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Notes and Queries

NOTE TO CORRESPONDENTS.-It is seldom possible

its extreme development. In an orthodox to answer any inquiry in the next issue after its receipt. Those who find expected answers late in coming

church, as in the present case, it cannot will, we hope, bear in mind the impediments arising be complained of as not correct. from the constant pressure of many subjects upon our limited space. Communications should always bear the

I should like to inquire if there is a good writer s name and address.

short work on the miracles, designed to con1. Does “faith," as used in the New Testa vince those who disbelieve in miracles. ment, mean the same as “ to believe” or “be

M. M. P. lief," when used in reference to salvation? The most satisfactory “ short” treat2. Which is more primary in its meaning, ment of the subject that we have met is faith or belief? If such discrimination can be made, which is exercised first in the proc

in a discourse on “ Miracle and Life,” ess of conversion, faith or belief ?

in a volume entitled “ New Points to Old J.P.R.

Texts ” (T. Whittaker, New York, $1.25). 1. Yes. 2. Faith is the primary word.

On "the miracles," taken severally, there In faith an ethical element is always is no short work that is valuable to-day. present; not always in belief. Faith, Dr. Bruce's “ Miraculous Element in the therefore, is the word to express the obedi- Gospels ably aims to remove the diffient consent of the will, which is the thing culties of the subject, but is not a short of moment in conversion or turning to work (Armstrong, New York). God. Various beliefs may be preparatory

Who is the author of the poem “In the to this act, but the act itself is an act

Downhill of Life," which ends in the following solely of faith. In the New Testament words : “ faith” regularly denotes trust in a per “ And this worn-out old stuff, which is threadson rather than belief of a proposition.

bare to-day,

May become everlasting to-morrow.” Please recommend some healthy reading for

L. B. L. a young woman who is fascinated with the Roman Catholic Church and in a most morbid Please give me the name of (1) a book treatreligious state.

P. M. S.

ing the New Testament as thoroughly as

Canon Driver's “Introduction" treats the The terms of this question are such as Old. (2) Some books especially helpful for a seemingly to preclude a helpful answer. study of the teachings of the New Testament. The right sort of reading for an unknown

R. F. C. person in a morbid state of mind is diffi Salmond's “ Introduction to the New cult to divine. For an inquirer of serious Testament ” is designed for this. purpose in good mental condition we be advantageously supplemented by Mcshould heartily recommend Professor Giffert's “ Apostolic Age.” This, together Foster's recent work, “ The Fundamental with Stevens's “ Theology of the New Ideas of the Roman Catholic Church Ex- Testament,” Smyth's “ Christian Ethics" plained and Discussed for Protestants (Scribners), and Mathews's 6. Social and Catholics" (Presbyterian Board of Teaching of Jesus” (Macmillan), will Publication, Philadelphia).

probably be sufficient for a general view,

It may

Kindly inform me of the publishers of “The

Please mention two or more arrangements Law of Psychic Phenomena,” by Thomas Jay of exercises for family worship with appropriHudson.

N. H. M. ate prayers and short comments. This is The A. C. McClurg Company, Chicago. unused to the practice, but might, with a suit

desired for a family of adults who have been

able help of this kind, undertake it. There is a voung divinity student . .. who

SUBSCRIBER. says for benediction, “ Now may the peace of God the Father, God the Son, and God the

The Rev. R. W. Clark's little volume, Holy Ghost be with and abide with us for “ The Church in Thy House” (T. Whitever.” Is this correct?

L. N. Y.

taker, New York, 50 cents), is a very helpIt is in theological rather than Scriptural ful compilation of Scripture selections phraseology. It is derived from the so and prayers, though without comments, for called Athanasian Creed of the eighth the successive mornings and evenings of century, in which Trinitarianism attained a month.

The Home Club


Growth and Physical Training abroad have proved that the school-chilThere is a most important articie in the dren tire more easily at eight than at June number of the “Forum” by Dr. seven ; the heart especially showing faWilliam 0. Krohn, Psychologist of the tigue. The result is loss of mental inIllinois Eastern Hospital for the Insane. terest. Some children

recover. The subject is “ Physical Growth Periods The lightest forms of exercise alone are and Appropriate Physical Exercise." The permissible-simple games of motion. writer has examined over 32,000 children During the period of from nine to fourteen in the State of Illinois, and his deductions three kinds of exercises are necessary: are those of a scientist who questions exercises tending to growth and blood before he forms an opinion. His atten- formation ; exercises that tend to improve tion was drawn to the physical growth of poise and carriage ; those involving skill. children, and the care of them during the Dr. Krohn protests against trials of enperiod of growth, by the patients under durance at this period of physical develhis charge, whose mental condition he be- opment. If entered upon, games of enlieved was often due to neglect, or failure durance must close before exhaustion. to give the body needed training, or the Drill and calisthenics aid in training to still greater evil of the wrong kind of phys- secure muscular quickness. Baseball is ical training at specific periods of devel- particularly recommended for the close of opment. The failure to recognize this this period. The period between fourperiodicity in growth lies at the root of teen and twenty this writer calls the pethe physical failures during school life. riod par excellence for physical training. He points out that the muscles of the To quote : “ The crying need of exercise upper arm are ready for training one year during this period is in the purpose, above and a half before the muscles of the fin- all, of inciting strong activity of heart and gers; the shoulder muscles, six months lungs; and, to be of any real benefit, the before the muscles of the elbow; these exercise must conduce to the developmuscles, five to eight months before the ment of skill, daring, and courage." Dr. muscles of the wrist; while the wrist mus Krohn, with feeling born of knowledge, cles develop six months before the finger points out that a rich store of physical muscles. This development proves the power will enable the child to resist not necessity of much work during this period only physical disease but " various forms of growth, and justifies the protests of of psychological taint that may result from the oculists as to the nervous strain of the stress of social conditions in which he small pricking and sewing during the may be compelled to pass his later life, kindergarten age. Large needles, large real mental abnormalities that would cerstitches, large writing and large drawing tainly befall him if his powers of resisttools should be used by young children. ance should be weakened, owing to a The finger muscles should not be called poorly developed body.” upon to work at this period. The work should be done by shoulder and arm

The First Acquisition muscles.

Superintendent Gilbert, of the Newark Dr. Krohn divides the growth period (N. J.) public schools, in an address delivand the exercises for each period into three ered before the Schoolmasters' Associaperiods and classes. From six to nine, tion, attributed the loss of pupils between all the exercise should be to develop the grammar and the high school, not to growth, increase circulation, and for pur the desire of the pupils to enter business, poses of recreation. During this period but to the fact that the pupil sustained a exercise is of peculiar importance to the shock that severed his interest by a sudden child's whole future. That the child does plunge into school work that threw him not have the watchful care that this period on his own resources. The reply to this demands is proved by the fact that made by some of the masters present was examinations by specialists here and that the failure to teach self-reliance, the

habit of work, the love of study for the for papers and fruit-skins, the method was sake of acquiring self-mastery, of learning to arouse interest, create a standard, de. how to use books, how to use the knowl velop civic interest and community pride. edge the pupil possessed in the elementary A committee of the Club visited the schools, all contributed to the failure of Street Commissioner to urge further immany grammar-school pupils to continue provements, when the Commissioner sugthrough the high school. They had not gested that the contract for street-cleanlearned how to apply either their minds or ing be taken by the women.

The papers their knowledge to new questions; they report that the proposition is being serihad acquired a habit of dependence which ously considered. In small towns women in the nature of things was wholly out of have taken the contract and have sucplace in the high school. What was ceeded ; a garbage contract was taken by needed was the kind of training that put a woman in Chicago, and the results were the pupil in possession of himself. The so eminently successful as to arouse the high school must in the nature of things active animosity of the district leaders, and drop all the nursery elements, and leave it was discovered by the authorities that the pupil free to work out in a measure such a contract must not be renewed. his own problems. What the elementary If the experiment is made in Jersey school must do is to teach the pupil how City, and successfully for the good of the to study, and the relation between differ city, it will give a new factor to the muent studies. Pupils must learn, above all nicipal problems, by throwing out of the things, how to use what they do know in political horizon a large field of patronprogressing. It is not only that each

age. A large percentage of the people in study is taken by itself, but each grade is all our great cities would see in this an taken up by too many pupils as isolated evil far worse than dirty streets. factors in an unknown and too often unknowable whole. The trouble with us is The Eyesight of School-Children that no aim is kept before the children, At a recent meeting of the Optical unless it be a certificate which often rep Society of New York a paper was preresents, in truth, nothing but a good sented by a physician who had examined memory. How to study is the first step the eyes of over seven hundred schoolin education. Master that and education children. He stated as a result of his becomes almost a royal road.

work that he believed about twenty-five

per cent. of the children of school age Why Not?

were suffering from defective vision. He The Woman's Club of Jersey City de held that this defective vision was at the cided several months ago to improve the bottom of much of the friction between condition of the streets in that city. teachers and parents, for the reason that The members began by speaking to every objects are conveyed to the child's brain in sweeper and cartman who was careless in confused lines, producing a muddle of ideas doing his work, reporting to the Commis and a consequent headache. This causes sioner all who did not improve. A man

a distaste for school in the child and a who was spoken to knew that his number belief on the part of the parents that the went on file, and that when a certain num fault lies with the teacher. This physician ber of reports to the Club's committee about advised : “ Before starting in school the that one number went in, with date and eyes of children should be carefully examplace where negligence occurred, he would ined by one competent, and any errors of be reported to the Commissioner. It refraction or accommodation existing cortook but a short time for the men in the rected. This examination should be redepartment to learn that this Club was in peated each succeeding year or until the earnest. To the sweepers every woman

child reaches maturity.” was a volunteer inspector always on duty Not only should the condition of the eyes and not lenient. The result of this energy of the child be known when it begins school was a marked improvement in every life, but also the condition of light in the direction.

school-rooms, and the kind and quantity The children of the schools were inter- of light used at home when studying and ested, but as the city did not provide cans reading.

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Baker's Breakfast Cocoa


BECAUSE it is far

more healthful than

either tea or coffee. It is pure, delicious, nutritious, and costs less than one cent a cup. Beware of imitations.

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