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men.

The months went past. A darling baby called, and the wind carried her voice far. came to make the King and Queen hap- You would have thought it was the wind, pier, if that were possible.

but it was really the millions of fairies The Queen grew more beautiful and who love to help the good and kind and more tender with the King, and he loved forgiving, who repeated the call over and her more than ever. She kept close to over again like echoes through the woods. him always, and was the happiest of wo One day she persuaded the King to go

It was her wish that the baby hunting. He went into a cave, out of a should be in her sight always. The storm. There he saw, far in the darkness, people loved her more and more, for a white figure. He went nearer and nearer. she was a mother Queen, not merely a The light at last enabled him to see that Queen.

it was a woman. As he bent over her she One day the King, the Queen, and the whispered, " I did open the twelfth casPrince were in the royal carriage. There ket. I opened it. Sorrow, sorrow ever was a shadow on the King's brow. The since !" sun had been shining brightly, but now The King took her in his arms and it had disappeared. Every few minutes kissed her. " My love, I was cruel,” he the King glanced at the Queen.

murmured. My love, did you open the twelfth "Never. Always kind, but I brought casket ?"

sorrow and sadness and loss to the king“No, no!" laughed the Queen. The dom.” The King bent his head, and the laugh was turned to a shriek: the little Queen sought forgiveness with her eyes. Prince was gone. The King and Queen There was a low, faint murmur in the cave, sat alone in the royal carriage. In wrath and the whir of wings. “ The winds of the King stood up. “You are wicked! peace and truth, obedience and love," The casket was opened. Leave the king- whispered the Queen, and a soft breeze dom !”

moved through the cave. The hunters' The Queen was driven out of the city, horns called for the King. He raised the and into the deep woods, where the King Queen to her feet, and, leading her to the had found her.

mouth of the cave, he called to his nobles, Now the people sorrowed more than " The joy of life has returned," and they ever. The Queen, the beautiful Queen, all knelt before the Queen, who rode again was gone; the King was shut in the on the King's horse to the city, the people palace, and there was no Prince for the shouting with gladness and pointing to people to love.

the palace. The dwarf sat in the woods watching The King hurried his horse. As they the palace. “ One black spot,” he mut- entered the palace gates, there stood the tered, “but now two." The King's good royal Prince holding the hands of the stepmother leaned from her casement win- dwarf and the King's stepmother. “ Pure, dow, looking toward the coast. “One spotless, true, and strong. A queen mothblack spot, and now two, and yet so er," they said, as they put the Prince in beautiful and loving! Oh, the moans of the arms of the Queen. the people !"

When the Queen turned with the young The King's stepmother determined to Prince in her arms, the dwarf, the stepfind the Queen. Day after day the step- mother of the King, and the King saw mother hunted for her lost daughter, as that she stood straighter and taller and she called her. Through the woods she was more beautiful than ever.

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An Appeal to the Fathers' ests are constantly sacrificed to local and

private interests by log-rolling and lobbyMr. Gamaliel Bradford, of Boston, has ing; there is an increasing tendency to given us the fruit of many years' study in profligate expenditures, and the anarchy à critique upon the working of our politi- already existing in its conduct of financial cal institutions which is worthy of the matters is characteristic of the anarchical attentive consideration of every thought- character and tendency of the present ful patriot. It is conceived in the spirit working of government by a legislature. of Lord Bacon's aphorism: “Since things So far has this gone that in our largest change for the worse spontaneously, if States there are practically two executhey be not altered for the better design- tives, the official one and the non-official, edly, what end will there be of the evil ?”

so that the Governor finds either his rival That our institutions were admirably de

or his director in the Boss, who, by the signed, and that they have on the whole aid of adherents in the legislature, is worked beneficially, Mr. Bradford has no

often able to dictate or to neutralize his doubt. As little doubt has he that, like

action. all human constructions, they need repair

In this fact, so odious to all but placeand readjustment, and show signs of

hunters and spoilsmen, Mr. Bradford justly weakness under the increased strain of a

recognizes a distorted reflection of the changed time. The readjustment that he idea of the framers of our National Conurges, and in which he is supported by stitution, of which our State Constitutions an array of expert testimony, is not in

are more or less padded copies. Their any change of the Constitution. The theory of the executive contemplated a difficulty of changing it he regards as one

leader of that public opinion which is the of its chief merits. His proposition is working and the conservative force in a that we should learn to work the Con- republic. They certainly did not expect stitution as it is.” The leading principle that leadership to be exercised by a legison which our government is based may lature in which public opinion is at best be said to be the separation of executive represented only in incoherent fractions. and legislative power; the leading cause

Nor did they expect his prerogatives to of failure, that we have never carried the

be shorn as they have been in the matter principle into effect, except in the town

of appointments by the legislative usurpagovernments peculiar to New England.” tion styled “ the courtesy of the Senate," What we have in practice, as distinguished

or that his sphere of control would be from what we have on paper, is govern

also narrowed by the operation of a Civil ment by the legislature, which in the

Service Reform promoted mainly by his States has reduced the executive to insig

own abdication of power to avert worse nificance, and in the Nation has greatly evil through legislative interference. As encroached upon the theoretical inde

the alternative to the growth of personal pendence of the executive, as Professor Woodrow Wilson showed ten years ago in

government by an irresponsible bossism,

with political ruin in the sequel, Mr. his book on "Congressional Government."

Bradford deems it urgent to reinstate in The incapacity of the legislature, practice the constitutional theory of perwhether State or National, for govern- sonal government in place of the impermental functions seems to be generally sonal and irresponsible government by suspected, to say the least. Mr. Bradford legislature that has largely supplanted it. enlarges upon this. Its members are not

In other words, he would restore to the elected for special fitness; they represent executive, both State and Federal, its at most only local interests; personal

proper initiative and leadership, for saferesponsibility for the general welfare is guarding the exercise of which the legiscorrespondingly minimized; general inter

lature in the role of a vigilant critic can · The Lesson of Popular Government. By Gamaliel doubtless be relied on. Bradford. In Two Volumes, $4, The Macmillan Company, New York,

To accomplish this no new measure is

66

deemed necessary, but only a revival and Massachusetts Legislature in 1893, urging permanent establishment under suitable the importance of “the reform of existing regulations of the practice followed by machinery for the discharge of executive Washington and his Cabinet. This was, duty-machinery now without system, and in fact, proposed in 1881, in a bill to destructive of that executive responsibility give the Secretaries of the executive de- and supervision which the Constitution partments seats on the floor of the Senate devolves upon the Governor, and for the and the House, with the right of debate proper exercise of which it meant to make on matters relating to their business, and him at all times amenable to the people.” with the duty of answering inquiries and But since legislatures care nothing about giving information thereupon. This bill that, Mr. Bradford thinks that some canwas signed by all the members of the didate for the Governorship will have to committee reporting it, but was never carry the demand directly to the people, heard of after its introduction. Mr. Brad- and make it the winning issue in the canford enters at great length into the reasons vass, before the change can come.

The that may be urged for it and against it. It beginning of such a return to the way of would, of course, make it impossible to the fathers of the republic seems to him pay election debts by Cabinet seats. Only more practicable and promising if tried men of the highest ability could “fill the first in the States rather than in the Fedbill.” The chief benefit would be in eral sphere. locating responsibility. A politician Presi. We lack space to follow Mr. Bradford dent could hardly play into the hands of in regard to city executives and city charCongressional intriguers, were independ- ters, or in his criticism of various proposient members or the minority to have the tions for curing our political disorders, as right of publicly “ heckling” his represent by the election of Senators by the people, atives on the floor. In recommending proportionate representation, the initiative such a measure Justice Story emphasized and referendum, etc., none of which he this point in 1833, saying, “If corruption regards as a plaster that will cover the sore. ever eats its way silently into the vitals Aside from his main proposition, there is of this republic, it will be because the nothing which seems to him of great people are unable to bring responsibility moment but a return to the abandoned home to the executive through his chosen principle of election by a majority, with a ministers.” Add to this that the Presi- second ballot when necessary between the dent, if represented in public debate by two highest on the poll, as in Prussia. his lieutenants, is no longer in a retire. The abandonment of majority for pluralment which discloses his views and policy ity rule, with evils notably illustrated in only in an occasional message. Brought New York City, has had, he judges, a into direct and open contact with all im more pernicious political effect than any portant public questions, he has at least other single measure. To the student of the opportunity of a real leadership in our constitutional theory and practice, the place of a titular.

value of Mr. Bradford's work is in its “Then,” argues Mr. Bradford, “ would cogent plea for return to the true theory become possible that which is at once of government by a responsible executive, most needed and most lacking in our poli as still practiced in the New England tics-personality." We regret lack of town, from the false practice of governspace to quote at length.

The same

ment by an irresponsible legislature, which measure is, in his mind, even more urgent inevitably falls a prey to bossism in the in the State governments. Thus to invig- pay of private, class, and corporate interorate and purify State administration is ests against the interests of the people—a required for the maintenance of that polit- practice which grew from a traditional ical equilibrium between the States and fear of the executive, and now is doubly the general Government which is an essen condemned by the fact that executives are tial part of our constitutional theory, but no longer feared and legislatures no longer is threatened by the centralizing tenden trusted. cies that have been at work since the But, as the average reader does not sit Civil War. Mr. Bradford quotes from the down to a work of eleven hundred pages, late Governor Russell's address to the a considerable section of which is given

to an instructive study of popular govern of Genoa, was the author of a “ Historia ment in other countries, we strongly rec Longobardica seu Legenda Sanctorum,” ommend Mr. Bradford to make an abridg better known by its later title of The ment of his elaborate and convincing Golden Legend. This was a compilation argument for popular use.

arranged to supply a course of religious reading for the church calendar year. Its

material consisted of acts of the martyrs, Books of the Week

patristic writings, church lessons, and [The books mentioned under this head were received by popular traditions. In this last field fancy The Outlook during the week ending August 18. Prices

probably had more than fair play, but, will be found under the head of Books Received in the preceding issue of The Outlook. This weekly report of taken as a whole, the work became not current literature will be supplemented by fuller reviews only a storehouse of mediæval lore, but of the more important works.]

also a picture of contemporary as well as The Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge has pub. traditional religious conditions, ideals, and lished, through Messrs. Harper & Brothers history. As Renan says, the stories in (New York), a stout volume of four hun the Golden Legend are marvelously indred and fifty pages on The War with structive as regards the colors and manSpain. It is the only complete history of ners of the period to which they belong, the war yet offered by so able a historian, and, as Mr. Madge, in the preface to his and it will undoubtedly commend itself to selections from the Legends, reminds us, deservedly wide reading. It is really not it was the favorite manual of the most necessary to read it to obtain a graphic popular literature of the Middle Ages. and comprehensive idea of the march of Few books have passed through so many events. This may be gained by looking or so famous editions, and no one was at the eighty full-page illustrations, many more frequently printed during the last of them of exceptional merit. They are by quarter of the fifteenth century and the such artists as Messrs. Remington, Zog- first quarter of the sixteenth. The earliest baum, Thulstrup, Chapman, and Christy. printed copy is a substantial folio, dated However, they only whet one's appetite to Basle, 1474, two centuries after its comknow more in detail about the picturesque pilation by Jacobus. The largest edition events of the war itself, its conduct, cam was Caxton's, in which the original matter paigns, and battles. The first part of Mr. was expanded to no less than four hunLodge's volume comprises a discussion of dred and forty-eight chapters. As Caxton the Cuban question, and the relations himself said of it, “ The Legende named which have existed between the United in latyn, · Legenda Aurea,' that is to say States and Spain during the present in englysshe, • The Golden Legende,' century. The account of recent hap as gold passeth in valewe alle other penings is given with evident intimate metalles, so thys legende excedeth alle knowledge of the inside history of those other bookes.” The most recent edition, happenings. The author's position on the before the one issued last week, was that Senate Committee of Foreign Relations, fine example of Kelmscott Press work in and his wide acquaintance with present 1892. The edition now before us conmakers of history, have stood him in good sists of a judiciously made selection, exstead in writing this book. While his quisitely printed on exquisite paper. Both style is clear, compact, and vigorous, he Mr. H. D. Madge, the editor, and Messrs. allows it at times to lapse into a some E. P. Dutton & Co. (New York), the pubwhat spread-eagle and spouting vein ; in lishers, are to be congratulated on the so much it detracts from the work's his appearance of this altogether charming torical value. Mr. Lodge brings out well, little volume. however, the salient fact that the final A valuable standard work on anthroexpulsion of Spain from the Americas pology has appeared in the “ Cambridge and from the Philippines is but the last Geographical Series —Man Past and act in the long strife between those who Present, by A. H. Keane, F.R.G.S. have stood for liberty and those who field lies largely in the dim prehistoric have stood for tyranny.

times, whose story modern science has Jacobus de Voragine, who died in 1298, been toiling to decipher from such vesafter seven years of office as Archbishop tiges as can be found. As a sequel to

Its

the previously published volume on "Eth if pooling is legalized rather imaginary nology,” which was concerned mainly with than real, because the rates “ would conmankind as a whole, the present volume tinue to be subject to review by the Feddeals chiefly with the four great divisions eral Commission.” He has evidently not of mankind. —

These—the Negroes, the read what the Commission itself says of Mongols, the American aborigines, and its powers to review rates, in the light of the Caucasic peoples-are regarded as recent decisions. (Henry Holt & Co., having been specialized in their several New York.) geographical areas at some time between The Modern Farmer, by Edward F. the Old Stone and the New Stone Age; Adams, is a wordy and commonplace disnot less, probably, than one hundred thou- cussion of the business relations of the sand years ago. Their common ancestry present-day farmer to the world at large. is held to have overspread the world at It contains, however, several chapters of least three hundred thousand years ago, value on the co-operative associations in a period when the globe was warmer through which fruit and vine growers of than now and with more of intercontinental California are now marketing a large part land. The cradle of the race is placed in of their product. According to the author, the now vanished Indo-African continent- the sales of the co-operative fruit associawhere the late Professor Winchell placed tions now aggregate $5,000,000 a year. it a dozen years ago. Confirmation has (N. J. Stone Company, San Francisco.) been given to this view by human remains In 1857 Mr. William Allen Butler wrote discovered in East Java in 1892. The Nothing to Wear. The poem instantly first two chapters deal with this primitive obtained a wide popularity, which it has race, and the remainder of the work with retained ever since. It is now published the main groups and sub-groups derived by Messrs. Harper & Brothers in a new from it. By critical discussions of the and charming edition, together with others facts the author seems to have recon of Mr. Butler's verses—there are many structed the ethnical history of the Medi good things in the book besides “ Flora terranean peoples, and to have lighted up McFlimsey of Madison Square." We read some obscure questions concerning Afri the following dedication : “ To my wife, can, Asiatic, and American races. (The this volume, published in the fiftieth year Macmillan Company, New York.)

of our wedded life, is inscribed.” It is a The Elements of Public Finance, by Pro satisfac.ion to know that in this exhaustfessor Winthrop More Daniels, of Prince ing world there are husbands and wives ton, is satisfactory in its plan and clear in who round out half-centuries of united life. its historical statements, but is at times Lord Rosebery's Appreciations and unexpectedly feeble and careless in its Addresses have a distinct charm of mandiscussion of present problems. For ex One sees in the author the versaample, in discussing the general property tility and ready adaptiveness which mark tax, the author, after saying that the taxa the political leader, the man of the world, tion of personalty burdens unfairly the the lover of literature, and the close stufarmers—who uphold it-continues as dent of literature. Burke, Burns, Walfollows: “ Another piece of unfairness lace, Gladstone, Stevenson—such are the involved in the general property tax is subjects of the “ Appreciations ;" while that those who hold their property unen the addresses are such topics as cumbered by mortgages or debts pay taxes Bookishness and Statesmanship,” “ The upon their entire property. Those whose Duty of Public Service," and “Parliaproperty, on the contrary, is mortgaged, mentary Oratory." Lord Rosebery is pay taxes only on the unencumbered part evidently an easy public speaker ; his reof their estates.” If there is any State in ported speeches are uniformiy free from which the borrowing of money rids the stiffness and restraint. In every case he citizen of taxation on his property, it evidently had something definite to say, should be named in the text. In discuss some common-sense message to give, and ing the railroad problem the author as he carried out his intention simply and sumes that all stocks and bonds of rail effectively. This volume is, we believe, roads represent “capital invested," and the one the sale of which was enjoined declares the danger of extortionate rates through the courts because of an interest

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