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than the law required. In one of the sarcasm about the offer of these things to schools I visited there was a well-con men who worked twelve hours a day, but ducted manual-training course, established they certainly seemed of immense adby the generosity of President Schwab; vantage to the families of workingmen, if at the mills there were weekly chemistry not to the workingmen themselves. classes conducted by mill officials; and All that I saw at Homestead convinced in their homes a goodly number of boys
me that Mr. Carnegie was were pursuing scientific courses under the Mr. Carnegie's unusually sincere in his de
imperialism Scranton School of Correspondence. This
sire for the welfare of his school is widely advertised, and some of its employees. President McKinley is not agents allow themselves to promise far too more so in his desire for the welfare of much to the boys who follow its curricu Luzon. But the fatal defect which Mr. lum; but what I saw and heard of its work Carnegie attributes to the President's polings convinced me that it was really a great icy in the Philippines permeates his own educational institution. Everybody whose policy at Homestead. The government at judgment I trusted said the papers sent Homestead aims to be government for the back to the school by the pupils were criti people, but its fundamental principle is cised by first-class men, and that the boys that there shall be no government by the were not only well guided, but kept inter people. He who joins an organization of ested in their work. Some of the workmen the employees at Homestead to resist the I talked with were inclined to ridicule the absolute supremacy of the employers is boast of the officials that workmen could warned in advance that he can accomplish rise from the ranks. When I referred nothing except his own ruin. This policy to the superintendent who had been an is not, indeed, that which Mr. Carnegie assistant machinist
employed when he was directly in charge. they told me that he was Mr. Carnegie's In an unusual degree he sympathized with cousin. A workman could not rise, they the organization of men for self govsaid, unless he toadied to the manage ernment. But the imperialist policy in its ment. Yet all the pessimism about what mosi absolute lines is the one pursued a workingman could do did not involve and avowed by the present head of the hopelessness about the future of a work Carnegie company.
Charles M. Schwab, ingman's children. The boy who, after by reason of his ability and convictions, twelve hours in the mill, had the grit to do quite as much as by reason of the position good work in the correspondence school he occupies, is probably the foremost was in the line of promotion, and the ex representative of those who would extirceptional boy who could not only follow
pate every tendency toward industrial drawings, but manage men, might become democracy. It was my pleasure to have foreman or even superintendent. Besides a long talk with him after my talk with the schools thus open, there were the some of the union sympathizers at Homelibraries established by Mr. Carnegie. stead, and I never heard unionism so The one in the beautiful building at vigorously dealt with. Furthermore, the Homestead was hardly in working order position he took was one that had the at the time of my visit, but the work that support of his conscience as well as of his was being done by the corresponding interests. He believed that complete institution at Braddock showed me what individual independence was the only it would accomplish. At Braddock the method of developing strong manhood, library supplied books to as many persons and his hostility to trade-unions--because as there were families in the city, while they undermined individual responsibility the lecture hall, the swimming-bath, the -extended to all fraternal organizations. billiard-rooms, etc., seemed to afford the He did not, indeed, oppose corporationsresidents all the advantages of a lyceum, in which all the stockholders agree to a gymnasium, and a club-house. The act as a unit according to the decision terms at which these advantages were of the majority; but when I asked him offered were of the most nominal descrip about trusts, I found that he was nearly tion-$1 for three months to employees as hostile to them as to the labor unions, and $2 to others. The library was free and his reasons were almost identical. to all. I had appreciated Tom Crawford's The trust, he said, made its individual
of it all
members look to artificial prices for their non-union men were glad to help overprofits, instead of looking to improve throw unionism. The discontent that I had ments in their own methods of produc- found he believed to be exceptional. He tion. Sooner or later the artificial prices did not believe that hours had been lengthstimulated outside competition, which ened or Sunday work increased, and he forced the pool to collapse and left its was sure that the books of the company members worse off than if they had never showed that the average wages were higher joined it. The trade-union, he thought, in 1893 than in 1892, in 1894 than in 1893, had a like effect upon the workmanship of in 1895 than in 1894, and so on, advancing its members. Their tendency to restrict with each succeeding year. In short, he apprentices was thoroughly hostile to the was convinced that the suppression of the public welfare, and their arbitrary rules union had been a benefit to the employees embarrassed the introduction of machin as well as to the company, and he was ery. When I asked him whether he had therefore prepared, for the good of the ever known trade-unions to strike against governed, to suppress with an iron hand improved machinery, he said that he had any attempt on their part at self-governnot known them to do so in this country, ment. but that it had happened in England, and After this talk with President Schwab that the power of the English unions was
I had another day in Home
The conclusion causing the decay of manufacturing in
stead, and I spent a good England. I referred, of course, to the
part of it among members of decades of unfulfilled prophecy that the the middle classes, in an attempt to hartrade-unions would have this influence monize the conflicting statements of emupon English industry, and questioned ployers and workingmen. As regards the whether the present forebodings would be contentment of the employees, I found justified. He assured me, however, that in nothing to justify the optimism of the offithe iron industry the decline was already cials. The ablest and broadest man I metapparent, and that German iron-works, as a young Baptist minister who had once well as American, were rapidly gaining on been a coke-burner, and who still knew as their English competitors. A brilliant fu- much about the lives of laborers as he did ture awaited the German works, and a dis about the higher criticism—told me that he mal one the English, because the German had to make it his mission to give the men works were not hampered by the unions, all the encouragement he could, and keep while the English were simply in their them from thinking about their grievances, fetters. If the iron industry in America though he believed that many of these was to go forward, it, too, must be free. were real enough. The discontent and
The arraignment of trade-unionism was discouragement prevalent made the men little short of brilliant until President skeptical and bitter. The more I heard Schwab turned to conditions in Home upon this point, the more I was convinced stead. Even here he showed how thor that the officials were too far removed oughly he was convinced of the righteous from their employees to know anything ness of his policy. The great body of the
The great body of the about their sentiments. As regards wages, employees, he said, were glad to have the singular contradiction in statements the unions suppressed. In support of was finally explained. I was talking with this view he cited the report of an Eng- an old clerk in the Carnegie works, and the lish expert who had been given permis- warmth with which he praised the chemsion to go through the mills and talk istry classes conducted by the officials led with the men at their work. When I me to expect from him a repetition of the queried whether a census taken in this official statement about wages. When I way was reliable, he stated that during asked him about this matter, however, his the Homestead strike two hundred of view proved to be that of the men ; and his hands at Braddock had sent in when I spoke of the reported increase, their names, offering to go to Homestead, he said that the books of the company open the mills, and crush the strike. To showed an increase since 1892, but only me this offer of workingmen to incur the because a day's work was so frequently hatred of their fellows seemed evidence of reckoned at twelve hours instead of eight, servility, but to him it was evidence that and because the men in 1892 had lost five
months on account of the strike. As his own wages and risk his own job unless regards the extent to which hours had assured that his fellows will co-operate. been lengthened and Sunday work in You might almost as well attempt to run creased, I gradually reached the conclu the Government by permitting each citizen sion that the officials had underestimated to contribute what he pleases, as attempt it much less than the partisans of the to advance the general interests of labor union had overestimated it. Even here, by permitting each workman to contribute however, while the old unionists ex what he pleases. The bulk of men are aggerated their losses, they were quite willing to do their share, but require right in thinking that the death of union assurance that others will do theirs. This ism would mean the death of all hope of assurance of co-operation can come only a future shortening of hours. Legislation through organization. So long as the might accomplish the reduction, but legis- organization of iron-workers is prohiblation of value to workingmen is rarely se ited, the exhausting and demoralizing cured except when powerful organizations twelve-hour day and Sunday labor are of workingmen demand its enactment and bound to remain. Trade-unions have compel its enforcement. Acting as indi- their features of danger, as I was shortly viduals without organization, the workmen to see in studying the labor movement in are helpless. Every man among them Chicago, but the prohibition of trademay be convinced that shorter hours and unions, as exemplified at Homestead, a free Sunday are for the good of their leaves the working classes without the class, but no man among them will cut hope of a better future.
FOR THE LITTLE PEOPLE
The Queen and the Twelve Caskets
By Mary Allaire
ter's hut in the deep suit, and without his ax. When he
came back at sunset there was a beautiful house, and about it woman with him. He smiled as she looked there were only the wild in his face. As they came nearer, the flowers growing, and the woman stopped and looked at the beauti
moss on the roof and ful child at the gate. Olga shivered and about the door-stones. A very poor house, gave a little cry, at which her father you would say, but it held a priceless jewel, ran forward and caught her up in his arms. a darling little baby girl, who was so beauti “ Thy beautiful mother; to love thee,” he ful that the people who lived in the woods whispered. But Olga hurried into the said she was touched by fairies because her house. mother died when she was a baby. Not The mirror which the new mother loved only was baby Olga the most beautiful of told her every day that the little girl was children, but she was one of the best of the more beautiful, and she hated the child children. She happy and kind. more and more, and grew uglier and uglier When a tiny baby she would lie in her to her. One day, as the little girl came in rough cradle with its bed of pine needles from the woods crowned with flowers, the covered by a shawl, and sing and listen mother drove her out of the house and until her father said, “ She is spoken to into the deep woods. In the woods the by some one." He did not know that all little girl saw a bear, and began to the songs that the birds had sung in the run. She ran and ran, until she saw pine-trees were sung to her over and an open door. Through this she went, over in the pine bed, that he wished he shutting it quickly after her. In the corcould change to down. You see the ner was a pile of skins. On this she sat fairies had not touched the father's ears. down, and soon, tired out, dropped to
The baby grew, and the father had to sleep. The dwarf who owned the house build a gate, lest the baby should wander and the woods came home. There on the away in the woods while he was working pile of skins was the beautiful child he and be lost. He did not know of the loved so much. Now he would have somedwarf in the far woods who passed his thing to love and care for. He became home every day, and looked at the baby. happier, and sang gayly at his work, and The dwarf was very ugly, and most chil forgot that he was deformed and ugly. dren ran when they saw him, because they The little girl loved him, and her joy and never looked in his eyes. Olga, when first happiness made her even more beautiful she saw him through the little wooden than she had been. One command only gate, looked right in his eyes, and then he gave her-she must never open the held out her arms to go to him. His door when he was away. face glowed with a soft light, and for a One day, when she was alone, the little moment was beautiful. “One black spot,” girl heard a voice asking her to open the he murmured, as he looked in Olga's eyes ; door. Olga hesitated a moment, and then “it must never be two;" and a shadow went forward toward the door. “How fell on him as he walked hurriedly into the wind blows !" she thought, as she the woods.
heard the branches beating against each Olga grew stronger and more beauti other. “ Please open the door. The pearls ful every day. One day the wood-chopper will get wet,” said the sweet voice. “I
brought them for you.” Olga opened the They reached the palace, where the King's door at once. There was her stepmother stepmother greeted them, and knelt before scowling. She quickly threw the stout “her future Queen,” she said; for the string she held around Olga's neck twice, King's stepmother had fairy powers, and gave a twitch, and Olga fell, gasping for knew the future. breath. The wind blew furiously; the “ You are beautiful, my dear, the most dwarf suddenly appeared running toward beautiful woman in the world, sweet and the hut, an open knife in his hand. He good; but there is one black spot.” The cut the string on Olga's throat, and carried little girl knew what she meant, and her to her couch of pine needles, saying, blushed. sorrowfully, “ The one black spot.” Little Now she lived like a princess, she Olga put her arms around his neck and studied all the difficult things princesses showed him how sorry she was because she have to learn to make good queens. had not obeyed him. He told her that At last the day came when she was she must never again open the door when to marry the King. There were great he was away; that he loved her, and be preparations, and when everything was cause he loved her, he wished to keep her ready the King's stepmother came to her from harm.
and said, “Remember the black spot; do The next week the dwarf was away not make it two black spots.” Olga hung again. She heard a voice, winning and her head. sweet, asking her to open the door. The The next day the King and the Queen wind began to blow at once, and Olga were walking in the garden, when the listened. “ Open the door, little girl," King, kissing the Queen's hand, said, “ My pleaded the voice.
love, we will reign as one. Here are the "I cannot,” answered Olga. The wind twelve caskets in which are the secrets of sang softly.
the kingdom. Eleven thou mayst read “I have a beautiful pony to take you and know, as I do. The twelfth must not through the woods. I brought it to you," be known to any in the kingdom, for pleaded the voice. Olga got up quickly. great sorrow will come when the casket At once the wind began to blow, the is opened.” branches of the trees to beat the house, The caskets were carried by twelve but Olga would not listen. She dropped pages to the Queen's room.
The days the bar and opened the door. There was were so filled with pleasure that the Queen her stepmother holding a bear, big and did not have time to open the caskets; brown, by the ears, a stout rope in her she did not even remember them. other hand. In a moment the little girl One day the King was busy with the found herself tied on the bear's back, and treasurer, and the rain kept the Queen he was tearing through the woods. The indoors. She saw the caskets, and went bushes scratched the little girl, but not up to the table on which they stood ; her face-for her fairy godmother had each held a paper, which the Queen undecreed that her face should always be folded. They were most uninteresting. beautiful.
Aforesaid parties of the first part," read On and on went the bear, bounding in the Queen. “How stupid! Oh, how terror because of the burden he could not stupid !” yawned the Queen. She stood throw off.
before the twelfth. “ I'll just peep,” she Coming through the woods from another said.
said. She raised the cover, and out flew direction was a gay party of hunters. Sud a beautiful bubble. It floated out of the denly the bear tumbled over. The little window, and the Queen laughed, showing girl did not move or cry out. The party her pretty dimples, saying, “ The first rode up, and the most beautiful of all the secret that was interesting! It looked like hunters, the one in the most splendid a bubble.” The Queen that night saw suit, knelt on one knee before the little that the King looked worried. She was girl, saying, “I have found my Queen." more loving and tender than ever. “ I
Tenderly the little girl was lifted from the did not mean to trouble you, my love, but ground, and on to the back of the King's a great waterspout has swept over many horse, for he would have it so. He walked miles of coast line, and the people are beside her, and his escort far behind. suffering.”