philosophy to one which is well formusacred truths, grasp to cumprehend the great things of God, and foresight to precast issues
lated in a phrase of Herbert Spencer's of events, and who then assured them of the which has often been quoted in The truth of God, gave them certainty of their Outlook : “We are ever in the presence prophetic call." I am in no captious mood, of an Infinite and Eternal Energy from am old enough to be sobered by years, have
which all things proceed." had educational advantages, have no desire to
This later corner any one, but I do want some “ruler conception assumes that there are no in Israel" to make an explanation here, and I forces, there is only one Infinite and Eterhave noticed that The Outlook is generally
nal Force; that there are no laws, there is helpful and obliging to earnest inquirers. I want the editor to say if, in his belief, there is only one Infinite and Eternal Will; that a human experience of a character that war there is neither one Great First Cause rants Dr. Briggs or any other man in assign nor a number of secondary and measuring it to the Holy Ghost or to any agency out
ably independent causes, but one everside of man's natural endowments. I cannot avoid the conclusion that this doctrine of the present and underlying Cause, always Holy Ghost is unsupported by any facts or operative, and thus continuously and in experience of sufficient weight to support its finitely creative. pretensions. How is it possible for a man to So in the spiritual realm there is an know that a Person of the Godhead has taken possession of his organization, overruled his
old-time conception of man as possessing faculties, and spoken through his lips? He a life in himself, with an endowment of may declare that he knows this to be true; faculties adequate for all the ordinary his sincerity, but very inadequate ground for exigencies of life, which enable him to
live and act independently of any power accepting his assertion. It may be urged that human powers, unaided by divine possession outside himself; and of God as One and special guidance, are not equal to the who, having made man, occasionally interutterances of Apostles and prophets that are
venes to direct, aid, or rebuke him when preserved in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and perhaps other scriptures. By what
he is going wrong.
He is pictured to we test the capacity of human the imagination as a school-teacher who powers, and how shall we determine their
leaves his pupils to do the best they can natural limits? Until we can do both we are
without help from him, but occasionally not upheld by reason in assigning any human effort to another invaling and overmastering
intervenes that he may help them over personality. Because Plato drops the intel hard places, call them to account for neglectual plummet into profounder depths than lector carelessness, or punish them for other mortals, because Jesus spake as never
disobedience or stubbornness. In the man spake before, because Shakespeare wrote as never man wrote before, must we decline to
spiritual realm this conception also is givbelieve in their pure humanity, and call in a ing way to a more modern one, which is special divine personality to explain their expressed in the formula of Matthew unusual performances?
Arnold’s which has also been often quoted When the ultima thule of human possibilities has been reached, when the human en
in The Outlook : “ There is a Power not dowments have been tested, then will be time ourselves which makes for righteousness.” enough to call in another factor to account According to this conception God is for the words and works of men. If this is not sound reasoning, I will be ready to exam
immanent in men as in nature; in him we ine its defects, and receive any light that is live and move and have our being ; apart now turned away from me.
from him we could not exist; all our life
R. R. McLeod. is derived from him, his gift, his impartaBrookfield, N. S.
tion ; he is the air we breathe, the sunThere is a conception of nature as light on which all our energy depends. governed by certain great laws and oper. The pupil at first imagines that the teacher ated by certain great forces which act only helps him over the hard places when
the hard places are brought to him for What is the secret of life? The answer of help, and only keeps order in the school- religious faith in all ages has been-God. room when he is at his desk overseeing The tendency of modern science and the school. But, looking back in after modern philosophy is to the same answer. life, he knows, if the teacher was a true The universality of the divine presence one, that the teacher's inspiration was and power is the affirmation of the One always in the school, his spirit always Hundred and Thirty-ninth Psalm ; the quickening endeavor and his influence Divine Immanence is the conclusion always maintaining order; that, in some reached from an inspection of all phesense, this teacher was omnipresent in the nomena, physical and mental, by John school. In this modern conception God Fiske in his “Idea of God.” What the is in and with men not less when he is poets long ago perceived as in a vision not seen than when he is seen in unmis the scientists are coming to perceive as takable manifestation. A child seeing the result of their painstaking and unprej. the rising sun strike the lilies on a pond, udiced investigations. and their opening under the influence of I do not, then, believe that the universe the sunlight, so that the surface which was wound up and set a-going, and that before was green becomes almost instantly God interposes occasionally to regulate it, radiantly white, might well imagine that as an engineer his engine; I do not bemost flowers open of themselves, but that lieve that man is an independent entity, pond-lilies are opened by the sun. But competent for the ordinary occasions of life, we all know that this is not the case ; that but that now and again God appears upon all Aowers are opened by the sun ; that the scene to help him over hard places. there is not a color in one of them which I believe that God is the secret of all is anything else than a reflection of a physical life and of all spiritual life ; that fragment of the sun's rays; that if the all physical energies are different manisun ceased to shine the Aowers would festations of one Infinite and Eternal cease to live. In this modern conception Energy, and that all human faculties and God is the Sun of righteousness; all life powers are the offspring of one Infinite depends on him; and there is not a human and Eternal Power ; that God is in all virtue, not a human power, which is any- his works and God is in all his children. thing else than a fragmentary reflection In this fact lies the horior of sin. For of divine life borrowed from him.
sin is man's use of divine powers for unI speak of this as the modern concep divine ends. As when fire, intended for tion ; yet in this, as in so many other our warmth, is directed by the incendiary cases, the modern conception is a return for our destruction, or an herb intended to the ancient. Of course the reader will for the healing of the sick is used by the recognize the phrase “ Sun of righteous- murderer for assassination ; so is it when ness as taken from the prophet Malachi. oratory, a power truly coming from God Of course he will recognize the phrase for man's elevation, is used by the dema“ In him we live and move and have our gogue for man's degradation ; or imaginabeing” as taken from Paul. He will, tion, which is one phase of God's life in perhaps, also remember under what cir the soul, is employed, not to elevate and cumstances and to what audience Paul purify, but to deteriorate and corrupt. addressed this latter phrase. He was Then is man using God for ungodly ends, speaking to pagan idolaters on Mars Hill. and God allows him to do so because the It was to them he said, “ God is not far development of moral life in the race, from any of us;" to them he said, " In through individual liberty, is more imporhim we live and move and have our tant, by far, than any immediate results being;" one of their own poets he cited of good or evil arising from the righteous as authority for the declaration, "We are or unrighteous use of that liberty. also his offspring”—not merely his chil If I am asked why I believe in this dren: we might be children by adoption ; universal presence and potency of God, but offspring—all our life springing forth this Divine Immanence in nature and in from him.
man, I reply that the reasons are many The question of my correspondent in and cumulative. Shakespeare's affirmavolves the profoundest of all questions: tion, " There's a divinity that shapes our
ends, rough-hew them how we will," is the as the study of the progress of the skippers expression of a substantially universal upon the surface of a brook on a sumbelief. I suppose that there have lived mer's afternoon; there would and could very few men or women in this world who be no progress to be studied. As there have not at times felt this truth, even if could be no physical order in nature were they have not articulated it in intellectual there not one Infinite and Eternal Energy expression. That there are forces or a in all physical phenomena so there could force within me, impelling me, determining be no moral order in the human race were for me, placing me where I never would there not one Moral Energy in all human have placed myself, laying on me duties phenomena. The very existence of the I never would have assumed niyself, science of history, economics, psychology, seems to me as clear as any fact in and ethics presupposes a Moral Governor life. And it seems so not to me only but in human life. substantially to all thoughtful men and The phenomena of genius lends inciwomen. So universal a belief argues a dental and additional confirmation to this wide observation and experience, from belief. Neither heredity nor environment which, by an unconscious inductive proc can account for a Paul or a Plato, the ess, humanity has reached its conclusion. author of Job or the author of “Hamlet.” That conclusion is confirmed by a study Genius must either be relegated to the of history. Nothing is clearer in such a inexplicable phenomena of life, or it must study than that nations are not mere be accounted for on the hypothesis that it aggregations of individual wills, but that is not the manifestation of an extraorthere is also a guiding, controlling factor, dinary power coming no one knows mysterious but irresistible. No one can whence or how, but the extraordinary read Sir George Trevelyan's “ History of manifestation of that Power which is the the American Revolution ” without being secret of all intellectual and moral life. convinced that the separation of the And on any other hypothesis, the unfoldAmerican Colonies from Great Britain ing of the life of any child is just as great was to be; that it was ordained, deter a mystery as the appearance of Paul or mined, enforced, in spite of the reluctance Plato, Shakespeare or the author of Job. alike of Great Britain and of the colonists This belief is further confirmed by the themselves—in spite, that is, of the very testimony of the great creative mindsmen who worked out that separation. So poet, artist, musician, orator, author. The no one, it seems to me, can doubt that greatest compositions are not wrought out our present relation with the Philippines with much painstaking by the human prowas brought about by forces, or a force, ducer of them; they are brought to him acting in men and conjointly with them, and he transcribes them ; or the germ of to ends which those men neither foresaw them is communicated to him and he denor desired. Call it Manifest Destiny, call velops it. This consciousness of receiving it Providence, call it what we will, doubt from an unknown source is the most comand discuss as we may about the ends to mon experience of humanity, and would which it should conduct us and the man be even commoner were we not afraid to ner in which we should co-operate with acknowledge it. In such a connection it, and the results which we should seek personal testimony is perhaps of slight to gain--that it exists appears to me as value. Yet perhaps these philosophical certain as that there is a law of attraction reasons for believing in the universal and of gravitation.
inspiring presence of God in human life Ever since history began, this Destiny would be of small practical effect with has been believed in by mankind. In me were they not interpretative and condeed, if there is no such superhuman firmatory of my own experience. If that factor in human life, a science of that experience stood alone, I should fear to life would be impossible. If humanity trust it. But when it simply reiterates is simply an aggregation of individuals, the testimony of so many of the best, the whose conjoint action is determined by noblest, the ablest men of all ages and all accident, or by the balance of forces in faiths, I dare not distrust it. I could as the human wills, the study of the progress little doubt that I have at times in my of the human race would be as impossible own experience the help of a Power not
myself that makes for righteousness, and ence that comes into my life from a vital makes as well for clear thinking as for book, a great poem, an inspiring preacher, right acting, as I could doubt the influ
or a personal friend.
The International Congregational Council
By the Rev. A. H. Bradford, D.D. I
N attempting to review the proceed- count of that day was contained in The
ings of the Second International Outlook of last week. Enough to say
Congregational Council, which closed that on questions of criticism and eschaits sessions in Boston last week, we are tology the English speakers showed themmet at the beginning with the fact that selves to be extremely liberal, but on there was
no voting worth mentioning, the doctrine of the Atonement more inand that there were no controversies of any clined than the Americans to literalistic kind, and, consequently, little of the so theories. All the papers were excellent, called spice which often has such large but those of President Harris, of Amspace in the accounts of ecclesiastical herst, and Dr. Forsyth, of England, made gatherings. The meetings were serious, the profoundest impression on the audiearnest, and from start to finish full of intense interest. The leaders among the Two speakers divided the time on churches were present in large numbers. Sociological Day. Mr. Albert Spicer, of England was represented by such men London, is a member of Parliament, a large as Drs. Fairbairn, Mackennal, Forsyth, employer of labor, and one of the recogBruce, John Brown, the Rev. Messrs. nized leaders in Nonconformist England, Alfred Rowland, R. Baldwin Brindley, both as a politician and as a Christian. C. Silvester Horne, and by such lay- The Rev. Graham Taylor, D.D., is a Promen as Messrs. Albert and Evan Spicer, fessor in Chicago Theological Seminary, A. J. Shepherd, and William Crossfield. and the moving spirit in the Chicago Australia sent men like Dr. Bevan, Pro- Commons, a prominent social settlement, fessor Gossman, and the Rev. Joseph Mr. Spicer spoke as a man of wealth who Rolutson. Canada had at the head of stands ready, as an employer of labor, to her delegation Principal George. The adopt to the full the teachings of Christ. United States was represented by Drs. Other papers were, perhaps, more elaboR. S. Storrs, R. R. Meredith, F. A. Noble, rate and eloquent, but none more deeply Lyman Abbott, G. A. Gordon, S. E. Her- and truly prophetic than that of Mr. Spicer, rick, Presidents Tucker, Hyde, Harris, in which he argued earnestly for justice Slocum, and a host of others equally wor and generosity on the part of employers thy of mention. No more truly repre when dealing with employees. sentative body has ever convened. The The question of war and peace drew a meetings were held in Tremont Temple, great throng. Dr. Abbott argued that which for the time was borrowed from the in rude ages war may be necessary as a Baptists, and which was thronged at means of executing law; that the reign nearly every session. As compared with of law must precede that of grace; and the Council held in London in 1891, the stated his belief that the giving of rightattendance in Boston was two or three eous and humane laws, and consequently times greater.
of good order, was what our Nation has The subjects considered were arranged done for Cuba and is seeking to do for in a logical order, and the first day was the Philippines. Dr. Mackennal made a given to Theology. That the common plea for arbitration instead of war, and people as well as the ministers are more showed how futile war had always been interested in theology than in most other when used as a means of settling intersubjects was made evident by the eager national differences. The discussions attention of the vast audience. An ac elicited the fact that the Englishmen in