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ON THE SUBLIME AND BEAUTIFUL.-PART IV.
ix. Why visual Objects of great Dimensions are sublime
x. Unity, why requisite to Vastness
XI. The artificial Infinite
XII. The Vibrations must be similar
XIII. The Effects of Succession in visual objects explained
xiv. Locke's Opinion concerning Darkness considered
xv. Darkness terrible in its own nature
XVI. Why Darkness is terrible
XVII. The Effects of Blackncu
BEFORE the philosophical works of Lord BOLINGBROK3 had appeared, great things were expected from the leisnre of a man, who, from the splendid scene of action in which his talents had enabled him to make so conspicuous a figure, had retired to employ those talents in the investigation of truth. Philosophy began to congratulate herself upon such a prossi lyte from the world of business, and hoped to have extendeu her power under the auspices of such a leader. In the midst
a of these pleasing expectations, the works themselves at last appeared in full body, and with great pomp. Those who searched in them for new discoveries in the mysteries of nature; those who expected something which might explain or direct the operations of the mind; those who hoped to see morality illustrated and enforced; those who looked for new helps to society and government; those who desired to see the characters and passions of mankind delineated; in short, all who consider such things as philosophy, and require some of them at least in every philosophical work, all these were certainly disappointed; they found the landmarks of science precisely in their former places : and they thought they received but a poor recompense for this disappointment, in seeing every mode of religion attacked in a lively manner, and the foundation of every virtue, and of all government, sapped with great art and much ingenuity. What advantage do we derive from such writings ? What delight can a man find in employing a capacity which might be usefully exerted for the noblest purposes, in a sort of sullen labour, in which, if the author could succeed, he is obliged to own, that nothing could be more fatal to mankind than his success ?
I cannot conceive how this sort of writers propose to com.
pass the designs they pretend to have in view, by the instruments which they employ: Do they pretend to exalt the mind of man, by proving hira no better than a beast? Do they think to enforce the practice of virtue, by denying that vice and virtue are distinguished by good or ill fortune here, or by happiness or misery hereafter ? Do they imagine they shall increase our piety, and our reliance on God, by explod. ing his providence, and insisting that he is neither just nor good ? Such are the doctrines which, sometimes concealed, sometimes openly and fully avowed, are found to prevail throughout the writings of Lord BOLINGBROKE ; and such are the reasonings which this noble writer and several others have been pleased to dignify with the name of philosophy. If these are delivered in a specious manner, and in a style above the common, they cannot want a number of admirers of as much docility as can be wished for in disciples. To these the editor of the following little piece has addressed it: there is no reason to conceal the design of it any longer.
The design was, to show that, without the exertion of any considerable forces, the same engines which were employed for the destruction of religion, might be employed with equal success for the subversion of government; and that specious arguments might be used against those things which they, who doubt of everything else, will never permit to be questioned. It is an observation which I think Isocrates makes in one of his orations against the sophists, that it is far more easy to maintain a wrong cause, and to support paradoxical opinions to the satisfaction of a common auditory, than to establish a doubtful truth by solid and conclusive arguments. When men find that something can be said in favour of what, on the very proposal, they have thought utterly indefensible, they grow doubtful of their own reason; they are thrown into a sort of pleasing surprise ; they run along with the speaker, charmed and captivated to find such a plentiful harvest of reasoning, where all seemed barren and unpromising, This is the fairy land of philosophy. And it very frequently happens, that those pleasing impressions on the imagination, subsist and produce their effect, even after the understanding bas been satisfied of their unsubstantial nature. There is a sort of gloss upon ingenious falsehoods, that dazzles the ima agination, but which neither belongs to, nor becomes the