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they can drive them with lighter motors. such a vehicle. The personal equation It is the old question of light and heavy enters into motor-driving, as into pretty bicycles over again. It took several nearly everything else in life. A good years of experience for the public to real- driver can get fifty miles a day out of a ize that the weight of the rider should horse, where a poor driver would“ do up” determine the weight of the bicycle. As the animal in twenty-five, a careful man the chief motor vehicle builders are also can wear a suit of clothes two years, while bicycle-makers, this lesson does not have his careless brother would be shabby in to be learned over again.

two months. This matter of care also As at present constructed, a storage applies to the wear and tear on the vehibattery for an electric vehicle will weigh cles themselves. It would be quite unfrom 500 to 1,500 pounds, while the vehi safe to warrant the life of an automobile cles range in total weight from 900 to in the hands of a careless owner or driver. 4,000 pounds. It would be a very light One man will damage his almost inapmotor vehicle, however, that would weigh preciably, another will wear his completely 900 pounds, and it would be adapted only out and get no more use of it. One for a one-passenger carriage. A phaeton manufacturer says that his carriage and built for two persons will have a battery that driving machinery are “fool proof,” but I weighs 900 pounds, and the whole carriage am inclined to believe his assertion merely will weigh something like 2,000 pounds. a picturesque way of saying that he believes Such a vehicle will have a speed of twenty it to be very superior in its simplicity of five miles an hour, and will climb a hill with construction and operation. A little while a rise of twenty feet in a hundred feet. At ago a young man in Newport tried to make top speed, however, such a vehicle would his automobile show all its paces at once, not run more than an hour, as then the that is, go forward and backward at the storage battery would be exhausted and same time. His fate was like to that of would need to be recharged or replaced. the tenderfoot when first introduced to a A careless driver, however, will get much bucking mustang. The automobile, howless than the maximum endurance from ever, was more broken up than the driver.

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The first cost of an electric carriage very much less than a motor vehicle. The varies very much. Buggies and run saving is in the keep. A poor horse eats abouts are advertised from $750 to $1,500; his head off every day, and it costs at phaetons and stanhopes at from $2,000 to least $30 a month to keep and shoe any $3,000 ; omnibuses at from $3,000 to horse a gentleman would care to drive. $4,000. The first cost, it will be seen, is The cost of the electricity at a central greater or less than carriages with horses, station for a vehicle that would do the according to the value of the horses. work of two horses, if the horses could There is an idea that horses are now work twice as long as is possible, would going begging in the market, and that fine be only $25 a month. There is where animals can be purchased for little or the saving comes in—in the cost of the nothing. This is very erroneous. A fine keep and the amount of work performed. horse is as valuable in the market as ever Even when common horses are used and he was; it is only the very common horse the first cost much reduced, a comparison that does not command a good price. A shows that the electric vehicle is cheaper, man, therefore, can pay as much as he though the interest on the investment be pleases for a good horse, but he cannot computed. A two-horse wagon, with two get one for a song. If, therefore, a good horses and the harness for them, may driving horse is worth $250 and a pair be bought for $700 ; an electric wagon worth $500, we see that a turnout with a corresponding in carrying capacity may horse or a pair of horses does not cost so be had for $2,250. Now, to stable, shoe

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ALEXANDER WINTON MOTOR-CARRIAGE Just before starting on its record trip from Cleveland 10 New York. It is propelled by the hydrocarbon system. the horses, and keep the wagon and har ates the electric cabs puts a new man ness in repair for a year, besides adding through a course of training before he is the interest on the outlay for such a horse intrusted with a cab in the streets. The wagon, would amount to about $525. For teacher's cab is very strongly built, with a an electric automobile, where the electrici- buffer at each end, so as to lessen the ty is purchased at a station, the equivalent chances of damages either in front or cost would be about $425; if the electricity behind. When I saw it, it reminded me were supplied by a private plant, the cost of a country exhorter's definition of double would be $135. Here is a saving of from entente. “A double entender,” he said, twenty to seventy per cent. Figures such as without any effort at French pronunciathese cannot fail to make those who depend tion, “is a mean French thing that goes on horse-pulled wagons in their business off in front and kicks in the rear." In think seriously. Indeed, many of the this double-ender the instructor, by means stores in New York are adopting motor of levers, can always take control and so vehicles for delivery wagons, In these prevent accidents. In France there is a calculations the cost of the driver is not regular training-school for drivers near taken into consideration. “Any man with Paris. On a hillside there are dummy sufficient intelligence to fit him to take figures to make the course as much like a charge of a horse can be taught to man city street as possible. The driver is conage an automobile.” This is what the sidered expert when he can go over the manufacturers say. Far be it from me to

without toppling over indorse the statement; for I am persuaded these dummy figures. As the law of rightby long observation that, low though the of-way is the same in France for autointelligence of the horse is ranked among mobiles that it is for ordinary carriages, domestic animals, quite one-fourth of those the dummies on the training course are in use now do the work and the thinking presumably put there merely to exercise as well.

the driver in deftness of guiding, and not The company in New York that oper to teach him to respect the lives and limbs

course

any of

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of foot-passengers. In this country, how As has been suggested, improvements ever, an automobile driver has no more in the future are to be expected in the license to run down a pedestrian than has electric motors, but at this time the gasothat of any other vehicle. As most of the line motor, for general use both in the vehicles belong to incorporated companies, city and country, appears to be the most it is a wise economy to employ only practical and the most economical. It expert drivers, for juries exercise a sym- is lighter and cheaper, and no charging pathetic discretion in assessing damages station or charging plant is necessary. when a corporation is a defendant in a Gasoline is cheap and is obtainable everysuit at law. And a driver of an electric where. Gasoline carriages are, however, vehicle has both hands full while both of more subject to vibrations, and the pashis feet are employed. With his left hand sengers are rarely free from the unpleasant he manages the power lever, pushing it odors of burned gases. The most successforward one notch at a time to increase ful of the French automobiles are of this his speed. With his right hand he con kind, and the long-distance races on the trols the steering lever. His left heel is Continent have generally been won by on the emergency switch, and his left them. A speed of fifty miles an hour has toes ring the gong. With his right heel been maintained for short distances, and he turns the reversing switch, while he can thirty miles an hour has been kept up apply the brake with either foot that hap- for long distances, but even abroad this pens to be disengaged. A man can learn is exceptional.

is exceptional. Of course such rapid to do all this in a week, big job though it traveling is out of the question in this seems. If he has had experience in driv- country in the present condition of our ing horses in a crowded city, he learns roads. And even in France, where the more quickly; for the automobile requires roads are excellent, and an injured pedesalertness of eyes, hands, and mind, as well trian is the culprit, such a rate of speed as natural quickness of movement, is for sport, and not for business, except

when sport is made business. Many of operator of a steam engine shall have a the American manufacturers discourage license will prevent steam road motors road racing, and their vehicles are not from becoming popular. This does not made for a speed greater than twenty-five seem to be an insuperable objection. miles an hour when doing their utmost. In addition to electric, gasoline, and Some, however, are very ambitious to try steam motor vehicles, we have compressed conclusions with their European competi- air, carbonic acid gas, alcohol, and amtors as to speed over long distances. Mr. monia motor vehicles. The first three Edison has confessed to the desire to beat have been proved to be practical road the world when he has completed the task vehicles; the others are, to an extent, still upon which he is now engaged. His, in the experimental stage, though comhowever, is to be an electric carriage. As panies with large capitalization have been much intelligence is required to drive a organized to do the trucking in great gasoline as an electric vehicle, and prob- cities with heavy wagons propelled by ably it is a trifle more difficult to keep in compressed air. The promotors of this order.

enterprise do not agree that there is anyThe first auto-propelling road carriages thing experimental in their project. were for steam, and there are those who As to the best name for these new road believe to-day that the best automobile motors there is much discussion. The will be propelled by steam. Several Amer French Academy has done what it could ican manufacturers are preparing to put to settle the matter by deciding that steam carriages on the market, even steam. “ automobile” is a properly constructed buggies. In Europe for heavy coaches word. This dictum may be binding in those designed for steam propulsion are France, but here the makers prefer“ motornow considered satisfactory. Road steam vehicle.” Others, with a fondness for engines for heavy loads at slow rates of picturesqueness of expression, like“ horsespeed have long been used in Europe, less carriage.” It may be that none of where there are hard roads fit for such these will be satisfactory to the public, as traffic. For light wagons the use of steam each is long, each a big mouthful of syllais another matter. Some critics say that bles. There is sure to be a shorter-one the fact that the law requires that each or two syllables at the most.

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