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in the triumph of democracy. So emphatic charitableness. The French Revolution was this triumph that to-day no part of accomplished some good things, and not France is more alive to the spirit of equal- the least was the opportunity offered to ity than is Provence. The peasant is farmers and husbandmen to be themselves quite as good as any lord. True, the tall proprietors. When farms are rented, the towers still stand, the most prominent leases run three, six, or nine years, the objects in Grasse, Auribeau, Mougins, proprietor paying all taxes. These taxes Gourdon, and other towns, but they are amount to about one-fifth of the farm's now bell-towers for a more spiritual power. annual value, and the average of mortTheir sonority fills the air, morning, noon, gages may be put down for another fifth. and night, no longer for the brutalities of Riviera farms produce wheat, corn, oats, war, but to call men to prayer, to bid grapes, olives, oranges, mandarins, lemthem begin or cease from their peaceful ons, figs, almonds, apricots, plums, mullabors.

berries, peaches, pepper, flax, vegetables, The land is of moment to three classes salad-stuff, and flowers—for the last -proprietors, farmers, and husbandmen. named are raised here in genuine crops. As to the first, proprietorship in France During the greater part of the year the means something quite different from the wheat supply is quite insufficient for the existing status in any other European people's needs, and at any time it is actucountry, for in no other are four-fifths of ally higher in price than is the price here the rural owners actual cultivators of the of our Dakota product, which has had to soil. The multiplicity of little farms in pay transportation charges, national and France surprises the foreigner. They local duties. Corn is ripe towards the have been, in this century, the country's end of June, but while the quality is not economic salvation, and, if the large so bad, the fields themselves are weedy holders only knew it, their salvation also, to a degree which would make an Amerifor they have been so many arguments can farmer beside himself. The gathering against envy, hatred, malice, and all un of the grain crops is the principal summer

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employment. As in Scriptural times, so delicious oil. The berry is not so large now, the stranger may witness Riviera as the Spanish, but is more delicate in grain trodden out by oxen or horses on flavor. The Greeks are said to have the stone pavement or esplanade in front brought the olive-culture here, when they of all the large barns.

began building Agathopolis (Agay) and Like the wheat supply, that of wine Antipolis (Antibes). There is nothing is only half sufficient for this population. more restful than an olive orchard. The The lack is not so serious, however, since Mediterranean sunlight sifts in and setFrance makes it good without calling on tles serenely there. Seen through olive foreign countries. It may not be realized branches, Mentone, Eze, Cagnes, take that her wine-culture means between four on new picturesqueness. Out of the rich and five million acres devoted to the red soil underneath the trees are springgrowth of the vine. While the Var and ing violets and narcissus and giroflés. In Vaucluse parts of Provence have many a the near neighborhood there are white

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good vineyard, the eastern and rockier and pink clouds: the almond and peach departments of the Basses-Alpes and the trees are in blossom. Beyond and above Alpes-Maritimes have few. Some of the the cultivable flower-belt a still more venpeasant inhabitants buy a great store of erable quiet reigns among the now terraced grapes in the autumn, each family making olives. Only the wild sweet alyssum and its own wine for the year. The phyllox- daisies flower there, their whiteness rather era has played havoc here, as everywhere. ghostlike because of a row of funerealTo counteract this pest a potass manure looking cypressés, green-black against the is used, also sulphate of carbon. Our orchard's gray-green.

Still above and own Catawba grape is more of a proof beyond, the olives themselves are checked against the enemy than any native varie by lack of shelter ; instead, the Diaz-like ties, and hence has been extensively in- cork-oaks and the white heather and the troduced.

rose cystus are seen there. What the Riviera can produce, how The peasant, armed with his pruningever, and export too, is the olive and its hook, is already attacking his trees. The

are

same.

harvest is over. It has lasted from the civilization which once flourished here. end of October to the first of February, Out of steep hill and mountain-side those and has given constant employment to clever economists and landscape-gardeners men, women, and children, to young and quadrupled the production of the plain. old. One often notes hardy nonagena- Moorish manners still live in the danse rians gathering the precious purple ber- moresque, which you may sometime see of ries, alongside wee children engaged in a pleasant Sunday in a mountain village, the same task, neither seeming fit for but the more popular farandole comes any kind of labor. The olives from a yet earlier period. heaped in some cool spot and then put The great golden drops against glossy into bags and baskets which are sent to foliage are so many evidences that this is the mill. An ordinary tree will yield, say, an orange country. The fruit is far from thirty pounds of fruit and produce half rivaling our Florida or California product, as much oil. Like the Egyptian with his but it is delightfully toothsome all the palm, so the Provençal uses every part of

While it sells well, the blossoms his olive. The oil-mill, with its horsehair sell better. The perfume-factories of presses (an unsavory place, it must be Grasse use annually nearly six million admitted), shows this. In addition to the pounds of flowers, mostly orange-blossoms, value of the wood, fruit, and oil, out of but also roses, violets, verbenas, jasmine, the crushed stones a fuel is made, while jonquils, cassia, and tuberoses. The the refuse is used later as manure for the benefit to employed as well as to employtrees. So the process goes on, year after ers may be noted in the fact that the year, olive to olive returning.

savings bank is the finest building in the If there is thus a tradition of Greece, place, and that there is no grinding povthe still worked potteries of Vallauris, erty at Grasse. The Grassois are famous the amphitheaters of Fréjus and Cimiez, for their candied fruits, their almond and the bridge of Clausonne, the monument at olive oil, their soaps, and, above all, for Turbie, and the traces of the Via Julia their perfumery. Half a million dollars' and the Via Aurelia right through Pro worth of their products goes to the United vence, remind of Rome. The peasants States alone. In the factories, as in the whose farms bordered those famous high- supplying flower-fields (the latter coverways tilled the soil just as these modern ing over sixty thousand acres), men and peasants do, and hence Virgil becomes women have an equal chance at employthe most appropriate of reading matter as ment. we stroll along Riviera roads. Here one Most of the roses used in the perfulives the Georgics and the Bucolics. meries are like our damask variety. They Their old pastoral scenes are here faith are picked at dawn and stored, all dewfully reproduced. If there is any one dis damp, in cellars. How satisfactory to the tinguishing mark of your Provençal peas sight the rose-fields and terraces are, perant, it is his reverence for tradition. He chance against a hazy olive background, has a robust, honest satisfaction in doing perchance in the foreground some picjust as his fathers did, and in letting turesque wayside shrine, at which the girls the over-fed, over-conscious, over-civilized will kneel before beginning their labors ! crowd at Nice and Cannes go its decadent The roses go well with another stretch of way. The crops are the same as of yore, green-gray in front—a fringe of African the tools the same—the plow and prun aloes marking the roadside. Beyond, it ing-hook of the Bible are realized here. may be, there stand sentinels of tall eucaLike a Roman in his toga, so a touch of lyptus, or, better yet, solemn, dark-green cold will bring out paterfamilias in his parasol-pines. The

landscape long striped cloak of homespun stuff. is, likely enough, yellow with mimosa, You may see its counterpart in Palestine and the further and higher yellow with to-day. But, whatever we may think about furze. The scent of thyme and rosemary the women, the men are far from having is borne down upon us. Still beyond, the the majestic carriage of the Arabs. porphyry hills are glowing every hour with

If olives and roads and potteries bring sunset hues, yet in the distance there is back classic times, palms and aloes and always a moonlight effect from the snowy terraced gardens speak of the Moorish summits of the Maritime Alps.

nearer

AMERICA'S WORKING PEOPLE

BY CHARLES B. SPAHR

VII.

The Iron Centers

needless

The first part of my visit to the iron Such triumphs for American industry district about Pittsburg might

are not, indeed, peculiar to the Triumphant

Protection democracy easily be turned into a chapter

Carnegie works. When I had visof “ Triumphant Democracy.”

ited the iron-works in the South, Indeed, there is no chapter in Mr. Car I had found that they, too, were making negie's book that records industrial tri- heavy shipments abroad; and a week later, umphs equal to those in his own mills. when talking with an extremely accurate On the mechanical side they were far as well as fair-minded official of the Illimore impressive than the machinery nois Steel Company, I learned that the exhibits at the Chicago Exposition, and great competitor of the Carnegie Comthere was absolutely nothing at Chicago pany was able to pay the freight charges that compared with them in depicting from Illinois to Belgium and still underthe superiority of American to European sell the Belgians. The statement of the methods of production. Nor was this case made by the Illinois official was pesuperiority merely spectacular. In talk- culiarly compact. In the Belgian works, ing with the managers I found that the he told me, the average wages are less than fear of European competition was a thing 75 cents a day. In the Illinois works the of the past. They were all, so far as I average wages are in the neighborhood of know, protectionists; but their protection- $1.75 a day. Yet the product of the Illiism had none of the insistent quality that nois works could be sold in Belgium for was to have been expected in the old less than the product of Belgian works. citadel of that creed. It was almost like I did not have the opportunity to visit the the bimetallism of Colorado bankers. Illinois works, or I would probably have They believed that it was for the good of seen paralleled the sights that impressed the country, but they had no need of it me so much at Homestead and Braddock. in their own industry. A large part of But at the Pennsylvania works it did not their product they were selling abroad, require an acute observer to see the reaand their president told me that they son for these triumphs of American methcould sell the whole of it-or about three- ods and American

Everything fifths of the entire steel product of Penn- seemed to be done by machinery. In the sylvania—in foreign markets, if they cared Southern iron-works great numbers of to do so. The English price of rails was negroes

employed with wheel$22 a ton. The cost of transporting rails barrows to carry heavy loads of fuel or to England was over $5 a ton; yet they ore or metal from one place to another ; were able to overleap this barrier and but in the Carnegie works there was a sell their steel in the London market. great network of overhead tracks, on Instead of needing a tariff to protect which nearly everything could be shifted them against English competition, they in any direction by steam. And the steam were able to pay the twenty-five per cent. itself was often generated in boilers heated tariff which the railroad and shipping by the gas that came from the coke and charges imposed in order to enter into ore used in making the steel. As you competition with the English on their own looked about the great buildings, that ground.

which was memorable was the human soli

men.

were

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