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restoration ; but, on the other hand, very the Council will never be formulated. few have any sympathy with the older There will be no attempt to settle any. Universalism. They believe in the doc- thing by a show of hands. Some of the trine of retribution; that it holds in this greatest subjects of human thought will world and all worlds ; and that while be discussed in a reverent and prayerful there is sin there must be suffering. The spirit ; then the Council will be dissolved, Andover controversy would have been im- and its proceedings will be published, and possible there. Edward White and Robert that will be all—when looked at from one W. Dale accepted the doctrine of condi- point of view. But American, English, tional immortality; others believe in final Australian, Canadian, Norwegian, and restoration, and all teach the universality many other churches will be brought nearand eternity of retribution for sin. They er together by these meetings; there will are divided on this subject about as the bean enlargement of horizon, a clarification other denominations.
of the intellectual and spiritual atmosThe following seems to me to be a fair phere, and after a while it will be evident statement of the theological attitude of that the Council has helped the cause of most English Christians. They are loyal Anglo-Saxon unity, consequently of worldto the Bible, but not afraid of criticism; wide unity, and that it has helped the they hold firmly to the Trinitarian doc- churches to put their emphasis on essentrine of God, the essential deity of Jesus tial rather than non-essential teachings. Christ, the objective value of the work of It will gladden the hearts of many in Christ, and sure retribution for sin ; but a America as they see that their English large proportion accept either the doctrine brethren, without losing their hold on of conditional immortality or ultimate that which is vital, have laid aside many restoration, and this is true even of the theories which have hindered faith ; and, most conservative thinkers among all de- most of all, in many ways and in many nominations.
lands it will help toward such an appreciaI once heard Dr. Bevan, formerly pas- tion of the Sanctity of Man and the State tor of the Brick Presbyterian Church in as will make all missionary, philanthropic, New York, say that theologically the Eng- and political service easier and more effilish Churches were thirty years in advance cient. of the American. The opinion is quoted To those who have a passion for statisfor what it is worth. More generally than tics, and who believe in votes, this Counthe American churches, the English have cil, no doubt, will be a disappointment; an intelligent and strong faith in the con but to those who have faith in principles, tinuous ministry of the Holy Spirit, and in influence, in the conscience, and in what I delight to call the growing reve the ability of the Christian revelation to lation.
justify itself at the bar of reason, it will In the nature of things, the results of be a great and abiding inspiration.
By William J. Long
I would be strong, O Lord!
that touches me, the grace to wait ;
I would be brave, O Lord !
I would be true, O Lord!
HE French Riviera is supposed to nearest bakeshop does duty for an entire
be a winter place, and so it is. community.
In truth, however, it is an all-year Provence, of which the Riviera is the round place. Its summer climate is hardly world-renowned shore-part, is a country so hot as New York's has become, and its by itself. It looks askance at the rest of favored shore has always a sea breeze to France. While these peasants are often cool the air.
as garrulous and loud-voiced as Tartarin The peasants who live here (and who of Tarascon himself, they are also at say they would not live anywhere else) bottom saving, shrewd, conservative, indeenjoy life summer as well as winter, and, pendent. They are a people apart. They instead of " laying by "half the year, have remind one of the clannish thrift of the labor for every season. They are in gen- Scotch. The various mountain tribes, for eral an industrious rather than a lazy folk. instance (and Provence is largely mounTheir summer habits are more humane tainous), live preferably by themselves. than one might think. Mornings and They have their own customs, inherited evenings are, of course, the proper times from their Moorish ancestors, or perhaps for work, noon and night for rest and from the original Ligurians themselves, sleep. The peasants are considerate, too, and they do not look with favor on alliof their beasts; horses, mules, and donkeys ances, matrimonial or other, with the are fitted out with hats, much like those degenerate people of the plain. the women wear, as a protection against In getting acquainted with the Protoo much sun. In the villages, oven-fires vençals it is a good plan for the stranger are allowed to die down so as to give to take third-class tickets when journeying greater coolness to the houses, and the by rail hereabouts. At daybreak or even
earlier the women will be coming to the markets of Nice and Cannes and returning by the morning trains. Tourists are taking the same trains, too, but will miss much local color by not herding with the peasants. How the latter bundle into the narrow compartments, their great market-baskets hardly wider than their comfortable selves, and both just able to squeeze in at the door! They all seem to know each other, no matter how far apart their stations. A common use of the railway makes many friendships, and the chattering and laughing and showing of white teeth are equaled only in Italy. The compartment is soon as full as it can be of men, women, babies, and baskets, and when smoking begins and garlic rises the good air gets towards the vanishing point. However, one forgets even such patent discomforts in the general delightful expansiveness of the people. They are a strange combination of the wary and the impulsive. The first trait has infallibly been brought out by several hours at the morning market; the second is now in evidence. If the stranger speaks Provençal, he may possibly be the recipient of some naïve confidence before his journey's end is reached ; but if he does not speak the language of this country, he may live on the Riviera, as some French folk have done, for two decades and more, only always to be regarded as a foreigner, of whom a sly advantage can be taken from time to time.
The women of the Riviera, if not of all Provence, are more noteworthy than the men. With the agility of young girls, great-grandmothers will alight at crossroad stations and march off with the uncrowned-queen air of the Jules Breton peasant in the Luxembourg. In solid physique and staying qualities these yield to no women. Their short petticoats, white aprons and caps, a gay handkerchief about the neck and an enormous bundle balanced on the head—you may see them anywhere, brawny, broad-chested, bearing down on you like a ship under full sail. As a rule, they work harder than the men, yet they age without breaking down. There are many about here ninety and a hundred years old, still strong, hardy, and tenacious of life. Such women are the physical if not the moral saviors of France.
You may travel about with the traveling peasantry, but it is only on their farms, and in the little towns one, two, three hours away from the fashionable seaside places, that one learns to know the stay-at-homers. Here one finds the real Riviera folk, and in this climate-kind to them always, not too cold in winter or too warm in summer—they live a free, independent life. Who would not, liberated from the fear of blizzards at one season or hot waves at the other? Ordinary indoor avocations are performed out-of-doors, whenever possible ; indeed, there is a general turning of indoors out-of-doors. It is better so, for the houses are generally draughty, leaky, ill-smelling.
Nothing outside of Spain is as gaunt, by Protestant pioneers. The latter must bare, cheerless, as their interiors. On the
On the offer a religious service appealing to the other hand, nothing in the world is as senses as well as to the soul, if serious attractive, engaging, fascinating, as is the headway is to be made among the freerimmediate environment of those very thinking but æsthetic French. Yet the houses.
Roman Church seems securer on the RiOutdoor life invades the village church viera than elsewhere. Free-thinking has itself. The pious worshiper there is not not gained ground here in the same proporinfrequently disturbed by little children tion as in the manufacturing and socialistic at play, rushing boldly into the house of districts further north. God (an open, not a shut, house, as are With the exception of the seaside remost Protestant churches) and scamper sorts, Riviera towns are mostly rocking out again before either priest or verger villages, and look, I fancy, pretty much can catch them. Vox populi is vox Dei as they did in the days of the Greeks and here. There is one, there are not many Romans. In town-building, the early invoices, as with us. The town's one church habitants crowned their hill-crests for two is the church of all the people in the town. reasons: first, because they could be more Again, the Provençal believes more than easily defended ; and then, so that they do most Frenchmen in the motto of France, would not encroach upon the rich soil "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," not only in below the crags.
Each town had and matters political, but also social and relig has its watch-tower, and a system of sigious. The Roman Catholic religion is, in nals was understood by the various vilsome respects, excellently adapted to this lagers as against the robber barons, just as belief. Churches may reek with bad in- another system of signals existed among cense, and offend the fastidious with taw the latter, by which, from their still more dry images, but they are certainly no rich inaccessible eyries and castles, they commen's exclusive clubs, as may be found municated with one another. After cennearer home. More than one leaf out of turies of conflict, this arraying of class the Roman Catholic book might be taken against class finally and fittingly resulted